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					Glossary Acronyms and other Terminology Translation aids   7/3/2012 8:26:05 PM Page 1

   Haiti Rescue Relief
 Acronyms Glossary and other Translation aids
                          collected by Al Mac
                        Alister William Macintyre research notes
                                       Version 3.4

Acronyms Glossary and other Translation aids
Document naming

This research notes document used to be named “Acronyms for Haiti Relief.”

Nov-09 I renamed it “Acronyms Glossary for Haiti from Al Mac” so it will show up nicer
when I upload to Scribd (previous installment uploaded June 10-11).

Sep-30 I renamed it “Glossary Acronyms Haiti” because it will now be a companion
research document to “Glossary Housing Haiti” which focuses just on the special
terminology associated with:
Glossary Acronyms and other Terminology Translation aids     7/3/2012 8:26:05 PM Page 2

      Earthquake Rubble Debris
      Housing Policy
      Human Rights Housing
      Land Owner Documentation
      Secure Land Tenure
      Transitional Shelters

Sep-30 action because I am splitting my research notes on above topics into separate
documents, focused on pros & cons of solutions to different dimensions of Haiti Real
Estate mess, where the new “Glossary Housing” will be a companion document to the
entire new collection, containing info logically common to all of them. In the short term,
“Glossary Housing” will have content not yet here in “Glossary Acronyms” but
eventually anything added there, will also get copied here. Here will eventually have all
the terminology. In time I may have other specialized glossaries, similar to the housing
one I started, end of September 2010. Given the cholera epidemic, maybe one needed
with focus on medical.

Acronyms, Concepts, special Terminology, are defined here, in alphabetical sequence, to
make it easy when we are reading some document from UN, NGO, or government …
what the heck is that? Look it up here.

The version # was started for the convenience of people who may have an earlier copy of
this … you go to one of the places where Al has uploaded this … your version was dated
July 15, of a certain size … the latest upload … you can see how much it has grown,
whether worth you downloading it.

This is a perpetually updated directory of acronyms and related terminology found in
documents on Haiti Humanitarian Relief Aid and Reconstruction, acquired from many
different sources, to help locate info again when same topic repeats. Sometimes Al falls
a bit behind on keeping some areas current. But as Al sees new examples of “what the
heck is that?” in these documents, if not too busy, tracks down the meaning and updates
this reference collection.

Collected by Alister Wm Macintyre (Al Mac), Evansville Indiana, while doing pro bono
research support for various volunteers who want to do something constructive, so we
don’t have to witness another disaster like the Jan 12 quake which killed and estimated
350,000 then because of state-of-art of relief, another 35,000 died while waiting for help.
Also on Facebook
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This type of info becomes more and more important as we see documents from UN and
fields of specialty other than our own, where it is commonplace for us to see unfamiliar
acronyms and terminology, often not explained in context. When using search engines to
locate activity of interest, it really helps to know the correct name of the relevant NGO,
UN or Gov agency.

In the real world, everyone uses acronyms and special technology within their profession,
and most other people in same profession know what they mean. In Humanitarian rescue
relief recovery we have people from many professions interacting … communication,
computing, construction, engineering, governments, medical, military, science-other,
transportation, UN … all their acronyms mixed together … it is hard for most anyone to
figure out sometimes.

Al Mac intends to add to this collection over time. At some point may split document
into Acronyms only, Glossary only, Bookmarks only, etc. and may do a specialized topic
collection as companion pieces to certain research focus areas.

Other people have similar efforts. Mentioned on HEAS is the following:
See Citizen Action Team Relief Database record for CTC/UTX/CRO (Medical) Acronym

I have seen many variants on what the Reconstruction Commission will be called. Here
is an official list of the members. It currently has 24 members entitled to vote (12
representatives and 12 representatives Haitian international) and four members from other
sectors without voting.

These references are cut & pasted from many sources, merged alphabetically by
acronym, for future reference. The data has come in helter skelter. Some day Al may
have a break, and go do a scientific review of logical sources, to get this more
comprehensive, but stuff has been pretty hectic since Jan 12 quake. Some acronyms do
not look quite right, because the original phraseology is in a language other than English,
or whatever shown here, or there are words missing that Al not yet identified.

Also see Internet slang.

       3W = UN Who What When Where (not 4W because some people can’t count, or
        3W was a standard, added to)
       AADA UN Audit of Disaster-Related Aid
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Acceptable risk                                             Level of loss that a society or community considers acceptable,
                                                            taking into account existing social, economic, political, cultural,
                                                            technical, and environmental conditions. From an engineering
                                                            standpoint, acceptable risk is also used to assess structural and
                                                            non-structural measures to bring potential damage to a level
                                                            where the danger to persons and property can be reduced, using
                                                            ―accepted practice‖ and/or codes based, inter alia, on a
                                                            probability estimate and the cost/benefit ratio of these

Accessibility for disabled includes
           1.   blind, on crutches, wheel chair, elderly, pregnant … none discriminated against
           2.   build shelter higher than anticipated flood waters
           3.   build slope for wheel chair etc. that can in fact be navigated
           4.   consider visual, hearing, speech, mental and intellectual impairments
           5.   emergency exits, but infants not wander off

Accountability is a western culture concept, where money donated for a particular
purpose, ought to be expended for that purpose, in a wise and efficient manner. Because
accountability is not yet part of most of the non-profit non-governmental organization
humanitarian aid culture, I wrote a blog series on the state of this art in Haiti Rewired.

Part I defined what we mean by accountability quality standards.

Part II clearly demonstrated the lack of accountability in the humanitarian aid culture.

Part III which I never completed, addressed the need for donors to do better due diligence
in funding the few charities which do in fact practice accountability, instead of continuing
to support lack of accountability.

      ACE Accumulated Cyclone Energy
      ACF Action Contre la Faim (INGO)
      ACHR Asian Coalition for Housing Rights
      ACT Action by Churches Together International is an
       alliance of 100 churches and church-related organizations that work together
       in humanitarian assistance and development.
      ACTED Agency for Technical Cooperation and Development (HQ = Paris France)
      ADB Asian Development Bank
      ADF Americas development Foundation
      ADH L’Autorité pour le Développement d’Haïti
      ADMD Asociación Dominicana de Mitigación de Desastres (The Dominican Disaster Relief
      ADRA Adventist Development and Relief Agency
      AECID Spanish Agency for International Cooperation
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       AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
       AIRPD Australia Indonesia Partnership for Reconstruction and Development
       AJF Youth Association of Fond'Oies
       AJK Azad Jammu and Kashmir
       ALBA Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas

Alert                                                             Permanent mindset triggered by an announcement or other
                                                                  means of conveying information (alarm) issued to warn the
                                                                  population and leaders of an expected event with major
                                                                  implications from a safety standpoint.

       ALNAP = Active Learning Network for Accountability and Performance in
        Humanitarian Action
       AMIS African Union Mission in Sudan
       AMCU Aid Management and Coordination Unit, Ministry of International
       AMR Annual Ministerial Reviews
       APN Port au Prince Sea Port Authority
       APROSIFA Association for the Promotion of Integral Family Healthcare
       ARC American Refugee Committee
       ARC American Red Cross
       ARI Allied Recovery International
       ARI Acute respiratory Infections
       ARIS Acute respiratory Infection
       ARV Anti Retroviral

Assessment               An evaluation of needs, to help set priorities.

       ACAPS Assessment Capacities Project
       ACF Action Contre la Faim
       ALNAP Active Learning Network for Accountability and Performance in humanitarian
       AWG Assessments Working Group
       AU African Union
       AVSI Associazione Volontari per il Servizio Internationale

       BBC British Broadcasting Corporation
       BCDE = Electoral Office of Legal Departemental West
       BCLC = U.S. Chamber of Commerce's Business Civic Leadership
       BIM = Building Information Modeling
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Biodiversity – Biodiversity, or biological diversity, is the variability among living organisms
from all sources including inter alia terrestrial, marine and aquatic ecosystems and the ecological
complexes of which they are part.

       BPM Brigade de la Protection des Mineurs – Child Protection Brigade within Haiti
       BPRM (U.S.) Bureau for Population, Refugees and Migration
       BRR Aceh and Nias Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Agency
       BUGEP Bureau de Gestion du Préscolaire (MoE’s Preschool Education Unit)

Cadastral = Land surveying in the Digital Age.
       CAM Community Asset Management
       CAP = Consolidated Appeal Process: fund raising for implementation of HAP =
        Humanitarian Action Plan

Capacity Constraint – There is a maximum volume that can move through safely and
correctly, such as cargo on a public road, through an airport or sea port. We can increase
capacity by improving the facility, or adding a new facility, such as parachuting supplies
in, using military landing craft on coast where there is no port, land Cessna on public

Capacity to handle disasters                                   Different ways in which women and men marshal their
                                                               capacities and organize themselves to use available resources to
                                                               cope with the different adverse effects of a disaster. This entails
                                                               resource management, both in times of normalcy and during
                                                               crises or adverse situations. In general, building capacity to cop
                                                               with disasters makes people more resilient in the face of both
                                                               natural and man-made hazards. This has a gender dimension,
                                                               given that men and women may have similar or different
                                                               capacities depending on whether they can gain access to and us
                                                               of available resources.
Capacity building                                              Efforts targeting the development of human skills or the
                                                               infrastructure of a society in a given community or organization
                                                               necessary to reduce the level of risk.

       CARE Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere
       CARICOM Caribbean Community

Carrying Capacity – The maximum number of a given organism, or population, that a
particular environment can sustain.

Catastrophe                                          Similar to disaster, but indicative instead of a situation
                                                     of maximum or extreme loss.
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      CBM Christian Blind Mission
      CCAT Cross Cluster Assessment of Trends
      CCCM Camp Coordination Camp Management

        CCPR = International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
    CCTRS = Corail Cesselesse Temporary Resettlement Site
      CDA Capital Development Authority
      CDAC Communications with Disaster Affected Communities
      CD-ROM Compact Disc Read-only memory
      CEB Chief Executives Board of the UN
      CEP Haiti’s Provisional Electoral Council
      CEPAL Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe
      CES Centre d’Education Spéciale (National NGO for Special Education)
      CFS Child Friendly Spaces or Child Friendly Schools (You would think a school for children, by
       definition, should be child-friendly, however this not the case in Haiti, due to a lack of standards
       enforcement, and quake damage. 90% Haiti schools are private.)
      CFSAM Crop and Food Security Assessment Mission
      CFU = Colony Forming Unity (faecal coliforms)
      CFW Cash for Work
      CFSAM crop and food security assessment mission
      CHAP = Common Humanitarian Action Plan
      CHIC Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Haiti

Cholera – See Al Mac research document on Haiti’s Cholera outbreak which started
2010 October in the Arbonite River Valley. Of interest to this Glossary might be the
different ways the disease might suddenly appear in a nation, after being apparently absent
for 40 years, then once it has arrived, there are many ways for it to spread. You don’t catch
it by breathing air of an infected person, or touching them while they are alive, or touching
same objects they touched, you catch it by the infection going into your mouth. However,
the way you touch them, can then mean the bacteria is on your hands, which you can handle
stuff which will later go in your mouth.
Human Carrier: Typically only 25% of the people, who carry the bacteria in their gut,
even show the symptoms, so someone in a region of the world, which has the epidemic,
might travel to a region of the world which does not yet have it. If there is poor sanitation
there, the human waste products (toilet # 2) can get into the food chain to other humans.
Contaminated Water: Food prepared or washed using water which has the cholera
bacteria, will deliver the bacteria to whoever eats that food. That water could have been
contaminated by a carrier or marine life. If you bathe in contaminated water, and some of it
gets into your mouth, you just caught cholera.
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Marine Life: Cholera bacteria is carried in a variety of plankton and sea food. It can
remain dormant for decades, then “bloom” in the appropriate climate conditions, like those
recently for Haiti.
Animal Carrier: Farm Animals do not get this disease, but they carry the bacteria in their
gut, so if food is not properly cooked, all sorts of problems can be communicated.
Insects may carry vibrio cholerae and deposit it on food, water or other surfaces that
humans come in contact with and subsequently contract cholera, when their living
conditions involve poor sanitation.
Dead Bodies which died of cholera: Someone who has died of cholera is covered
with the vibrio, and anyone touching the body without adequate knowledge about self
protection and good hygiene is at risk of infection!!!!!
During the last moments of life people in the advanced stages of this illness are losing
bodily fluids from intestinal reflux and diarrhea. These bodily fluids contain the vibrio
and these fluids, as well as any other moist surface upon which they are found including
the body, are infectious until that body is properly disinfected and all external orfices to
the gastrointestinal system 'plugged' with chlorine saturated rags/sponges. Any one
touching or otherwise handling that body is subject to contamination and infection.
The clothes, bedding, floors, and all surfaces upon which these bodily fluids are found
are sources of infection!!!
Investigation of several cases during this outbreak including the very first clinical cases
in Lafito, revealed that the victims had not traveled to or within an area where cholera
was being reported, their only connection was that they had attended a funeral ceremony
for a cholera victim, shortly before becoming infected, and had laid hands on the body.

      CIAT = Gov of Haiti Presidential Executive Secretariat
      CIDA Canadian International Development Agency
      CILSS Permanent Inter-State Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel
      CIMO = Haiti equivalent of SWAT within National Police
      CINs = Cartes d’identité nationale = Haiti voter identity cards
      CIOB Chartered Institute of Building
      CIRH Commission for the Interim Reconstruction of Haiti

Climate change                                                   The climate of a place or region changes when, over a long
                                                                 period (generally decades or longer), significant and irreversibl
                                                                 trends are observed from a statistical standpoint that are beyond
                                                                 a reasonable doubt. Climate change may arise from natural
                                                                 and/or man-made atmospheric processes that span long periods
                                                                 It should be noted that, in the context of the United Nations
                                                                 Convention on Climate Change, the definition of climate chang
                                                                 is narrower, given that it applies only to changes directly or
                                                                 indirectly attributable to human activity. In essence, climate
                                                                 change seems to be linked to an increase in greenhouse gas
                                                                 emissions, although greenhouse gas emissions occur naturally.
                                                                 As a result, the global temperature appears to be rising.
                                                                 Information currently available is not enough to allow for an
                                                                 understanding of the scope of regional and local effects.
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Climate variability                                               This term refers to all atmospheric processes that are cyclical in
                                                                  nature and are linked to physiography and hydrometeorology. I
                                                                  can be described from the standpoint of physics and
                                                                  mathematics. It pertains to the factors and parameters governin
                                                                  the climate, with individual cases and differences, hence the
                                                                  reason it is called climate variability. For example, tropical
                                                                  cyclones (depressions, storms, hurricanes), as low pressure
                                                                  vortices, vary each season in terms of their intensity, number,
                                                                  and path. To date, there is no clear-cut evidence that man is
                                                                  capable of influencing this phenomenon.

Cluster Approach :- Concept of partnership between UN agencies, the International Red Cross and
Red Crescent Movement, international organizations, and NGOs, within a related industry. Partners work
together towards agreed common humanitarian objectives at global and field level to facilitate inter-
agency complementarily by maximizing resources.
            o Twelve Clusters are: Emergency Shelter and Non-Food Items, Camp
                 Coordination and Camp Management, Education, Food, Logistics, Nutrition,
                 Protection, Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH), Agriculture, Early Recovery,
                 Emergency Telecommunications, and Health.
            o Many of the clusters have sub-cluster further specialization.
            o    Decentralized cluster mechanisms cover regions outside of Port-au-Prince.
            o Logistics/Telecommunications, Health, Emergency Shelter, WASH, and
                    Nutrition clusters are active in the Dominican Republic.
               o    From time to time some clusters are merged, or proposed to merge, within
                    some disaster, such as: Shelter & non-food items; Agriculture & Nutrition.
               o    When unique circumstances warrant, such as severe weather, the cholera
                    epidemic, new clusters are formed to deal with those circumstances.

          CMAM Community Management of Acute Malnutrition
          CMO Camp Management Operations
          CMU Carnegie Mellon Univ
          CNIGS National GIS cartography, including department level
          CNSA Commission Nationale sur la Sécurité Alimentaire (National Commission on Food Security)
          COFCOR Permanent Committee of Foreign Ministers

“Complicated” sounds to an American audience like someone being slippery or evasive
or talking down to the simple, genuine, honest people who just want a straight answer,1
even when it really is complicated. The real world is complicated. It always has been.
Politics are complicated, as are issues of race; ethnicity; culture; religion; and
humanitarian aid work.

          CONANI Dominican republic National Child Protection Authority

    “Simple” in American Culture.
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Consultation – An exchange of information, comments, ideas and suggestions.
Consultation outputs are considered as inputs for decision-making; they should be taken
into account, but need not determine decisions.

           Communities of Practice
         . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Centre for Emergency Operations
      COVs = (Haiti Voting) Centres des opérations de vérification
      CP Child Protection
      CP Contingency Plan
      CPA Crime Pattern Analysis
      CPC Climate Prediction Center
      CPI consumer price index
           . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comité Permanent Inter Organisations (French
       abbreviation for the IASC)
      CRED Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters
      CRO = A center of oral rehydration: with staff non-medical in a
       neighborhood or camp: made the rehydrating oral and decontamination. Need for
       staff minimum 3 persons, including one for ensuring decontamination. Need to
       organize the home visit of the sick and the IEC to the community.
      CRS Catholic Relief Services
      CRWRC Christian Reformed Church World Relief
      CSC Coordination Support Committee
      CSCCA = Superior Court of Auditors and Administrative Disputes
      CSI Coping Strategy Index, eg. Food security, waterproof shelter, police protection that works
      CSTD = UN Commission on Science and Technology for Development
            Center for the Treatment of Cholera: a center set up for the treatment of
       cholera with a staff recruited for this 40 to 300 beds which receives the sick suspects
       of cholera. In the case ideal, there are tents for rehydration iv and tents or rooms for
       the phase of re-convalescensce. Capable of processing of complications such as
       pulmonary edema. Open 24 on 24/ 7 on 7. Receives the sick who come
       spontaneously and cases referred to it. Staff: doctors, nurses, sanitizer, agents for
       preparation of chlorine solutions, guardian, etc..
      CTP Cash Transfer Programme
      CWGER = Cluster Working Group on Early Recovery
      CWS Church World Service

      DAC OECD Development Assistance Committee
      DAD Development Assistance Database
      DanChurchAid is a Denmark faith based NGO.

      DCF Development Cooperation Forum

Debris – what can be in a Disaster Debris Pile?
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Dead bodies, and body parts
E-wastes such as computers, telephones and TVs
“White goods” such as refrigerators, washing machines, dryers
Hazardous materials such as bleach
Radioactive materials from hospitals, industries and
Explosive gases from households, hospitals, industries
Petroleum products from gas stations, power plants
PCBs from transformers
Ammunition from houses, army camps and police stations
Disaster Rescue workers waste products, without garbage pickup

        DEC Disasters Emergency Committee

Départements (10) of Haiti, administrative jurisdictions similar to states or provinces. Four of these
departments received almost 400,000 of the initial over 500,000 displaced: Artibonite (capital: Gonaïves), Centre
(capital: Hinche), Grande Anse (capital: Jérémie) and Nippes (capital: Miragoâne). This according to the Red X. Later
figures said 600,000 to 700,000 displaced inside Haiti, and 200,000 crossed border into Dominican Republic.

        DESA Department of Economic and Social Affairs at the UN

                                                                        Negative impact on property, capital, infrastructure on any
Destruction (damage)                                                    other type of physical structure (including natural structures)
                                                                        resulting from an external event such as a disaster.

        DFID UK-Britain Department for International Development
        DGS: Direction du génie scolaire
        DHS Demographic and Health Survey
        DINEPA Direction Nationale de l’Eau Potable (National Unit for WASH Water and Sanitation)

Disaster – A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing
widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses which exceed the ability
of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. Major disruption in the
functioning of a community or society, when human, material, economic or environmental losses must be
addressed with resources originally earmarked for development. A disaster is the materialization of risk. It
is the result of the complex combination of a hazard and the manifestation of vulnerability, when
preventive capacities or measures are inadequate to mitigate the negative effects of risk.

Displaced persons – persons who, for different reasons or circumstances, have been
compelled to leave their homes. They may or may not reside in their country of origin,
but are not necessarily regarded legally as refugees.

        DM = Disaster Management
        DOCX cannot be opened with Al’s XP Word 2003. It needs Word 2007 access.
        DPA Darfur Peace Agreement
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        DPC = Haiti Department of Civil Protection (Police) Civil Protection Directorate
                    Department for Peacekeeping Operations
        DPT3 Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus vaccine
        DTM Displaced Tracking Matrix
        DR Dominican Republic
        DR Disaster Reduction, which tends to be more logical
        DRI Direct Relief International
        DRR Disaster Risk Reduction, which tends to be more physical
        DRSS Disaster Response Support Service of Bioforce and RedR within SPHERE
        DSNCRP Document de Stratégie Nationale pour la Croissance et pour la Réduction de la Pauvreté
         (PRSP Document)
        DSSE Department Sanitaire du Sud-Est
                . . . . . . . . . . . National Strategy for Growth & Poverty Reduction Paper
        DTM = Displacement Tracking Matrix = where the people end up in what
        DWG Disability Working Group
        DWR Disaster Waste Recovery

        EAD Economic Affairs Division

Early recovery – Recovery that begins early in a humanitarian setting. Early recovery is not
intended as a separate phase within the relief-development continuum, but rather as an effort to
strengthen the effectiveness of the linkage. Early recovery encompasses livelihoods, shelter,
governance, environment and social dimensions (such as HIV/Aids and gender equality as cross-
cutting issues), including the re-integration of displaced populations…

Earthquake Scales … there are several.                 Here is Modified Mercalli Scale (Richter,

MMI value                                                     Description
I                                                             Not felt. Marginal and long period effects of large earthquakes
II                                                            Felt by persons at rest, on upper floors, or favorably placed
III                                                           Felt indoors. Hanging objects swing. Vibration like passing
                                                              of light trucks. Duration estimated. May not be recognized as
                                                              an earthquake
IV                                                            Hanging objects swing. Windows, dishes, doors rattle.
                                                              Vibration like passing of heavy trucks; or sensation of a jolt
                                                              like a heavy ball striking the walls. Standing motor cars rock.
                                                              Glasses clink. Crockery clashes. In the upper range of IV,
                                                              wooden walls and frame creak
V                                                             Pictures move. Felt outdoors; direction estimated. Sleepers
                                                              wakened. Liquids disturbed, some spilled. Small unstable
                                                              objects displaced or upset. Doors swing, close, open. Shutters,
                                                              pictures move. Pendulum clocks stop, start, change rate
VI                                                            Objects Fall. Felt by all. Many frightened and run outdoors.
                                                              Persons walk unsteadily. Windows, dishes, glassware broken.
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                                                            Knickknacks, books, etc., off shelves. Pictures off walls.
                                                            Furniture moved or overturned. Weak plaster and masonry D
                                                            cracked. Small bells ring (church, school). Trees, bushes
                                                            shaken (visibly or heard to rustle)
VII                                                         Nonstructural Damage. Difficult to stand. Noticed by drivers
                                                            of motor cars. Hanging objects quiver. Furniture broken.
                                                            Damage to masonry D, including cracks. Weak chimneys
                                                            broken at roof line. Fall of plaster, loose bricks, stones, tiles,
                                                            cornices (also unbraced parapets and architectural ornaments.
                                                            Some cracks in masonry C. Waves on ponds; water turbid with
                                                            mud. Small slides and caving in along sand or gravel banks.
                                                            Large bells ring. Concrete irrigation ditches damaged
VIII                                                        Moderate Damage. Steering of motor cars affected. Damage
                                                            to masonry C; partial collapse. Some damage to masonry B.
                                                            none to masonry A. Fall of stucco and some masonry walls.
                                                            Twisting, fall of chimneys, factory stacks, monuments, towers,
                                                            elevated tanks. Frame houses moved on foundations if not
                                                            bolted down; Loose panel walls thrown out. Decayed piling
                                                            broken off. Branches broken from trees. Changes in flow or
                                                            temperature of springs and wells. Cracks in wet ground and on
                                                            steep slopes
IX                                                          Heavy Damage. General panic. Masonry D destroyed;
                                                            masonry C heavily damaged, sometimes with complete
                                                            collapse; masonry B seriously damaged. (General damage to
                                                            foundations.) Frame structures if not bolted, shifted off
                                                            foundations. Frames racked. Serious damage to reservoirs.
                                                            Underground pipes broken. Conspicuous cracks in ground. In
                                                            alluvial areas sand and mud ejected, earthquake fountains,
                                                            sand craters
X                                                           Extreme Damage. Most masonry and frame structures
                                                            destroyed with their foundations. Some well-built wooden
                                                            structures and bridges destroyed. Serious damage to dams,
                                                            dikes, embankments. Large landslides. Water thrown on banks
                                                            of canals, rivers, lakes, etc. Sand and mud shifted horizontally
                                                            on beaches and flat land. Rails bent slightly.
XI                                                          Rails bent greatly. Underground pipelines completely out of
XII                                                         Damage nearly total. Large rock masses displaced. Lines of
                                                            sight and level distorted. Objects thrown into the air

         ECD Early Childhood Development
         ECHO European Commission’s Humanitarian Aid Office
         ECLAC UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Carribbean

Ecologically sensitive area – Habitats such as wetlands, aquifer recharge zones,
important wildlife habitats and so forth which are, or might be, sensitive to degradation or
destruction by human activities.

         ECOSOC Economic and Social Council of the UN
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Ecosystem – A functional unit consisting of all the living organisms (plants, animals and
microbes) in a given area, as well as the non-living physical and chemical factors of their
environment, linked together through nutrient cycling and energy flow. An ecosystem can be of
any size – a log, pond, field, forest, or the Earth’s biosphere – but it always functions as a whole
unit. Ecosystems are commonly described according to the main type of vegetation (e.g. forest
ecosystem, old-growth ecosystem or range ecosystem).

Ecosystem integrity – The degree to which the fundamental ecological processes (e.g. water
and nutrient cycling, the flow of energy and biodiversity) are maintained.

Ecosystem services – The benefits which an ecosystem provides, which include
storing water, preventing soil erosion, nutrient recycling and serving as a source of
genetic diversity.

       EFA Education for All
       EFSA Emergency Food Security Assessment
       EID Early Infant Diagnosis
       ELDA the Evaluations/European and
        Language Resources Distribution Agency
       EM-DAT Emergency Disasters Data Base
       Emergency Disasters Data Base website. Belgium: EM-DAT, CRED, University
        of Louvain.

Emergency (or disaster) management                              Organization and management of resources and responsibilities
                                                                in the handling of all emergency matters, in particular
                                                                preparedness, response, and rehabilitation. Emergency
                                                                management involves the plans, structures, and arrangements
                                                                established to jumpstart the regular activities of government or
                                                                volunteer agencies, as well as the private sector, in a
                                                                comprehensive and coordinated matter, so as to respond to the
                                                                entire spectrum of emergency needs. This process is also know
                                                                as disaster management.

       EMMA = Emergency Market Mapping Analysis
       EMMUS Enquete de morbiditie, mortalite et utilisation des services

       EMOPS UNICEF's Office of Emergency Programmes
       ENA Environmental Needs Assessment
       ENAT Environmental Needs Assessment Team
       ENG = English

Environmental Consequences – think check list of what needs to be dealt with.

Environmental Consequences of Landslide
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      �� Damaged infrastructure as a possible secondary environmental threat, e.g.
       leakage from fuel storage facilities Secondary impacts by temporarily displaced
      �� Impacts associated with reconstruction and repair to damaged infrastructure
       (e.g. deforestation, quarrying, waste pollution)
           o getting buried & maybe killed
           o critical roads blocked

Environmental Consequences of an Earthquake

      �� Loss of productive systems, e.g. agriculture
      �� Damage to natural landscapes and vegetation
      �� Possible mass flooding if dam infrastructure weakened or destroyed, or
       drainage canals filled with debris
      �� Waste accumulation – additional waste disposal sites required
      �� Secondary impacts by temporarily displaced people
      �� Impacts associated with reconstruction and repair to damaged infrastructure
       (e.g. deforestation, quarrying, waste pollution)
      �� Damaged infrastructure as a possible secondary environmental threat, e.g.
       leakage from fuel storage facilities
           o Being in or near a building that falls down & maybe killed or maimed
           o Loss of critical infrastructure

Environmental Consequences of Volcanic Eruption
(There are many active volcanoes in the Americas)

      �� Loss of productive landscape and crops being buried by ash and pumice
      �� Forest fires as a result of molten lava
      �� Secondary impacts by temporarily displaced people
      �� Loss of wildlife following gas release
      �� Secondary flooding should rivers or valleys be blocked by lava flow
      �� Damaged infrastructure as a possible secondary environmental threat, e.g.
       leakage from fuel storage facilities Impacts associated with reconstruction and
       repair to damaged infrastructure (e.g. deforestation, quarrying, waste pollution)
           o Get out of way, or get killed … ash can also be deadly
           o Loss of critical infrastructure

Environmental Consequences of any Hurricane/Cyclone/Typhoon
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      �� Loss of vegetation cover and wildlife habitat
      �� Short-term heavy rains and flooding inland
      �� Mud slides and soil erosion
      �� Saltwater intrusion to underground fresh water reservoirs
      �� Soil contamination from saline water
      �� Damage to offshore coral reefs and natural coastal defense mechanisms
      �� Waste (some of which may be hazardous) and debris accumulation
      �� Secondary impacts by temporarily displaced people
      �� Impacts associated with reconstruction and repair to damaged infrastructure
       (e.g. deforestation, quarrying, waste pollution)
           o Get out of way, or get killed
           o Loss of critical infrastructure

Environmental Consequences of Flood

      �� Ground water pollution through sewage overflow, health implications with
      �� Loss of crops, livestock and livelihood security
      �� Excessive siltation may affect certain fish stocks
      �� River bank damage from erosion
      �� Water and soil contamination fertilizers used
      �� Secondary impacts by temporarily displaced people
      �� Beneficial sedimentation in floodplains or close to river banks
          o Get out of way, or get killed
          o Serious damage to critical infrastructure
          o Roads blocked

Environmental Consequences of Tsunami

      �� Ground water pollution through sewage overflow
      �� Saline incursion and sewage contamination of groundwater reservoirs
      �� Loss of productive fisheries and coastal forest/plantations
      �� Destruction of coral reefs
      �� Coastal erosion and/or beneficial deposition of sediment on beaches/small
      �� Marine pollution from back flow of wave surge
      �� Soil contamination
      �� Loss of crops and seed banks
Glossary Acronyms and other Terminology Translation aids   7/3/2012 8:26:05 PM Page 17

      �� Waste accumulation – additional waste disposal sites required
      �� Secondary impacts by temporarily displaced people
      �� Impacts associated with reconstruction and repair to damaged infrastructure
       (e.g. deforestation, quarrying, waste pollution)
           o Get out of way, or get killed
           o Loss of critical infrastructure

Environmental Consequences of Drought

      �� Loss of surface vegetation.
      �� Loss of biodiversity
      �� Forced human displacement.
      �� Loss of livestock and other productive systems.

Environmental Consequences of Epidemic

      �� Loss of biodiversity
      �� Forced human displacement
      �� Loss of productive economic systems
      �� Introduction of new species

Environmental Consequences of Forest Fires (Haiti safe from this for a while)

      �� Loss of forest and wildlife habitat
      �� Loss of biodiversity
      �� Loss of ecosystem services
      �� Loss of productive crops
      �� Soil erosion
      �� Secondary encroachment for settlement or agriculture

      EPF Emergency Programme Fund
      EPI Expanded Programme of Immunisation

Epidemic = the occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness (or an
outbreak) with a frequency clearly in excess of normal expectancy”.
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The public health community has not settled on a solid definition of ‘outbreak’ except in a
very broad sense, which means many people are using ‘outbreak’ and ‘epidemic’

Pandemic is when it is happening in multiple nations. In Al Mac opinion, cholera is now
a pandemic, since multiple nations of Africa and Asia have it out-of-control.

Also see infectious disease impact scale (IDIS).

      EQ Earth Quake
      ER = Early Recovery (part of IASC Cluster System)
      ERC Emergency Response Coordinator
      ERT Emergency Response Team
      ESC emergency shelter and transitional shelter
      ESD Education for Sustainable Development
      ERRA Earthquake Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Authority
      ERRF Emergency Response Relief Fund
      ERUs Emergency Response Units
      ETA = Estimated Time of Arrival
         . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emergency Telecommunications Cluster
      EU = European Union
      EU/JRC European Union’s Joint Research Centre

   Extremely Vulnerable Groups comprise:

           a.   Female- and Child-headed households
           b.   Households of six or more, with four children of school age
           c.   Physically and mentally disabled
           d.   Elderly

      FACT Field Assessment and Coordination Team
      FADH Haitian Armed Forces (none exist, but some people have called for replacing the UN
       troops in Haiti, with such)
      FAO UN Food and Agriculture Organization, HQ in Rome Italy
      FAQ = Frequently Asked Questions
      FB = Facebook, a social network
      FCS food consumption score
      Federation   International Federation of Red Cross & Red Crescent Societies
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      FH Food for Hungry
      FIGO/SOGC International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
      FOKAL Fondasyon Konesans Ak Libète (National NGO on Education and Culture)
      Fondefh Fondation pour le Développement de la Famille Haïtienne
      FOSREF Fondation pour la Sante Reproductive et l’Education Familiale
      FP focal persons
      FPU = Formed Police Units, supplied by individual nations to work in UN missions
      FPGL Fondation Paul Gérin Lajoie (International Development NGO)
      FR = French
      FRC Federal Relief Commission
      FSNAU Food Security and Nutrition Analysis Unit
      FTR family tracing and reunification
      FTS Financial Tracking System
      FY Fiscal Year
      G77 Group of 77 Developing Nations
      GAM Global Acute malnutrition
      GAM Gerakan Aceh Merdeka (Free Aceh Movement)
      GARR Support Group for the Repatriated and           Refugees
      GAVI Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation
      GBV Gender Based Violence
      GCMS Geographical coordination and Monitoring Section
      GCST = The Global Campaign for Secure Tenure, organized thru UN-Habitat
       advocates housing rights for everyone
      GCUG = The Global Campaign on Urban Governance, organized thru UN-
      GDP Gross Domestic Product
      GEMAP Governance and Economic Management Assistance Plan
      GenCap Gender Standby Capacity Project

Gender                                                          Specific roles, responsibilities, needs, functions, and interests o
                                                                women and men, generally based on social influence and
                                                                specific to a given culture, but different, however, from the
                                                                concepts of gender that refer to the biological differences
                                                                between men and women, or to sexual orientation.
Gender analysis                                                 Assessment process of specific, socially influenced differences
                                                                between men and women that are learned, change over time, an
                                                                vary from one country to another.
Gender dimension of a disaster                                  Different effects on and roles of men and women when a disas
                                                                occurs. A more complex analysis of gender will also take into
                                                                account the varying impacts of disasters on different groups, in
                                                                particular the elderly, infants and children, and persons having
                                                                special or physical disabilities.
Gender-based needs assessment                                   Process by which the specific needs of women, girls, men, and
                                                                boys are identified.
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      GET World Bank Global Expert Team
      GFDRR Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery
      GHD Good Humanitarian Donorship Initiative
      GHESKIO Groupe Haïtien d’Etudes de Sarcome de Kaposi et d’Infections
       Opportunistes (National NGO on HIV/AIDS)
      GIA Governor’s Island Agreement
      GIEWS Global Information and Early-Warning System
      GIS Geographical Information System
      GoH Government of Haiti
      GNI Gross National Income
      GNP Gross National Product
      GPS Global Positioning System
      GPOI Global Peace Operations Initiative (military peacekeeping)
      GRT Global Relief Technologies
      GTEF Groupe de Travail pour l’Éducation et la Formation (Presidential Commission on Education
       and Training)

      HAC Humanitarian Aid Commission
    HAP = Humanitarian Accountability Partnership
      HAVEN House and community building charity

Hazard                                                        Physical circumstance or event, natural process, or human
                                                              activity which, having attained or exceeded a specific intensity,
                                                              poses a potential danger in terms of the loss of human life,
                                                              injury, or damage to social and economic goods or
                                                              environmental degradation. Hazards include latent conditions
                                                              that may pose a danger in the future, arising from a variety of
                                                              sources: natural processes (geological, hydrometeorological,
                                                              biological, etc.) or man-made processes (environmental
                                                              degradation, technological dangers, etc.). Hazards may be
                                                              individual, joint, sequential, or combined in terms of their
                                                              origins and effect

      HC Haiti Commission
      HC/RC = Humanitarian Coordinator/Resident Coordinator
      HCT Humanitarian Country Team
      HDI Human Development Index

HEAS Haiti Epidemic Advisory System
250+ members, which includes international NGOs, UN agencies, USG agencies, private
individuals, unaffiliated charitable organizations, and journalists facilitated by operational
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biosurveillance analysts. The analysts provide a "switchboard" tactical function with
over 10 years' experience in the domain, having participated in forecast, detection, and
early warning of nearly 250k infectious disease events in every country of the world
(including Antarctica) across 43 languages. We are the same team (ex-Veratect) that
provided warning of the Mexico crisis to CDC and WHO, later recognized to be the 2009
H1N1 influenza pandemic.2

Check out their Haiti Operational Bio-Surveillance site.3

        HEDR = Haiti Earthquake Disaster Relief, a discussion group on Linked In
        HELP ACT Haiti Economic Lift Program (facilitate export to USA
         clothing manufactured in Haiti)
        HERME Harmonized Emergency Risk Management Initiative
        HIC Humanitarian Information Centre
          HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
        HNMC = Haitian National Meteorology Center (weather forecasts)
          HNP Haitian National Police
        HNRCS Haitian National Red Cross Society
        HODR Hands on Disaster Relief

       A household comprises all those sharing one hearth.

        HP Hygiene Promotion cluster
          HPN = Humanitarian Practice Network
        HQ Headquarters
          HRC Haiti Response Coalition
          HRD Hurricane Research Division
          HRS Human Rights Section of MINUSTAH
          HTPC Haiti Operations Center
          HUG Haiti Under God
          HWTSS Hygiene, Water Treatment, and Safe Storage

    Info provided by Dr. James Wilson V, MD, Executive Director of Praecipio International
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      HX = Humanitarian Exchange

   Hygiene Improved Practice includes safe water storage, treatment, and

      IAAC Independent Audit Advisory Committee of UN
      IADB Inter-American Development Bank
      IARTE Inter-Agency real time Evaluation
      IASC UN’s Inter-Agency Standing Committee

      IBESR Institut de Bien-Etre Social et de Recherches (MoSA’s Institute on Social Welfare and

      IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

      ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization          HQ in Montreal Canada
      ICC International Criminal Court is apart from the UN
    ICD International Cooperation Directorate, Ministry of Finance and
     National Economy
    ICF Interim Cooperation Framework
      ICJ International Court of Justice of the UN, located at The Hague, Netherlands
      ICRC International Committee of the Red Cross
      ICRH Interim Commission for the Reconstruction of Haiti
      ICSID International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes
      ICT Information Communication Technology
      ICVA International Council of Voluntary Agencies
      IDA International Development Association
      IDB Inter-American Development Bank
      IDB Islamic Development Bank
      IDEJEN Initiative pour le développment des jeunes
      IDNDR International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction
      IDP Internal Displaced People (refugees within home nation)
      IDPSS Internally Displaced Persons Surveillance System

      IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development HQ Rome Italy

      IFC International Finance Corporation
      IFES International Foundation for Electoral Systems
      IFIs International Finance Institutions
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      IFRC = International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
      IHE Institut Haïtien de l’Enfance (National Haitian Child Institute)
      IHSI Institut Haitien de Statistiques (National Institute of Statistics)
      IIA Institute of Internal Auditors
      IIRO International Islamic Relief Organisation
      IJDH = Institute for Justice and Democracy in Haiti
      ILAS Institute of Latin American Studies
      ILF International Lifeline Funds
      IMAGE Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity
      IMC International Medical Corps
      IMCI Integrated Management of Childhood Illness
      IMEP Integrated Monitoring and Evaluation Plan
      IMF International Monetary Fund
      IMPP Integrated Mission Planning Process Working Group
      IMR Infant Mortality Rate
      INEE Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies

Infectious Disease Impact Scale (IDIS), from Haiti Operational Bio-

      IDIS Category 0. Unreported infectious disease event. Daily, routine
       infectious diseases are handled at this level, and provision of warning
       about these diseases is not deemed ‘relevant’. It is likely there are multiple
       unreported cholera cases now inside Port-au-Prince, for instance, and in
       Artibonite and perhaps elsewhere.
      IDIS Category 1. Reported infectious disease event. The typical Category
       1 infectious disease event reported by a community reflects a sensitivity to
       public health or medical significance. No other significant features
       indicative of immediate public health or medical infrastructure impact,
       public anxiety, or civil unrest triggered by the event are noted.
      IDIS Category 2. Infectious disease event associated with routine
       organized response. Category 2 events often reflect locally well-known
       diseases that nevertheless generate a demand for organization-level time-
       sensitive action. This action is local routine.
      IDIS Category 3. Infectious disease event associated with non-routine
       organized response. Category 3 events are essentially the beginnings of a
       community crisis.
      IDIS Category 4. Infectious disease event associated with social
       disruption. Category 4 events highlight when organized response has
       occurred, yet significant social disruption has been documented.
      IDIS Category 5. Infectious disease event associated with disaster
      IDIS Category 6. Infectious disease event associated with apocalyptic indicators.
       This is an operationally rare finding, associated historically with Ebola and Nipah
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       virus outbreaks. We do not consider this category to represent a likely scenario in

Also see Epidemic.

      I-NGO International NGO
      INSTRAW International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of
      INTOSAI UN Working Group Accountability for Audit of Disaster-Related Aid
      IOM International Organization for Migration
      IPC Integrated Food Security Phase Classification
      IRC International Rescue Committee
      IRD International Relief and Development
        IRDWG Inclusion, Rehabilitation, Disability Working Group

      IRIN Integrated Regional Information Network
      ISDR International Strategy for Disaster Reduction
      ISF Integrated Strategic
      IT Information Technology
      ITC International Trade Center
      ITU International Telecommunication            Union HQ Geneva Switzerland
      IYCF Infant and young child feeding

      JCICS Joint Council on international children’s services
      JEN Japan Emergency NGOs
      JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency
      JIU Joint Inspection Unit (oversight body of the United Nations system)
      JMAC Joint Mission Analysis Center of the UN Police
      JOTC Joint Operations and Tasking Center
      JPHRO Jenkins-Penn Haitian Relief Organisation
      JTF Joint Task Force (US military)

      KID Convention for Democratic Unity (Haiti political party)
      KOFAVIV Commission of Women Victim-to-Victim
      KORE-N Coordination to Rebuild the Nation (in Creole means ‘support us’)
      LAS League of Arab States
      LC = Logistics Cluster of UN NGO relief efforts … transportation, military,
       cargo handling, etc.
      LCU = Landing Craft Units (a unit, in UN context, means a vehicle for cargo)
      LET = Logistics Emergency Teams
      LI = Linked In, a social network for professionals
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      LLH Life Line Haiti
      LLIN = Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets
      LOG = Logistics Operational Guide

Losses                                                             Decline in economic resources, including means of subsistence
                                                                   (revenue, salaries, profit, private income), following damage
                                                                   caused by an external event such as a disaster).

      LoU Letter of Understanding
      LRRD Linking Relief, Rehabilitation and Development

      MADRE Mouvement Alternatif pour la Décentralisation et la Reconstruction
      Mairie is a French word meaning the Mayor's office, or the City Council.
      MAP Mangrove Action Project
      MapAction. Supporting humanitarian operations with real time mapping.
       London: MapAction
      MAST Ministère des Affaires Sociales et du Travail - Ministry of Social Affairs

      MCM Municipality Cluster Mechanism
      MDG Millenium Development Goal
      MdM Médecins du Monde
      MENFP: Ministère de l'éducation nationale et de la formation professionnelle
      MERLIN Medical Emergency Relief International
      MHPSS Mental Health and psycho-social support
      MICAH Civilian Support UN Mission in Haiti
      MICS Multiple Cluster Inidator Survey
              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ministry for the Interior and Territorial Entity
      MIGA Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency

The ministries of the Haitian government are:
                Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Rural Development
                Ministry of Commerce and Industry
                Ministry of Finance and Economy
                Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cults
                Ministry of Information and Coordination
                Ministry of Interior and National Defense
                Ministry of Justice
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                Ministry of National Education, Youth and Sports
                Ministry of Planning and Foreign Aid
                Ministry of Public Health and Population
                Ministry of Public Works, Transportation and Communications
                Ministry of Social Affairs

       MINUSTAH Mission des Nations Unies pour la Stabilisation d’Haïti (United Nations Stabilization
        Mission in Haiti) (UN Peacekeepers)
       MIPONUH United Nations Civilian Police Mission

Mitigation                                                        Structural and non-structural measures applied to contain the
                                                                  negative effects of natural, technological, and environmental

Mitigation of Risk is a concept Al Mac is well familiar with in computer security terms … we
can predict in advance about some defenses being weak, because of lack of corporate funding, and lot of
successful attacks reported on similar installations, so we have extra layers of defenses, alerts, extra
human focus, where we most expect trouble. In the area of natural disasters, there is excellent science
on weather prediction, geographical terrain known, past patterns of where tornados tend to go, based on
shape of hills, so it can be predicted in advance where flooding most likely. Earthquake science cannot
predict when next quake will arrive, but can give us pretty good idea where a risk exists of one of what
intensity, so that building codes there can specify how good structures need to be to survive what is

       MJPATN Mouvement des Jeunes pour Haïti Tout Neuf
       MJRPG Mouvement des Jeunes Révolutionnaires de Petit Goâve
       MJSP Ministère e de la Justice et de la Sécurité Publique - Ministry of Justice
       MLC Max Lock Centre
       MNF Multi-National Force
       MODEP Democratic Popular Movement (a Haiti Political Party)
       MoH Ministry of Health
       MoM Meeting Minutes
       MoP Ministère de la Planification et de la Coopération Externe - Ministry of Planning
       MoU Memorandum of Understanding
       Movement, the = the International Committee of the Red Cross, the International Federation of Red
        Cross & Red Crescent Societies, and national societies
       MP Member of Parliament (Britain)
       MPCE Ministry of Planning and External Cooperation
       MPP Peasant Movement of Papay
       MRCs Migrant Resource Centres
       MRM Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism
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       MSB Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
       MSF Médecins sans Frontières (Doctors without Borders)
       MSH Management Sciences for Health
       MSPP Ministère de la Santé Publique et de la Population - Ministry of Health
       MT Machine Translation (see
        languages-and-technologies/ for significance)
       MTPTC The Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Communications
       MUAC Middle Upper Arm Circumference
       MUDHA Movement of Dominican Women of Haitian Descent
       MYR Mid-Year Review

       NatCat Natural Catastrophes
       NCA Norwegian Church Aid
       NDBC US National Data Bouy Center
       NEP = New Emergencies Policy

Needs                                                      Humanitarian interventions in the areas of recovery and
                                                           development, required to close the gap between the shortages o
                                                           losses identified and the situation desired by victims in a post-
                                                           conflict or post-disaster situation. Total needs identified or note
                                                           at the local level can be summarized in a recovery framework
                                                           for a given sector or country.
Needs assessment                                           This assessment, initiated by humanitarian agencies, entails the
                                                           identification of basic needs and what is lacking to meet these
                                                           needs (based on standards, taking into account vulnerabilities,
                                                           risks, and capacities) and the estimation of the external
                                                           assistance needed (beyond the community, province,
                                                           department, or country) to cover these shortages. Needs
                                                           assessment for recovery purposes (emergency or
                                                           comprehensive) and for development purposes calls for a
                                                           broader vision of needs covering institutional, policy-related,
                                                           and infrastructure areas.

       NGO Non-Governmental Organizations
       NHC National Hurricane Center
       NIS National Statistical Institute
       NNF National Notario Foundation
       NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
       NRC Norwegian Refugee Council
       NSP Non-State Providers
       NWFP North-West Frontier Province
Glossary Acronyms and other Terminology Translation aids            7/3/2012 8:26:05 PM Page 28

       OAS Organization of American States
       OBI Operation Blessing International
       OCEDAH Office of Community Education and Diversity Affairs
       OCHA United Nations Office for the coordination of humanitarian affairs
       ODA Official Development Assistance
       ODG Overseas Development Group
       ODI = Overseas Development Institute, based in Britain
       OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
       OECD-DAC Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development–Development
        Assistance Committee
       OHA Official Humanitarian Assistance
       OHCHR United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
       OHFCOH = Operation Hope for Children of Haiti
       OIC Organisation of the Islamic Conference
       OIOS the Office of Internal Oversight Services for UN
       OLS Operation Lifeline Sudan
       OMS = "Organisation Mondiale de la Sante", or World Health Organization /
          . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . National Identity Office
            Office of the Protection of Citizens
       OPS = Organization Panamericaine de la Sante ( French) - Organizacion
        Panamericana de la Salud ( Spanish) ; English =PAHO
       OSIG Office of the Secretary General of the UN
       OSZ Outside Shake zone
       OTPs Outpatient Therapeutic Feeding Centers

       PAI Programa Ampliado Imunizacion
       PADF Pan American Development Foundation
       PAHO Pan American Health Organization

Pandemic – see Epidemic

       PaP = Port au Prince, capital of Haiti
       PAPDA Platform for Alternative Development in Haiti

Participation – A process by which stakeholders are active and equal partners in decision
making, and may have shared ownership and control over project/programme design and
implementation (and also eventual evaluation).

       PBC Peace Building Commission
       PBR Programme Budget review
Glossary Acronyms and other Terminology Translation aids        7/3/2012 8:26:05 PM Page 29

      PCA Partnership Cooperation Agreements
      PCNB Points de Conseil de Nutrition Pour les Bébés
      PDA Presbyterian Disaster Assistance
      PCI Project Concern International
      PDNA = Post Disaster Needs Assessment and Recovery Framework
      PDSRSG Political Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General

PERT Diagram – Program Evaluation and Review Technique – a flow chart of inter-
relationships. Arrows, from one box to another, in this context indicate pre-requisites,
where progress in the pre-requisite will have astronomical benefit for the activity to
which the arrow points. Haiti cannot resolve permanent housing without first solving:
land ownership documentation; and the rubble debris. Making major progress with
reforestation will do wonders for agriculture, stop soil erosion, reduce pollution, and
make hillsides less susceptible to mudslides. However, there are green revolution pre-
requisites to sustained reforestation. An understanding of many such relationships,
summarized in a PERT diagram, can help prioritize building Haiti back better. Projects,
which do not use such diagram techniques, can either fail, or be massively more
expensive than had they utilized such a system.

      Pesadev Perspectives pour la Santé et le Développement
      PFII Permanent UN Forum on Indigenous Issues
      PM = Prime Minister
      PMCC = Project Management Coordination Cell
      PMTCT Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission
      PNH Police Nationale d’Haiti (Haiti National Police)
      PPE Personal Protective Equipment
      PPT Microsoft Power Point
      PRCS Pakistan Red Crescent Society

Private – Al Mac will now be appending this word to the end of downloaded files naming
from UN NGOs when Al sees terminology, similar to the following, associated with the
distribution of the documentation, or when Al presumes from context that this applies.
This kind of terminology was absent from all documents that Al Mac downloaded for the
first approx 100 days of UN NGO cluster reporting on Haiti activities, then it began to
appear sporadically.

       The information contained in this electronic message and any attachments is
       intended for specific individuals or entities, and may be confidential, proprietary
       or privileged. If you are not the intended recipient, please notify the sender
       immediately, delete this message and do not disclose, distribute or copy it to any
       third party or otherwise use this message. The content of this message does not
       necessarily reflect the official position of the World Food Programme. Electronic
       messages are not secure or error free and may contain viruses or may be delayed,
       and the sender is not liable for any of these occurrences. The sender reserves the
       right to monitor, record and retain electronic messages.
Glossary Acronyms and other Terminology Translation aids                   7/3/2012 8:26:05 PM Page 30

        PRODEP Community-Driven Development Project

Protected area – Portions of land protected by special restrictions and laws for the conservation
of the natural environment. They include large tracts of land set aside for the protection of
wildlife and its habitat; areas of great natural beauty or unique interest; areas containing rare
forms of plant and animal life; areas representing unusual geologic formations; places of historic
and prehistoric interest; areas containing ecosystems of special importance for scientific
investigation and study; and areas that safeguard the needs of the biosphere.

        PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
        PSEA Sexual Exploitation and Abuse

PUICA = The Civil Registry Program (PUICA), is a project currently being implemented by the OAS
in Haiti to improve a digital civil registry system to normalize the situation aggravated by the catastrophe
that affected the country earlier in 2010, which led to the collapse of public offices and the lost of citizens'
identity cards. The program's immediate goal is to establish a system to update the electoral census for the
upcoming presidential and legislative elections in November. For more info see OAS news on Relief Web.

        PWYF = Publish What You Fund

        QCF Qatar Charitable Foundation
        QIP Quick Impact Project

        RAT Recovery Assessment Team
        RC Resident Coordinator
        RCRC Red Cross and Red Crescent
        RCS Red Cross/Crescent Society

Recovery comes after Rescue and Relief. The damaged infrastructure needs to
be rebuilt back better than it was before, so the people are less likely to suffer so
much in the next natural disaster.

        RedR (pronounced 'Red R') is an international NGO that
         provides recruitment, training and support services for humanitarian professionals
         across the world.

        Red X = Al Mac abbreviation for Red Cross

Rehabilitation – Different people use same terminology with somewhat different
Glossary Acronyms and other Terminology Translation aids         7/3/2012 8:26:05 PM Page 31

          The full, or at least partial, restoration of degraded landscapes and/or impaired
           ecosystem services to their state prior, for example, to the land being occupied as a
           site for transitional shelter for displaced people.
          Upgrading existing buildings to accommodate evolving needs, such as support for
           disabled people, support for new kinds of telecommunications, improve fire safety.

Rehabilitation                                              Start of a post-crisis recovery process (disaster- or conflict-
                                                            related). Rehabilitation entails measures in-tended to restore to
                                                            the affected community, insofar as possible and as quickly as
                                                            possible, the pre-disaster quality of life in the areas of
                                                            governance, subsistence, shelter, the environment, and the
                                                            social sphere. This includes the reintegration of displaced
                                                            populations and human safety.

Relief typically comes after Rescue and before Recovery.               Until damaged
infrastructure and economy can be rebuilt, the people need delivery of essential supplies
(medical, food, water, shelter) in such a way that it does not sabotage recovery (such as
killing the local agriculture by competing with capitalism to its destruction).

      RENHASSA National Haitian Network for Food Sovereignty and Food Security

Relocation Camps, for Haiti disaster victims, were designated “safer” areas than
where they were found at risk of flooding, mudslides, etc. where the “more risky” areas
could not be mitigated, or repaired. So the people at more risk were given some choices:
    Return to wherever they were before, if their homes now designated as safe, and
       they were economically able to move there (pay the rent with their livelihoods
    Move in with some other host family, such as in rural areas, which were not
       getting sufficient aid to displaced victims;
    Or move to the “safer” relocation camps.

Rescue typically comes before Relief.           In the immediate aftermath of a disaster,
there are people at extreme risk of dying, because they are buried by an earthquake,
mudslide, etc. or need to be rapidly moved out of the way of a flood.

      RICS Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors
      RIH Haiti = Humanists International Network
      RINAH Rapid Initial Needs Assessment for Haiti
Glossary Acronyms and other Terminology Translation aids                 7/3/2012 8:26:05 PM Page 32

                                                                     Literal definitions:
Risk                                                                 PETIT LAROUSSE; 2009
                                                                     Masculine noun. (in Italian risco, from the Latin resecum,
                                                                     something that cuts)

                                                                     damaging. The risks of war are increasing.

                                                                     occur: to run the risk of failure. A pilot who takes too many risk
                                                                                     an activity that could be advantageous, but whic
                                                                     entails the possibility of danger: To have an appetite for risk.

                                                                     return for a premium.

                                                                     Summary: ―…Possible occurrence of an event that does not
                                                                     depend entirely on the will of the parties and which may result
                                                                     the loss of an object or any other kind of damage….”
                                                                     Specific definitions: Risk:
                                                                       Possibility of damage likely to impact exposed elements,
                                                                     depending on their characteristics, situation, conditions, and
                                                                     spatiotemporal context; consequences and causes are not alway
                                                                       Combined probability that the occurrence of a situation in a
                                                                     specific time and place will be sufficiently intense to produce
                                                                     damage owing to the intensity of the event and the fragility of
                                                                     the exposed elements, namely, the economy, human life, and th

Risk management                                                     Systematic process for developing administrative and
                                                                    organizational decisions, as well as operational capacities and
                                                                    the overall application of policies and strategies to reduce the
                                                                    impact of natural hazards and environmental degradation linked
                                                                    to man-made activities. This includes the application of the
                                                                    findings of scientific research, observation, and monitoring of
                                                                    natural processes that pose hazards, as well as
structural and non-structural measures, with a view to avoiding (preventing) or limiting (mitigating or preparing for) the adverse
effects of hazards. When a country wishes to protect its population and assets, may establish a risk management policy based upon
the following basic strategies, which incorporate ways to understand the causes, consequences and remedies in distinct dimensions
• Risk identification: Incorporates individual and collective understanding and perceptions, social representations and
objective evaluations (i.e. scientific, engineering, statistical) of the causes and consequences of risk: hazards (type, intensity,
distance, recurrence); vulnerability (degrees of exposure and fragility, socio-economic value of possible losses, potential alteration
to the human quality of life -deaths, injuries, trauma, forceful displacements-, and the impact to the environment and natural assets
services and functions
• Risk reduction: Includes all ex-ante measures to reduce the physical impact of adverse natural events. Also known as
―prevention and mitigation‖, it means intervention against the loss generating factors, particularly the vulnerability, since from
certain levels of intensity and beyond, it is not possible to re-duce the natural hazards
• Risk financing, transfer: The ensemble of ex-ante measures aimed at improving the capacity and resilience to cope with
the financial consequences of disasters through: reserve funds, contingent credit and insurance. It requires ex-ante assessment of ris
in economic terms. This is often done using complex risk models focusing at reducing the impact of natural hazards. To this effect,
is required to establish ex-ante the thresholds for retention/transfer of risk based upon definitions of ―accepted‖ vs. ―acceptable‖
risk. The next step is to build probabilistic scenarios, models and metrics to estimate losses: i) Probable Maximum Loss (PML), ii)
Average Annual Loss (AAL) corresponding to the expected loss averaged on a yearly basis, and iii) Loss Exceedance Curves (LEC
Glossary Acronyms and other Terminology Translation aids               7/3/2012 8:26:05 PM Page 33

These metrics are determined for various return periods (e.g. 50, 100, 250, 500 years). Comparative scenarios can also be performe
to demonstrate the effects of intervention versus non-intervention over damage and losses and replacement costs
• Emergency and disaster management: Actions, defined ex-ante, to be performed when risk is materialised; they
must be as efficient and effective as possible to reintegrate the quality of life of the population affected and avoid rebuilding
vulnerability by incorporating preparedness, alert-alarm systems, response, rehabilitation (immediate) and reconstruction (mediate
long term)

Risk management capacity                                            Combination of all available forces and resources within a
                                                                    community, society, or organization that can mitigate the level
                                                                    risk or the effects of a disaster. This also includes the
                                                                    development of institutional, financial, policy-related, and othe
                                                                    resources, such as technology at different levels and in differen
                                                                    sectors of the society.

       RJNA Rapid Joint Needs Assessment
       R-JOC Regional Joint Operations Centers
       RMB Renminbi
       RPCA Food Crisis Prevention Network
       RR Rapid Response
       RSS Really Simple Syndication
       RTF … Rich Text Format
       RUIF Ready-to-use infant formula
       RUTF Ready to Use Therapeutic Food
       RWH Rainwater Harvest Study

       SAB Stand-by-Agreements
       SAG Strategic Advisory Group
       SAI Supreme Audit Institutions
       SAJ-Veye-Jo Solidarity among Youth
       SAM Severe Acute Malnutrition

    Satisfaction can be measured as a function of:

             e. Dignity, privacy, and suitability
             f. User views being properly taken into account
Glossary Acronyms and other Terminology Translation aids               7/3/2012 8:26:05 PM Page 34

            g.   Outcomes of interventions met or exceeded expectations
            h.   Complaints mechanism is in place

      SC Save the Children (Alliance)
      SCs Stabilization Centers
      SDA Structural Damage Assessment
      Secretariat = the Geneva-based Secretariat of the International Federation of Red Cross & Red Crescent
       Societies, and its regional Zones
      SGB Secretary-General's Bulletin
      SEIPH Secretary of State for the Integration of Persons with Disabilities
      SEL Service d’Entraide et de Liaison (see for
      SESPAS Dominican Ministry of Health
      SFP Engineers without Borders – San Francisco Professionals
      SGST Small Group Scenario Trainer
           o SGST is a web-based scenario role-play for multi-player,       small group
                 teams that allows participants to join in remotely. The objective is to
                 stimulate critical thinking, problem solving and learning on contingency

            o    When we see the word “Shelter” in UN NGO Gov documents about Haiti, it usually
                 means “Emergency Shelter” from rains, such as tents tarps etc. ideally on land not at
                 high risk of flooding or mudslides or landslides.
            o    When we see OTHER folks using the word “Shelter”, they usually mean “Housing” that
                 meets Building Standards that includes protection from Hurricanes, Earthquakes, nite
                 rapes, surprise evictions, and other hazards that are normal reasonable expectations for
                 the people of Haiti.

This strategy proposes five basic options for the affected population:
           1. Return to a safe home, after evaluation by trained engineers
           2. Return to a safe plot, after debris has been removed from the site
           3. Stay with a host family
           4. Stay in a current spontaneous settlement, if conditions at the site can be
               made to meet minimum standards in the medium term
           5. For those who do not have another option, move to a temporary
               relocation site planned by the Government

      SIF Social Investment Fund
      SIL Summer Institute of Linguistics (see for
Glossary Acronyms and other Terminology Translation aids               7/3/2012 8:26:05 PM Page 35

          SLL Surviving Limb Loss
          SMCRS Service Métropolitainde Collecte de Résidus Solides (Haiti municipal
           solid waste management authority)
          SMS Short Message Service
          SOFA Solidarite Fanm Ayisyèn (National NGO for Women)
          SOFA Solidarity with Haitian Women
          SOUTHCOM U.S. Southern (military) Command

SPHERE Project,english/               has two core
                  first, that all possible steps should be taken to alleviate human suffering
                   arising out of calamity and conflict, and
                  second, that those affected by disaster have a right to life with dignity
                   and therefore a right to assistance.

          SPNS Strategic Plan for National Salvation
          SR = Santo Domingo, capital of Dominican Republic
          SRCS Sudanese Red Crescent Society
          SRSG Special Representative of the Secretary-General

          SSA Special Service Agreement
          START Stabilization and Reconstruction Task Force
          STC = Save the Children
          STD Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Subsistence                                                        The capacities and assets (including material and social
                                                                   resources) as well as activities necessary for subsistence
                                                                   purposes. Subsistence is sustainable when, in the face of
                                                                   pressures and shocks, capacity and assets can be preserved in
                                                                   both the present and future, and the natural resource base or
                                                                   financial means that support individuals/families are not
                                                                   undermined. This includes the means to support oneself as wel
                                                                   as resources derived from wealth or reserves that can be tapped
                                                                   should the need arise. This term refers to the resources needed
                                                                   support a family or a group, their source of income, their
                                                                   resources for survival (the minimum needed for subsistence
                                                                   purposes), and resources to obtain socially acceptable facilities
                                                                   to live ―decently.‖ In post-conflict or post-disaster situations,
                                                                   restoration of employment and subsistence means are
                                                                   government priorities in an emergency recovery context and ar
                                                                   therefore part and parcel of the emergency response to lessen th
                                                                   dependence of victims on foreign aid.
Glossary Acronyms and other Terminology Translation aids               7/3/2012 8:26:05 PM Page 36

       T-Shelter Transitional Shelter (quake and cyclone proof shelter in Haiti for people displaced by
        last such disaster)
       TdH Terre des Hommes (I-NGO)
       TDRA Transitional Darfur Regional Authority
       TLAs Three Letter Abbreviations (not wanted in an Acronym-free Zone)
       TLS Temporary Learning Spaces
       TOR Terms of Reference
       TOT terms of trade

Transitional settlement – settlement and shelter resulting from conflict and natural disasters,
ranging from emergency response to durable solutions.

       TRN Tsunami Recovery Network
       TSs Transitional Shelters
       TWG Technical Working Groups
       U5 Under 5 years old
       U5MR Under-five Mortality Rate
       UDMO departmental public order unit (of HNP)
       UK United Kingdom (Britain)
       UMCOR United Methodist Committee on Relief
       UN United Nations
       UNAIDS Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS - Programme Acceleration Funds
       UNAMID UN–AU Mission in Darfur
       UNCDF United Nations Capital Development Fund
       UNCHR United Nations Commission on Human Rights
       UNCRD United Nations Centre for Regional Development
       UNCRI United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute
       UN-CSW United Nations Commission on the Status of Women
       UNCT United Nations Country Team
       UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
       UNDAW Division for the Advancement of Women
       UNDMTP United Nations Disaster Management Training Programme
       UNDP United Nations Development Programme
       UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
       UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, HQ Paris
       UNESD United Nations Economic and Social Development
Glossary Acronyms and other Terminology Translation aids       7/3/2012 8:26:05 PM Page 37

      UNFPA United Nations Population Fund

      UNGA United Nations General Assembly
      UN-HABITAT United Nations Human Settlements Programme
      UNHC UN High Commissioner
      UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
      UNHRC United Nations Human Rights Council
      UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund

      UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization HQ Vienna Austria
      UNIFEM United Nations Development Fund for Women
      UNISDR = UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction.
      UNITAR United Nations Institute for Training and Research
      UNMIH United Nations Mission in Haiti
      UNMOVIC United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission
      UNO United Nations Organization
      UNODOC UN Office on Drugs and Crime
      UNOH (Not UN) Union of Haitian Educators
      UNOPS United Nations Office for Project Service
      UNPOL United Nations Police
      UNRISD United Nations Research Institute for Social Development
      UNSC UN Security Council

      UNSOG United Nations Special Operations Group
      UNU United Nations University
      UNV United Nations Volunteers
      USA = United States of America
      USAID United States Agency for International Development
      USAR Urban Search and Rescue
      USD = US Dollars
      USIP US Institute for Peace ����
      UTC = Unit    for the treatment of Cholera: A health center, mobile
       clinic or hospital that has built a space to treat cholera patients, or in a tent or ente
       or in a room of the structure. UTC is capable of making oral and intravenous
       rehydration. Capacity 2-20 beds. Opening: at least 12 hours. Staff physician,
       infimières, sanitation officer, health worker.
      UTX = Unit for treatment of Cholera: a health center, mobile clinic or
       hospital alone which has built a space to be able treat patients cholera, or in a tent
       or ente or in a house of the structure. THE UTC is able to make oral rehydration
       and intravenous use. Capacity 2-20 beds. Opening: at least during 12 hours. Staff :
       doctor, nurses, agent sanitation, health worker����������������������
Glossary Acronyms and other Terminology Translation aids           7/3/2012 8:26:05 PM Page 38

       VEDEK Vive Espoir pour le Developpement de Cap-rouge

Volunteers, Guidance from US CDC for Relief Workers and Others Traveling to Haiti for
Earthquake Response.

       VOSOCC Virtual On-Site Operations Coordination Center
       VRQ Very Rapid Qualitative Approach
       VSLA Village Savings and Loan Associations
       VSN Volontaires de la Sécurité Nationale

Vulnerability – The extent to which a community, structure, service or geographic area is
likely to be damaged or disrupted by the impact of a particular hazard.

Vulnerability                                                  Probability, based on the intensity at the time the hazard
                                                               materializes, that it could cause damage to property, services,
                                                               and persons, depending on the levels of exposure and fragility.
                                                               impacts the quality of human life (deaths, injured persons,
                                                               victims, displaced persons, psychosocial trauma, etc.),
                                                               socioeconomic value, and the environment.

       WASH Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

Water catchment – An area, often a combination of mountain ranges and basins, that
‘catches’ rainfall or snow. Water from rain or snowmelt is absorbed into the soil and
stored in underground reservoirs, or is fed into a river, aquifer, or lake.

Water vulnerabilities in Haiti.
5. Max Vulnerability:

- Localities supplied from wells and shallow located in areas of high population density.
- Localities with the water table near the surface and high population density.
- Places that draw water directly superficial (gullies, lakes, rivers ...) in an area of high
population density or downstream of a high density area population.

4. High vulnerability:

- Localities supplied from shallow wells in an area of low population concentration.
- Localities supplied from surface water in an area of low population density.
- Localities fed from a source either captured or not captured in an with a protected area
very vulnerable.

3. Average Vulnerability:
Glossary Acronyms and other Terminology Translation aids         7/3/2012 8:26:05 PM Page 39

- Localities fed from a source uncaptured drains a deep aquifer.

2. Low vulnerability:

- Localities supplied from wells located in confined aquifer (deep and with an
impermeable layer which separates the saturated zone of the non-saturated).
- Localities fed from a source that captured drains a confined aquifer.

1. Very Low Vulnerability:

- Localities fed from a catchment area.

       WFP World Food Programme, HQ in Rome Italy
       WG Working Group
     WHO World Health Organisation
       WHO/PAHO World Health Organisation/Pan American Health Organisation


            i.   Members of ethnic or socio-economic minorities
            j.   Landless
            k.   Computer records which should be part of a larger package of related
                 information, but some of it has gone missing … widows are the pieces of
                 info left over, without the whole story available.

       WINNER The Watershed Initiative For National Natural Environmental Resources
       WORD … Al’s docs in Microsoft Office Word 2003, unless otherwise stated

World Heritage Site – A designated and protected site of great cultural significance or a
geographic area of outstanding universal value.

       WP Work Package
       WP Word Processing
       WRC Women’s Refugee Committee
       WT Water Trucking
       WTO World Trade Organization

       XL … Al Mac abbreviation for Microsoft Excel 2003
Glossary Acronyms and other Terminology Translation aids         7/3/2012 8:26:05 PM Page 40

       YCSD Young Child Survival and Development
       Zanmi Lasante Partners in Health

Copies of this collection have been shared with: many connections via e-mail, Facebook
Notes, Haiti Rewired Definitions, Yahoo Group Haiti Disaster Recovery Research, early
editions on Linked In Group: Haiti Earthquake Disaster Relief.

April 6 launched with 46 Count above
April 29 = 230 Acronyms estimated into 7 pages
May 2 started page 10 (mainly UN break downs added)
May 6 started page 11 (mainly Donor Diversity research)
May 8 now 16 pages (mainly Environmental Glossary additions)
May 28 starts page 25 (mainly Financial Risk perspectives)
Al has been randomly sharing with new contacts.
June up to page 27 (misc. UN cluster stuff)
July 13 it is just over 30 pages … input slowed down prior to the 6 month reports

Al Mac has also been maintaining some other reference documents to support needs of
various people seeking to help Haiti, such as:
     Al's Haitian Documents Directory Word (500+ references downloaded so far)
     Glossary of Housing Challenges in Haiti
     Haiti Cholera Epidemic
     Haiti Election 2010 information (Al stopped following closely shortly before Cholera
        Epidemic exploded)
       Haiti Transitional Housing Projects Word (Contact info on outfits installing it &
        de-mystify Haiti Land Ownership complications)
       Situation Report 2010 May 27 Word (Al Mac version of Haiti reality)
       UN Documents Navigation Guide

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