Revised Consolidated Reply by vRDYp7

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 26

									Revised Consolidated Reply

Kenya / Solid Waste Management Policy / Comparative
Experiences

24 November 2006, prepared by Angelica Shamerina and Bethany Donithorn




Original Query: Jane Chemweno, UNDP Kenya

UNDP Kenya has been approached by the Ministry of Local Government to help identify
successful examples of national policies and bylaws in the area of solid waste management,
particularly in the institutionalization of research and development, reduction and separation of
wastes and sustainable financing mechanisms.




We would like to ask colleagues to kindly share their experiences of successful projects and
models.




Jane Chemweno

UNDP Kenya




Contributions received with thanks from:




    1. Anvar Nasritdinov and Gulnara Akramova, UNDP Uzbekistan
    2. Shireen K Sayeed, UNDP Bangladesh
    3. Abdul Qadir, UNDP Pakistan
    4. Sara de Pablos, UNDP Mauritania
    5. Dirk Roos, UNDP South Africa
    6. Alice Leney, Kosrae Recycling Project, Kiribati NEW
    7. Alan Budde, ABA-UNDP International Legal Resource Center (ILRC), Washington,
       DC NEW
    8. Hiro Okuda and Leonard Dikobe, UNDP Botswana NEW




Summary:




Solid waste management in urban areas, including environmentally and socially responsible
collection, treatment and disposal is a challenge for most developing and transitional countries.
While appropriate technological solutions are often available, they can not be applied without
instituting cost-effective arrangements, which would ensure effectiveness and financial
sustainability. In most developing countries local governments provide solid waste management
services. As urban populations grow, it becomes more of a challenge to handle increasing
quantities of waste in more congested cities. UNDP supported a number of waste management
projects over the years and now continues to work with the partner countries on the development
of sound solid waste management frameworks and strategies.




Key Obstacles

Commonly the municipalities in developing countries spend 20-50% of their budget on solid
waste management. At the same time they serve less than 50% of the population and 30-60% of
all the urban solid waste is uncollected with up to 80% of the collection and transport equipment
out of service or used for other purposes. As a result, open dumping and burning is the norm in
many developing countries. The institutions providing solid waste management services are
typically in need of restructuring and organizational development and suffer from a number of
problems including:




    -   Inadequate management and structural organization

    -   Lack of effective operational management

    -    Lack of enforcement and implementation mechanism to ensure compliance with the
        existing legislation.

    -   Unclear responsibilities of solid waste management agencies
    -    Insufficient funds usually available from tax revenue or disbursed by central government




For example in Burkina Faso two cities with 1.5 million inhabitants combined were provided with
trucks and containers under a World Bank project in the early 90s, but still were able to collect
only up to 55% of waste due to lack of appropriate operation and maintenance arrangements. In
Mauritania there is no clear division of labor between the central government and municipalities.
While the municipal authorities were assigned waste collection and disposal responsibilities in the
process of decentralization, central government subsequently reversed this decision leaving the
municipalities still effectively in charge of waste management, but with no funds allocated. In
Uzbekistan lack of proper licensing procedures as well as lack of specialist training in waste
management practices negatively affects the compliance of businesses with environmental and
sanitary norms.




In most developing countries sanitary land filling and other advanced solid waste disposal
practices are in their infancy and often are not pursued because of high costs. Waste separation
is often performed by scavengers, but in the absence of recycling arrangements, they sometimes
exacerbate the waste problem by increasing illegal dumping as was the case in Pakistan.




Private sector involvement that may enhance productivity is also often hampered by inadequate
institutional arrangements. For example, in Uzbekistan no economic mechanisms are in place to
create incentives for involvement of private companies in waste management. Non-profit and
community organization often get involved in waste management and achieve good results,
particularly improving the collection rate.




Regulatory frameworks for sustainable waste management

Solid waste management is usually governed by local government and municipal laws as well as
national public health codes. This regulatory framework outlines the obligations of households
and businesses generating waste as well as of the municipalities and their contractors, including
the service standards, norms and emission limits. In addition the municipalities comply with the
environmental policies and regulations established at the national level including emission limits
for solid waste vehicles and facilities, EIA requirements etc. A comprehensive policy framework is
needed at both national and provincial levels to link solid waste sector policies with public health,
environmental, privatization, decentralization and other priorities. Such framework should include
incentives to municipal authorities to deliver better services, recover costs and cooperate with
neighboring municipalities to take advantage of the economies-of-scale. The example of
Mauritania shows that any decentralization transferring waste management responsibilities to the
municipal governments should be accompanied by financial and technical resources as well as
capacity building for all stakeholders.




Strategic planning is key to successful implementation of solid waste management systems and
is encouraged by the international organizations. The strategy and action plan should identify a
set of actions, responsible parties and needed human, physical and financial resources. Large
municipalities and metropolitan regions in developing countries are encouraged to consider the
following in their strategic planning process:




Waste management system components including cost and technological options: collection,
transfer and transport, recycling, treatment and final disposal

Collection systems usually consume a significant part of the money earmarked for waste
management (over 50% in Uzbekistan). Lack of cooperation, traffic and poor road conditions
drive up the collection costs in developing countries, which can be higher in relation to the
incomes than in industrialized countries. Careful analysis of alternatives is required to select most
cost-effective methods and chose the collection vehicle appropriate for the local conditions. In
Mauritania the collectors with donkey carts proved most effective in the slums or unplanned areas
(more than 47% of the urban households), where trucks or cars would not be able to pass. The
collectors system also helped to create jobs for the poorest community members. Large-bodied
compaction trucks are usually best to service city centers with heavy traffic or cover long distance
to disposal area. This approach, however, requires establishment of transit areas, which should
be properly managed to avoid unsanitary dumping.




Land disposal is essential for every solid management system, but most developing countries do
not implement sanitary landfills due to high costs. Regional landfill and waste treatment
approaches could significantly lower the cost of services, taking advantage of the economy of
scale. Resource recovery should be maximized to reduce landfill requirement, however, in
developing countries there are limited markets willing to pay adequately for compost, landfill gas,
or electricity from waste incineration. Carbon financing, emissions trading and environmental
funds may provide needed economic incentives to improve disposal practices. They include
Prototype Carbon Fund managed by the World Bank and the Global Environmental Facility (see
World Bank presentations and papers below on carbon finance opportunities for solid waste
management).
Community involvement and public participation

Community participation is essential from the beginning since siting the landfill or other waste
treatment facilities is usually a contentious issue. The cooperation is more likely if a community
benefits from new jobs, share of revenues or waver of disposal fees. Implementation of buffer
zones and other mitigation measures also helps to win community approval. Improved waste
management costs more and the public needs to be consulted on cost recovery. Also it is
infeasible to achieve effective collection without community cooperation and involvement. All
changes to informal collection practices should take into account the livelihoods of the waste
pickers and recyclers, who are often the poorest members of the community.




The lessons learned from the 1998 World Bank/EBRD Solid Waste Management Improvement
Project in Uzbekistan, which included purchase of equipment, construction of transfer station and
collection points and reconstruction of landfills, showed that achieving sustainable outcomes is
impossible without extensive public participation and oversight. In Mauritania NGOs were able to
successfully organize waste collection and conclude agreements with the municipalities. In
Pakistan UNDP supported Solid Waste Management and Environment Enhancement Project
(Sweep), which tested a model for participatory waste management systems based on
partnerships between the municipal corporation and CBOs. As a result the waste collection
increased two-fold, to 80%, waste separation at source contributed to income generation,
particularly for women, and the community organizations created an effective mechanism for
public participation and dialogues with the government agencies.




Involvement of private sector and poverty reduction

Past experience shows than involvement of private sector can lower waste collection costs and
help reduce poverty. The research studies cited by the World Bank, which separately surveyed
more than 2,000 cities, showed that services provided by public monopolies typically cost 25 to
41% more than competitively contracted services. According to these studies, in Malaysia, where
many cities engaged multiple collection contractors, the cost of contractor services averaged 23
percent lower than the cost of service provided by the local authorities. A study of five major Latin
American cities, found that private contracting halved service costs through higher labor and
vehicle productivity. UNDP Mauritania supported an innovative public private partnership fostered
by an NGO through which a small company was created to manage the waste collection with a
contract agreement with the municipality. However, transparency and accountability are key for
the success, see World Bank presentations and publications below on private sector involvement.
Incorporation of micro-enterprises and informal waste recycling cooperatives in the municipal
solid waste management system is the form of private sector involvement that creates livelihoods
for the poorest of the poor and contributes most to poverty reduction. There are numerous
replicable initiatives, including those supported by UNDP in Pakistan and Mauritania, where the
communities set up collection cooperatives (often women-owned), build capacity of the waste
pickers to provide door-to-door collection using pushcarts or small vehicles, establish
neighborhood-based groups for collection, or contract micro-enterprises. Such efforts
simultaneously improve waste collection and disposal conditions as well as help the most
vulnerable population to break out of the circle of poverty and live a more dignified life.




Sustainable financing mechanisms

No waste management system can be implemented without adequate financial resources.
Economic instruments provide incentives that ensure compliance and environmental
improvements beyond the regulatory framework. Traditional financial instruments include
revenues obtained from quantity-based user charges, recyclable deposit fees and environmental
taxes.




Given the public good aspect of solid waste management, in many countries the costs of
collecting, transferring and disposing of solid waste are shared between the waste generating
entities and governments (in the form of matching grants and subsidies). However, despite the
prevalence of subsidies, adequate cost recovery is key to sustainability because of limited
resources available to developing countries’ governments. For example, in Uzbekistan, artificially
low waste collection and disposal fees set by the municipalities in pursuit of short-term social
benefit prevent effective involvement of private business. At the same time public funds
earmarked for waste management are not sufficient resulting in inadequate waste management
practices. However, in many countries experience has shown that charging the full costs of
disposal may create incentives for littering and open dumping, especially in the conditions of
weak enforcement.




Depending on the local requirements, it is possible to choose from a wide array of other cost
recovery options including garbage taxes, tipping fees, surcharge to electricity or water supply
billings, or other general revenues (including the property tax and business licenses). For
example in Mauritania the waste collection was organized as a profitable and, therefore,
sustainable public service. The willingness to pay of the population was high and the amount
recovered covered all collection costs and provided a surplus of funds, which the municipality can
use to cover the cost of other public services or projects, or the cost of the final disposal. One of
the most important ways to make solid waste management sustainable is to improve the overall
management capacity of municipal authorities and the corresponding municipal finance systems,
particularly related to accounting and financial planning. In many cases significant reforms in solid
waste management project should be undertaken in the context of the broader municipal
development and modernization initiatives.




New ways of funding waste management activities are now available through the Kyoto flexible
mechanisms including emissions trading and carbon based financing. Composting, sanitary
landfill with gas flaring or recovery, and alternative fuel use by garbage fleets could possibly be
made more attractive with the help of carbon finance (funds for emissions reductions that support
global needs include Prototype Carbon Fund and GEF).




UNDP examples:




        NEW Botswana – UNDP Botswana is supporting the government to implement a UNEP-
        funded initiative, the Partnership for the Development of Environmental Law and
        Institutions in Africa (PADELIA), to review and strengthen existing environmental
        legislation,   regulations   and   guidelines   on   hazardous   waste    management.      A
        comprehensive draft report has been developed to identify gaps and make
        recommendations, which is to be reviewed and discussed by stakeholders. For more
        information contact: hiro.okuda@undp.org and leonard.dikobe@undp.org.




        Philippines – UNDP and Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)
        are jointly implementing the Community-Based Solid Waste Management Programme
        funded by the Government of Japan and implemented through the National Solid Waste
        Management Commission (NSWMC). The programme successfully catalysed the
        implementation of the Philippines’ 2000 Solid Waste Management Act through a bottom-
        up approach by building capacity of local government and communities and raising
        awareness of environmentally friendly solid waste management. More…




        Bangladesh - UNDP Bangladesh has supported the development of a highly efficient
        model of solid waste management together with policy interventions by an NGO called
        Waste Concern. They won the UN Poverty Award 2001 for their work which had a
    massive impact in the expansion of solid waste management from community to
    municipal level in the country and has become a model for replication in many countries.
    They have made the project a huge success by redefining waste as a resource and
    coining "Cash for Trash" as an incentive for recovery, reuse and recycling (3 Rs) of
    waste. They have developed a Manual for Waste Management and guidelines for the
    Government and Medical Waste Management Policy.




    Uzbekistan – UNDP supported the preparation of National Waste Management Strategy
    and Action Plan in partnership with Uzbekistan State Committee for Nature Protection.
    The strategy focuses on the reduction, reuse and recycling of solid waste, protection of
    water quality from contamination, containment, collection and management of hazardous
    wastes (including radioactive waste) and building increased sensitivity and awareness
    among decision-makers, industrialists and the general public. It suggests a number of
    economic incentives for proper waste management and the promotion and dissemination
    of good practices particularly to industry and municipal government. Throughout the
    project implementation period Uzbekistan have gone through a broad process of
    consultation involving Government organizations, state-owned companies, the private
    sector, municipalities and all interested Uzbek citizens. More below…




    Pakistan – UNDP-Pakistan in cooperation with the country’s Environmental Protection
    Agency (EPA) is implementing National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP). Solid Waste
    Management (SWM) is one of the core areas of NEAP and UNDP supported
    development of the strategy, guidelines for development of municipal action plans and
    detailed guidelines on SWM practices, landfills, disposal of medial waste and hazardous
    materials for Pakistan. The strategy is looking at solid waste management options for
    Pakistan and ways to improve waste collection and disposal systems, considering
    technical, financial, institutional and social issues related to solid waste. More below…

.

    Mauritania – UNDP, World Bank and other partners have helped Local Governments to
    develop strategies and policy options for waste management in urban areas. The project
    helped to select the lowest cost technical solution for waste collection suitable for the
    local conditions and supported a municipality in implementing an innovative public private
    partnership. Now UNDP Mauritania is undertaking a feasibility study looking at enhancing
    the capacity of collectors to recycle materials. Such effort would empower the vulnerable
    population that has been left out of other development processes and help them create a
    profitable business. It would also allow including them and their families into other UNDP
    programs breaking the poverty circle. More below…
Recommended resources:



Websites:

      Waste Concern – a non-governmental organization with a multi-disciplinary team of
      experts established in 1995, working on solid waste management in Bangladesh,
      recipient of several international awards. Contact: wastecon@dhaka.agni.com.




      World Bank’s Urban Solid Waste Management site – provides a comprehensive
      overview, many examples from developing countries, videos of workshops and lectures,
      extensive training resources as well as the link to new carbon finance opportunities.

            World Bank presentations and publications on financing solid waste management:

                       Municipal Solid Waste and Carbon Finance

                       Carbon Finance and Infrastructure: Africa Region Experience

                       The Solid Waste Context for Carbon Finance in Developing Countries

                       Waste Collection Planning Tool: Cost Analysis of Collection Options

            World Bank presentations and publications on private sector involvement in solid
            waste management:

                       Private Sector Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Management:
                        Guidance Pack (5 Volumes). Toolkit, 2000.

                    Video presentations:

                       Solid Waste Outsourcing. WBI Training Course, January, 2005.

                       “Waste Not a City” Global Links Television documentary series (looks at
                        urban solid waste problems and private citizens' efforts in Ghana to
                        improve waste collection and management). 1997.
                       Privatization of Solid Waste Management. Looks at solid waste
                       management in developing countries with a focus on the involvement of
                       the private sector in solid waste services.




       US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) website - has a wealth resources
       related to waste management including legislation, educational and outreach materials,
       municipal solid waste policies, statistics and scientific data.




       International Solid Waste Association (ISWA) – international non-profit association
       based in Denmark working in the public interest to promote and develop sustainable
       waste management worldwide. The association publishes Waste Management &
       Research a bi-monthly professional journal




       Solid Waste Association of North America (SWANA) – the leading professional
       association in the R&D and education in the solid waste field for over 40 years, has a lot
       of useful information and links, though mostly related to North America.




       WASTE – non-profit organization for development projects in countries in Africa, Asia,
       and Latin America, WASTE works for organizations that aim at a sustainable
       improvement of the living conditions of the urban low-income population and of the urban
       environment in general.




       European Union Waste Management page – contains all EU waste management
       legislation including EU Directives and applicable international agreements.




       Public Waste Agency of Flanders – provides useful examples of practical
       implementation of the EU policies




Publications and Papers:
-   NEW Solid Waste Management systems, ABA-UNDP International Legal Resource
    Center (ILRC, Nov 2006 – Report providing examples of legislation enacted by
    governments dealing with logistical, administrative, environmental, and health concerns
    arising from the disposal of solid wastes. The examples includes laws and regulations
    aimed at the local level, national level, and in some instances both, drawing from
    countries such as Brazil, Costa Rica, Egypt, South Africa and Tunisia. Referenced
    legislation compiled online: http://www.abanet.org/intlaw/intlproj/ilrc/kenya.html.




    Strategic Planning Guide for Municipal Solid Waste Management. Environmental
    Resources Management (ERM), 2004. This document is intended for facilitators of
    Strategic MSWM Plans and provides guidance on how to structure and manage the
    strategic planning process, which can be adapted to local context.




    Practical Guidebook on Strategic Planning in Municipal Solid Waste. World Bank and
    Cities of Change, 2003. The guidebook based on the experience of Eastern European
    countries leads solid waste planners and stakeholders through the strategic planning
    process. It provides methods and instruments to develop objectives, data input,
    scenarios, and action plans for implementation. The guidebook also suggests how best to
    assign responsibilities for various elements of the planning among local government
    officials, external waste management experts, interested stakeholders and
    representatives of the community.




    "Waste Collection Planning Tool: Cost Analysis of Collection Options." Sandra Cointreau,
    World Bank, 2005. Analyses different collections options for developing countries.




    Privatization of Solid Waste Management Toolkits – extensive collection of practical tools
    focusing on private sector participation including sample contracts, case studies,
    questionnaires and economic valuation tools for practitioners.




    List of publications and training materials on Solid Waste Management referenced by the
    World Bank
      EENet Resource Brief on National Strategies for Sustainable Development (NSSDs)




NEW Shared Project Documentation:




      Botswana:

      -   Waste Management Act,1998, Republic of Botswana

      -   Botswana’s Strategy for Waste Management, 1998, Republic of Botswana

      -   Botswana’s Policy for Wastewater and Sanitation Management, Ministry of Local
          Government, Aug 2001

      -   Guidelines for the Disposal of Waste by Landfill, 1997, Republic of Botswana




      Pakistan:
      “Guidelines for Solid Waste Management (Draft)”, Pakistan Environmental Protection
      Agency, UNDP, JICA, June 2005:

          - Front page and Contents
          - Part A: Current Solid Waste Management Situation in Pakistan

          - Part B: Solid Waste Management Guideline
          - Part C: Solid Waste Management Action Plan
          - Part D: References:

          D-1: Guidelines on solid waste disposal and landfill establishments
          D-2: Incineration Guidelines
          D-3: Guidelines for Treatment and Disposal of Hazardous Waste




      Uzbekistan:

      -   Project Document - Development of a National Waste Management Strategy UNDP
          Uzbekistan, Apr 2004
        -    Uzbekistan National Waste Management Strategy (Draft)

        -    Uzbekistan - National Waste Management Action Plan




NEW Solid Waste Management Legislation - Additional examples compiled online, by the ABA-
UNDP International Legal Resource Centre at:
http://www.abanet.org/intlaw/intlproj/ilrc/kenya.html




Related Consolidated Replies :




Click here to view


Good Practices:


Consolidated Reply: Maldives / Best practices / Solid waste management particularly in
                                                                                         26 Jun 2003
SIDS



Expert referrals:

Consolidated Reply: Croatia / Expert / Waste Management                                  3 Dec 2003
Consolidated reply: Saudi Arabia/Request Support Organizing Workshop on Hazard
                                                                                         24 Apr 2003
Waste Management
Consolidated Reply: Romania /Comparative Experiences / Experts / Waste
                                                                                         2 Feb 2003
Management
Consolidated Reply: Syria/Expert/Info/Solid Waste                                        8 Sep 2000

Consolidated Reply/Expert/Solid Waste Management/China                                   17 Jul 2000




Replies in full:
1. Anvar Nasritdinov and Gulnara Akramova, UNDP Uzbekistan



Dear Jane

Here in Uzbekistan, we have developed a National Strategy and Action Plan for Waste
Management. Would something like this be of interest to you? If yes, let me know and I will send
you those papers.

Regards




Anvar Nasritdinov
UNDP Uzbekistan




Follow up message:


Thank you for your interest in our projects. I hope that you will find the attached information
helpful and interesting. Please note that the Waste Management Strategy and Action Plan are still
draft versions and may be slightly modified according to national conditions during the approval
process. Also be informed that we are planning to conduct a 6-month follow-up mission which
will produce a report. I could also share that report with you, if needed, sometime in December
2006.




Attachments:


   Project Document - Development of a National Waste Management Strategy, UNDP Uzbekistan, Apr 2004t


   Uzbekistan National Waste Management Strategy (Draft)


   Uzbekistan - National Waste Management Action Plan




With best regards,
Gulnara

Gulnara Akramova
UNDP Uzbekistan




2. Shireen K Sayeed, UNDP Bangladesh




Dear Jane,




UNDP Bangladesh has supported the development of a highly efficient model of solid waste
management together with policy interventions by an NGO called Waste Concern. They won the
UN Poverty Award 2001 for their work which had a massive impact in the expansion of solid
waste management from community to municipal level in the country and has become a model
for replication in many countries. They have made the project a huge success by redefining waste
as a resource and coining "Cash for Trash" as an incentive for recovery, reuse and recycling (3
Rs) of waste. They have developed a Manual for Waste Management, guidelines for the
Government and Medical Waste Management Policy. You may wish to visit their website at
www.wasteconcern.org or contact them directly at wastecon@dhaka.agni.com for more
information.




Best regards,




Shireen




Shireen Kamal Sayeed

UNDP Bangladesh
3. Abdul Qadir, UNDP Pakistan




Dear Jane,




UNDP-Pakistan is supporting the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the implementation
of National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP). One of the core areas of NEAP is Solid Waste
Management (SWM) that comprised developing detailed guidelines on SWM for Pakistan. I am
sharing the soft copy of the guidelines that may come in handy for your assignment.


Attachments: “Guidelines for Solid Waste Management (Draft)”, Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency, UNDP, JICA,
June 2005



             Front page and Contents

             Part A: Current Solid Waste Management Situation in Pakistan


             Part B: Solid Waste Management Guideline

            Part C: Solid Waste Management Action Plan
         Part D: References:



             D-1: Guidelines on solid waste disposal and landfill establishments

             D-2: Incineration Guidelines

             D-3: Guidelines for Treatment and Disposal of Hazardous Waste




Kind regards,

Abdul Qadir
UNDP Pakistan




4. Sara de Pablos, UNDP Mauritania
Dear Jane,




In Mauritania, UNDP and other partners have helped Local Governments to develop strategies
and policy options for waste management in urban areas. Mauritania is in process of
decentralisation and municipalities are therefore responsible for waste collection and disposal.
Nevertheless, the low and sometimes absence of capacity in the municipalities have made the
waste management process very difficult.




The strategy defined with the help of several partners (including the World Bank and the French
government aid agency) proposed a technical solution at the lowest cost, with the highest
performance for the urban situation of the country. It included a pre-collection, done by trucks in
the planned area of the city and by collectors with donkey carts in the slums or unplanned areas
(accounting for more than 47% of the urban households). These carts are specially suited for the
unplanned urban areas, where trucks or cars would not be able to pass, as space between
houses is too small, or as the non paved roads would not let them go through (sand, water…). As
well, the collector’s system needs a high intensity of labour, which will lead to employment
creation and poverty reduction in the poorest social sector. Trucks can go directly to the final
disposal area (40 km of the city). The collectors however can’t cover this distance, and need
therefore to deposit the wastes in a transit area. For economic, social and hygienic reasons,
these transit areas, if possible, should not stock the wastes, but have a constant waste flow.
Waste go to a dumpster that is charged into a truck when full (or at the end of the day) and
discharged into the final disposal area. Another economical benefit is that one truck can be used
for several transit areas, of different municipalities that can share the cost of maintenance and
use. The objective is to avoid rubbish dumps, very costly to remove, focus of infection and used
by scavengers in unsanitary ways.




As for the management of the pre-collection system by the municipalities, there are several
possibilities:




        Public private partnership: UNDP Mauritania supported a municipality to implement an
        innovative public private partnership (project funded by the PPPUE initiative), fostered by
        an NGO. A small company was created to manage the waste pre-collection with a
        contract agreement with the municipality.
        SCO – municipalities agreement: Other possibilities that arise spontaneously in other
        areas is the NGO pre-collection. Social response to wastes is big as the situation is
        sometimes very worrisome, so civil society organisations take things in hand and
        organise the pre- collection with a contract agreement with the municipalities. SCO
        normally get support for other international NGOs or aid agencies.
        Direct management by the municipality: In the context of decentralisation, municipalities
        need to develop their capacities in the management of the public services. Therefore,
        several aid agencies support municipalities to manage the pre-collection directly. The
        Decentralised cooperation of the Ile-de- France Region has supported one municipality of
        the capital of Mauritania to develop a system where the municipality hire directly the
        collectors and assign them the donkey cart and an area they have to cover.
        Decentralisation is therefore reinforced and direct responsibilities are defined: if the
        collector does not perform, the municipality can directly put pressure on the person (as
        the municipality is normally the one receiving the complaints).




These choices depend mainly on the level of decentralisation, the management and technical
capacities and the transparency of the municipality and/or the country.




As for the financing system, the pre- collection has shown to be a profitable and therefore a
sustainable public service. The will to pay of the population has been high, but dependant on the
socio economic level of the population (municipalities have insisted in including a reduced fee to
be applied in very poor areas). In general, the amount recovered covers all the cost of the pre-
collection, (maintenance and renewal of equipments, salary of the collectors, salary of the tax
recovery agents) and provides a surplus of funds that the municipality can use to cover the cost
of other public services or projects, or the cost of the final disposal (if it is also a municipal
competency). The municipality can recover the pre-collection fee from the households through a
municipality tax, to be paid by all the households (although in slum areas or areas where the
administration is very weak, this is not viable) or through a monthly payment to a municipal
recovery agent for each sector (with a registry of all the households, even of the slums). If the
management is done through a PPP or through a SCO, a recovery agent from this organisation
pass over the households to recover this fee. A percentage of the benefits as per the agreement,
is paid to the municipality. The municipality is therefore responsible to follow up and monitor the
work of the private company or the SCO organisation. Responsibilities and risks need to be
identified and their owner need to be stated clearly on the agreement.




The pre-collection system is also an important possibility for the collectors to work on the
separation and recycling of wastes. Plastics, aluminium cans, glass and organic materials have a
value on the recycling market, and the collectors can:
        Collect and separate large amounts of recyclable materials.
        Sell the materials to the official recycling companies, to increase profit.
        Recycle some of the materials themselves, to increase their revenues.




UNDP Mauritania is studying the possibility to reinforce de capacities of the collectors in place to
recycle several of these materials (plastics and aluminium cans specially) by a feasibility study.
By this bias, UNDP would like to tackle a very vulnerable part of the population that has been
disregarded in other development processes, organising them to create a profitable business.
This organisation would allow us to include them and their families into other targeted and
integrated UNDP programs (educational, sanitary, human rights, juridical assistance…) to be able
to break the poverty circle.




If you need more information on our activities, please contact me or any of my colleagues.




Sara.




N.B. Although the examples above have been very positive, the Central Government decided two
months ago that in the capital, the waste management competency needed to be withdrawn from
the municipalities, even after the strong opposition of the mayors of the 9 municipalities to this
decision. Nevertheless, after all this time, the international tender for waste management of the
city of Nouakchott have not reach yet a contract agreement, and we do not foresee any solution
in the next 6 months. The municipalities are effectively in charge of waste management of the
capital, and as usual, no funds are allocated. The main point is that we need to know if the
general government has a real policy and wish of decentralisation.




5. Dirk Roos, UNDP South Africa
From my past life,




We always referred to US EPA and the Netherlands for Waste Management, Germany I would
think for reduction and separation of wastes. Flanders also has good policy (www.ovam.be). The
European Union is also pretty busy with recycling and waste prevention.




Kind regards

Dirk




Dirk Roos
Program Advisor
Energy, Climate Change, Environment
351 Schoeman Str, Pretoria, South Africa
Tel.: (+27 12) 354-8072;
Fax: (+27 12) 354-8058/9
Email: dirk.roos@undp.org
Website: http://www.undp.org.za




6. Alice Leney, Kosrae Recycling Project, Kiribati NEW




Dear Jayne,




Here in the Pacific Islands we have the problems of little land to dispose of waste, small
quantities of recyclable materials, as overall absolute volumes are low, and a great distance to
market for any recovered materials. Economically, as in the other examples mentioned, solid
waste is low priority with so many other demands on restricted municipal funding, and recycling is
apparently economically unfeasible, except for aluminium drink cans.




We too have adopted ‘Rubbish is a Resource’ as our mantra. Our approach, however, is to go to
the basics of the economic system, and change the economics to fit the requirement. This is a
crucial point, and one that many would find contentious, as we usually feel we have to fit our
efforts into existing economic realities. Economics is about incentives to action: there is a very
simple way to create incentives to action with waste, and that is by building those incentives into
the economic system. This can be done in two ways, both widely used throughout the world: one
for recovering resources, and another for collecting general waste.




    1. Container Deposit Legislation
        Firstly, when trying to recover resources from the wastes stream, it is a very poor
        approach to take mixed waste and sort out useful materials. Recyclables can be
        separated out by having people put recyclables into a separate bin, but this relies on
        having a separate waste collection system for recyclables, and also a huge public
        education effort to encourage the public to change their behaviour. This alone can take
        years in highly educated societies; in places where picking up any waste at all is a
        challenge, to create a second collection system is even more so. The solution is
        Container Deposit Legislation / Extended Producer Responsibility / Product
        Stewardship / Polluter Pays, call it what you will. It is a system where a deposit is paid
        on an item, and the deposit is refunded on return of that item to a Collection Point of
        some sort. This system provides the incentives to generate the required action – recover
        the item without having to pick it out of mixed trash – and also keeps cost of collection
        very low, which is crucial, as usually it is the cost of initial collection that kills recycling.




        The initial deposit needs only be high enough to bring in most of the items to be
        recovered; it is also a very fair system, as those who consume the waste get to pay the
        cost initially. If they don’t deal with their waste and someone else picks it up and returns
        it, the one who acts correctly gains. By building small handling fees into the system, the
        operation can be operated as a profit-making business, in the model we use in the Pacific
        Islands, as a Private Sector contractor to Government (for example, 6c deposit at import,
        5c refund to consumer, 6c reimbursement to system operator). These systems
        dramatically increase recovery rates of useful materials, but also provide immediate
        sources of fundraising for schools and churches and similar community organisations,
        and also a large number of informal jobs, as well as such effects as women recovering
       household waste items (such as bottles and cans) and gaining some small income from
       them on return to Collection Points.




       I understand very well that the logistical challenges of implementing such a system in a
       place like Nairobi would be much greater than in a small Pacific Island. Initially, I would
       suggest that one starts with simple items – aluminium cans, glass bottles, PET and
       HDPE containers for example, whatever is the best in Kenya –and learn about running
       the operation, and then as experience builds, include other materials for recovery. The
       marginal cost of adding additional materials to the system is much less than the initial
       start-up. Also – crucially – any enabling legislation should be non-specific at the level of
       Act of Parliament (or equivalent) whilst the actual materials/items to be recovered and
       deposit/refunds/handling fees are all built into the Regulations. This avoids going back to
       Parliament every time you want to add a new material/item, or tune the system.




   2. Pre-Paid Garbage Bags
       The second area where a similar approach has proved very useful in general waste
       collection is where a pre-paid garbage bag is used. This system is used in my home
       council area in New Zealand, for example. Purchase of the bag includes an amount that
       is diverted to the waste collection authority. This approach generates incentives for the
       authority to pick up bags, as their income increases where uptake of the system (bag
       use) increases. In addition, those who make more waste, pay more. This system also
       avoids most of the administrative cost of collecting waste collection payments from
       households. Some people will say, “but people won’t buy the bags, or dump rubbish” but
       those comments also apply to other systems where there is payment involved. However,
       in my experience, the inability of the authorities to collect waste collection payments –
       and thus provide finance to the waste collection system – is frequently the largest
       constraint. If other garbage bags are not picked up ( the ‘Official Pre-paid Bag’ is so
       printed), and the costs are carefully worked out, it may well be seen that many – even
       most – will use the bags as they wish to get rid of their rubbish. The beauty of this
       approach is that the wealthy pay more, as they usually make more rubbish. The bag
       system can also be used to divert green waste from the municipal waste collection, an
       approach that worked very well in Kiribati. As people are paying per bag, they have an
       incentive to remove any useful materials, and initially compress some items, (such as
       plastic bags and cartons etc.).




Whilst the environments in which we are working here are on a very small scale compared to the
metropolis of Nairobi, for example, working on a small scale has given us valuable experience
and insight. The big thing that is stacked hard against us here is the economics, as volumes of
recyclables are low, and distances to market – and shipping costs on our low-use routes
extremely high – yet we have created one viable business in Kiribati using this model, and are
well on the way to setting up another in Kosrae State of the FSM.




These comments are just outlines, but I hope they give some indications as to what is possible.
The number one thing I have seen is that the economic rules are not all fixed, and they can be
changed. If anything, the number one problem we face with waste is that ‘conventional’
economics fails here as it does not internalised the cost of waste; the systems outlined above go
down the road to address that failure. The same principal can be used to deal with cars, air
conditioners, refrigerators etc, not just bottles and cans.




Best wishes,




Alice Leney




Technical Advisor, Kosrae Recycling Project, Kiribati




{Facilitator’s Note: More information on this initiative can be found at:
http://www.bottlebill.org/legislation/world/kiribati.htm]




7. Alan Budde, ABA-UNDP International Legal Resource Center (ILRC), Washington, DC
NEW




Dear Jane,
                                  th
In response to your September 28 query, the ABA-UNDP International Legal Resource Center
(ILRC - http://www.abanet.org/intlaw/intlproj/ilrc/) has prepared the attached memo on Solid
Waste Management systems. The report focuses on providing examples of legislation enacted
by government around the world dealing with logistical, administrative, environmental, and health
concerns arising from the disposal of solid wastes. The examples includes laws and regulations
aimed at the local level, national level, and in some instances both, drawing from countries such
as Brazil, Costa Rica, Egypt, South Africa and Tunisia. I was unable to attach copies of the
referenced legislation to this email because of their size. I have made arrangements for them to
be compiled on a web page at the following address soon
http://www.abanet.org/intlaw/intlproj/ilrc/kenya.html.




The report was compiled with the assistance of legal research intern, Stacy Edgar. Please let us
know if the ILRC could be of further assistance to UNDP/Kenya on this or other projects.




Best Regards,




Alan Budde

______________________________

Alan Budde

Project Coordinator

ABA-UNDP International Legal Resource Center (ILRC)

American Bar Association

740 15th Street, NW

Washington, DC 20005

Tel.: 202.662.1662

Fax: 202.662.1666

buddea@staff.abanet.org
www.abanet.org/intlaw/intlproj/ilrc




[Facilitator’s Note: The attachment can be found online at:
http://stone.undp.org/system2/customtags/binarytemp/183673.5UNDPKenyaSolidWaste.doc]




8. Hiro Okuda and Leonard Dikobe, UNDP Botswana NEW




Dear Jane,




Regarding the query on the subject from 28 September, I would like to share with you our activity
in Botswana relating to solid waste management.




UNDP Botswana is supporting the government to implement a UNEP funded initiative, the
Partnership for the Development of Environmental Law and Institutions in Africa (PADELIA), to
review and strengthen existing environmental legislations, regulations and guidelines on
Hazardous Waste Management. A comprehensive draft report has been developed to identify
gaps and make recommendations, which still need to be reviewed and discussed by
stakeholders, but I think it can be shared with you for now.




Mr. Naane, Director of Department of Waste Management and Pollution Control, kindly shared
with us the documents relating to Waste Management in Botswana in response to your query.
They are undergoing some change with a movement to the new Ministry of Environment from
Local Government., however, they share:




    1. Waste Management Act,1998, Republic of Botswana
    2. Botswana’s Strategy for Waste Management, 1998
    3. Botswana’s Policy for Wastewater and Sanitation Management, Ministry of Local
        Government, Aug 2001
    4. Guidelines for the Disposal of Waste by Landfill




I hope our feedback helps thought it may be a bit belated for a consolidated reply.




Thank you and best regards,




Hiro Okuda and Leonard Dikobe

UNDP Botswana – Environment




[Facilitator’s note: Guidelines for the Disposal of Waste by Landfill online at:
http://content.undp.org/go/practices/energyandenvironment/publish/Network-
attachments/download/?d_id=876927. All other attachments can be found on the Workspace:
http://stone.undp.org/system2/comp_stage/util/message.cfm?messageid_=184143&src=121518&
]




Thanks to all who contributed! If you have more information that you would like to share with the
               network on this topic, please send it to: ee-net@groups.undp.org
View past consolidated replies: http://practices.undp.org/energy-environment/crs/?src=121518
Environment and Energy Practice Workspace: http://practices.undp.org/energy-environment
About UNDP’s work on environment and energy: http://www.undp.org/energyandenvironment

								
To top