Social Studies Curriculum Guide - DOC by 0bzcVx

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									             Social Studies Curriculum Guide




                       Grades 1 – 8




                        Part Two:

           Effective Social Studies Instruction
     Social Studies and Developing Student Literacy
          Lesson Plan Template/Sample Lesson
         Recommended Resources for Teachers
VSC Topic Lines, Indicators, and Objectives, by Grade Level
                                Effective Social Studies Instruction

The curriculum standards and sample tasks presented in this document are designed to
assure excellence in social studies instruction in Baltimore City Public Schools. All
efforts that drove completion of the document were based upon the National Council for
the Social Studies official position statement, “A Vision of Powerful Teaching and
Learning in the Social Studies: Building Social Understanding and Civic Efficacy,”
published in the September, 1993 issue of Social Education, as well as the NCSS
Curriculum Standards for Social Studies.

NCSS identifies and describes five principles of teaching and learning that must form the
basis for all social studies instruction in grades K through 12.1 Those principles are:

      1.   Social studies teaching and learning are powerful when they are meaningful;
      2.   Social studies teaching and learning are powerful when they are integrative;
      3.   Social studies teaching and learning are powerful when they are value-based;
      4.   Social studies teaching and learning are powerful when they are challenging; and
      5.   Social studies teaching and learning are powerful when they are active.

Effective social studies instruction is based upon effective planning. Below is a checklist
teachers can use when designing social studies lessons. In an exemplary lesson, EACH
of the questions below can be answered in the affirmative:

      1. Is the lesson primarily pupil centered so that the students have been given
          responsibility for their own learning?
      2. Has the teacher planned ways to assess learning AS it is taking place?
      3. Have expectations been communicated to the students BEFORE they begin
          working?
      4. Does the lesson develop skills that are unique to social studies, such as map
          reading, primary source interpretation, political cartoon analysis, historical
          investigation, etc. (See VSC Standard #6)
      5. Has the lesson been planned according to specific MSDE content and skills
          standards?
      6. Does the lesson require students to activate higher level thinking skills?
      7. Does the lesson recognize HOW students learn, by catering to multiple
          intelligences, and by containing cross curricular reading and writing strategies?
      8. Is the content of the lesson placed in CONTEXT with material that is meaningful
          to the students?
      9. Does the lesson present the students with open ended questions that can be
          discussed and debated?
      10. Does the classroom environment reflect the students’ stake in their own learning?




1
    From NCSS Curriculum Standards for Social Studies, pp. 11-12
             Social Studies and the Development of Student Literacy Skills

A.      Designing a Reading Mini-Lesson for Social Studies, Grades 3-8

Before diving into any social studies informational text, consider spending ten minutes or
more explicitly instructing students in one of the strategies to support student reading. It
also is best practice for teachers to incorporate one or more of these strategies during the
lesson, such as teacher think aloud. When crafting your reading mini-lesson, consider the
anatomy of how the mini-lesson can fit with your social studies objectives.

Explicit Teaching:
Take a few minutes to explicitly teach an informational reading objective prior to
releasing students to read a text. Introduce the strategy with a process chart. This can be
created prior to the lesson or with students, depending on student ability level or
objective difficulty. The process chart can then be hung in the classroom and referred to
throughout the year and prior to the Maryland School Assessment.

Questions to ask yourself:
    Why this particular lesson now?
    What lesson will you teach next?
    How does this explicitly connect to the VSC?
    How are you using the vocabulary from the VSC? How are you helping students
       to understand this vocabulary?
    Why did you select this piece of text? Does the strategy fit the text?

Shared Reading/Guided Practice:
This is the section of the lesson when students should all have their eyes on the text as the
teacher leads them in practicing the strategy. (Students can either have their own copy or
it can be on the overhead.) The teacher invites students to practice with the strategy and
correct misconceptions. Only the teacher should read the text (no round robin or other
student-reading strategies.) Teachers should refer back to their process chart.

     Questions to ask yourself:
      How are you equalizing participation?
      How do you know if students understand at this stage in the activity?
      How did you select your text for student practice? Does it fit with the objective
        you are teaching?
      What graphic organizer are you using?

Independent Practice:
This is the opportunity for students to practice independently with the skill. Although the
Social Studies standard is your primary objective, provide an opportunity for students to
practice the reading skill in tandem with the content skill using a graphic organizer. Be
prepared to differentiate the reading material based on your individual students reading
abilities. As students read independently, circulate and conference with students on the
content and the reading skill.

     Questions to ask yourself:
      How do you approach your conferences with students?
      How are you making sure that all students are reading appropriate texts?
      What setbacks are you experiencing?

Sharing
As a summary at the end of the lesson, be sure to go back and debrief not only the desired
content, but the informational reading skill. Use an exit ticket or simply refer back to the
process chart to cement the learning for the day.


B.      Ideas for Effective Informational Reading Mini-Lessons, Grades 3-8

This guide highlights the VSC informational reading standards that are particularly
relevant to Social Studies instruction. Each standard is taken directly from the VSC’s
PreK-8 Reading Standards.

1. Primary vs. Secondary Sources

Relevant VSC Informational Reading Objectives:
3/4/5/6.2.A.1.a:    Read, use, and identify the characteristics of nonfiction materials
                    to gain information and content knowledge

7/8.2.A.1.a.:          Read, use, and identify the characteristics of primary and
                       secondary sources of academic information

Suggestions for Instruction:
                    Consider teaching the acronym SOAP to help students to initially
                       enter into the primary text.
                      S: Source type (letter, government document, artifact, etc.)
                      O: Occasion: What historical events prompted the creation of the
                                      artifact?
                      A: Audience: Who was the artifact intended for?
                      P: Purpose: What was the purpose?
                    Teach the differences between the sources and how historians use
                       them.
2. How do text features contribute to the main idea?

Relevant VSC Informational Reading Indicators:
3/4/5/6.2.A.2:      Identify and use text features to facilitate understanding of
                    informational texts

7/8.2.A.2:             Analyze text features to facilitate and extend understanding of
                       informational texts

Examples of text features:

Print Features    Graphic Aids          Informational Aids          Organizational Aids
Large bold print  Illustrations         Introductions and           Titles, chapter titles,
Font size/type    Photographs           overviews                   and subtitles
Colored print     Drawings              Materials lists             Headings,
Italics           Sketches              Timelines                   subheadings
Quotation marks   Cartoons              Captions/Labels             Tables of contents
Underlining       Maps (key, scale, Glossed words                   Numbered steps
                  legend)               Numbered steps              Glossaries
                  Graphs                Bulleted lists              Indices
                  Charts/tables         Footnoted words             Transition words
                  Diagrams              Pronunciation key
                  Illustrations         Transition words
                  Photographs           End notes
                  Drawings              Works cited
                  Sketches
                  Cartoons
                  Maps (key, scale,
                  legend)
                  Graphs
                  Charts/tables
                  Diagrams
→Identify and explain the contributions of text features to supporting the main idea of
the text

Suggestions for instruction:
        Point out these features and aids whenever possible.
        Use the specified vocabulary of the standards.
        Connect how these features and aids enhance meaning.
              o Explain why the author chose to include this map (diagram,
                   illustration, photograph, etc.)
              o Describe how the chapter title fits with the main idea.
              o Explain how the words in italics are important for understanding the
                   main idea
3. How does the author’s choice of organizational pattern reinforce the text’s main
message?

Relevant VSC Informational Reading Indicators:
3/4/5/6.2.A.3:      Develop knowledge of organizational structure of informational
                    text to understand what is read

7/8.2.A.3:            Apply knowledge of organizational patterns of informational text
                      to facilitate understanding and analysis

Text Pattern                  Definition                Key Words
Sequential and                Present ideas or events inFirst, second, before, after,
Chronological Order           the order that they happenfinally, then/next, earlier,
                                                        later, last
Cause/Effect                 Provide explanations or    Because, since, thus, so
                             reasons for phenomena      that, if…then, therefore,
                                                        nevertheless, due to, this led
                                                        to, as a result, then…so, for
                                                        this reason, on account of,
                                                        consequently
Problem and Solution         Identify problems and pose Propose, conclude, a
                             solutions                  solution, the problem or the
                                                        question, research shows,
                                                        the evidence is, a reason for
Description                  Use language to help the   Descriptive details—words
                             reader form images or      like: on, over, beyond,
                             visualize processes        within
                                                        Descriptive adjectives
Similarities and Differences Discuss two ideas, events, While, yet/but, rather, most,
                             or phenomena, showing      either, like and unlike,
                             how they are similar and   same/as opposed to, as well
                             different                  as, likewise, on the other
                                                        hand, although, the same,
                                                        similarly, opposes
From Guiding Readers and Writers: Grades 3-6, Fountas and Pinnell.

Suggestions for Instruction:
    Have the students identify the organizational pattern of the text.
    Engage the students in evaluating if the organizational pattern is effective in
       presenting the information.
    Discuss with students why the author selected to arrange the text in this
       organizational pattern.
    Have the students explain how the organizational pattern helps to clarify the main
       ideas presented.
    See if students can analyze shifts in organizational patterns and why the author
       selects to shift patterns.
4. What is the author’s purpose in writing this text? Who is meant to read this text?

Relevant VSC Informational Reading Objectives:
3/4/5/6/7.2.A.4.a:  Identify and explain the author’s/text’s purpose and intended
                    audience

8.2.A.4.a.:           Analyze the author’s/text’s purpose and intended audience.

Suggestions for Instruction:
       Have Students Complete a Process Chart
               Read the text and ask yourself, “Is the author trying to inform,
                   persuade or explain?”
               Identify words or phrases that support your thinking.
               What is the author trying to inform you about, persuade you to do or
                   explain how to do something?

How do words or phrases from the text show the author’s perspective?

Relevant VSC Informational Reading Objectives:
3/4/5/6.2.A.4.b:    Identify and explain the author’s opinion

7.2.A.4.b:            Identify and explain the author’s argument, viewpoint, or
                      perspective

8.2.A.4.b:            Analyze the author’s argument, viewpoint, or perspective

5. How do you determine the main idea of the text?

Relevant VSC Informational Reading Objectives:

3/4/5/6/78.2.A.4.c:   State and support main ideas and messages

6. How do you effectively summarize a text?

Relevant VSC Informational Reading Objectives:

3/4/5/6/7/8.2.A.4.d.: Summarize or paraphrase

Suggestions for Instruction:
        Teach the difference between summarizing the most important facts or
          information and simply re-telling the story.
        Help students to differentiate between relevant and irrelevant information to
          include in the summary.
7. What information is not essential to the main idea?

Relevant VSC Informational Reading Objectives:
3/4/5/6/78.2.A.4.e: Identify and explain information not related to the main idea

8. How do the main ideas or author’s argument in these two (or more texts) relate to
each other?

Relevant VSC Informational Reading Objectives:
3/4/5.2.A.4.f: Identify and explain relationships between and among ideas

6/7.2.A.4.f:     Explain relationships between and among ideas

8.2.A.4.f:       Analyze relationships between and among ideas

9. How can you synthesize the main idea or author’s message in these texts?

Relevant VSC Informational Reading Objectives:
3/4/5.2.A.4.g       Draw conclusions and inferences to make generalizations and
                    predictions from text

6/7/8.2.A.4.g:          Synthesize ideas from text

10. How might someone use the information or arguments in this text?

Relevant VSC Informational Reading Objectives:
3/4/5/6/7.2.A.4.h:  Distinguish between a fact and an opinion

8.2.A.4.h:              Explain the implications of the text or how someone might use the
                        text

11. How does the information or message in this text connect with other ideas that you
have read about or experienced?

Relevant VSC Informational Reading Objectives:
3/4/5/6/7.2.A.4.j:  Connect the text to prior knowledge or experience

8.2.A.4.i:              Connect the text to prior knowledge or experience
12. How does the author use words and phrases to communicate his/her opinion?

Relevant VSC Informational Reading Indicators:
3/4/5.2.A.5:        Identify and explain the author’s use of language

6/7/8.3.A.5:          Analyze purposeful use of language

Suggestions for Instruction:
    Have the students consider the repetition of words or phrases, word choice, and
       the overall author’s style (informational, persuasive, formal, informal, etc.)

13. Did the author achieve his/her purpose in writing this text?

Relevant VSC Informational Reading Objectives:
3/4/5/6.2.A.6.a:    Explain whether the text fulfills the reading purpose

8.2.A.6.a.:           Analyze the extent to which the text or texts fulfill the reading
                      purpose

14. How does the author’s choice in text structure help us understand the purpose of
the text?

Relevant VSC Informational Reading Objectives:
3/4/5.2.A.6.b:      Identify and explain additions or changes to format or features that
                    would make the text easier to understand

6/7/8.2.A.6.b:        Analyze the extent to which the structure and features of the text
                      clarify the purpose and the information

15. How reliable is this text? How can we be sure?

Relevant VSC Informational Reading Objectives:
3/4/5.2.A.6.c:      Identify and explain what makes the text a reliable source of
                    information

6/7/8.2.A.6.c:        Analyze the text and its information for reliability
16. Does this text show the author’s argument to be biased or fairly represented?

Relevant VSC Informational Reading Objectives:
3/4.2.A.6.d: Explain whether or not the author’s opinion is presented fairly

5/6.A.6.d:     Determine and explain whether or not the author’s opinion is presented
               fairly

7/8.2.A.6.d:   Analyze the author’s argument or position for clarity and/or bias

Suggestions for Instruction:
    Discuss with students connections between the main idea and the reader’s
       understanding
    Have students evaluate the text for evidence of bias in the author’s argument, or
       treatment of opposing views
    Consider with the students the contribution of the text as a fair representation of
       the topic

17. How could we determine what other information would help to clarify or
strengthen the author’s argument?

Relevant VSC Objectives:
3/4/5/6.2.A.6.e:     Identify and explain information not included in the text

7/8.2.A.6.e:          Analyze additional information that would clarify or strengthen the
                      author’s argument or viewpoint

18. How effective were the strategies the author used in persuading you to his/her
point of view?

Relevant VSC Objectives:
3/4/5/6.2.A.6.f:     Identify and explain words and other techniques that affect the
                     reader’s feelings

7/8.2.A.6.f:          Analyze the effectiveness of persuasive techniques to sway the
                      reader to a particular point of view

Suggestions for Instruction:
    Have the students consider the use of hyperbole, rhetorical questions, repetition
       and other literary persuasive literary devices.
18. How does the author’s style affect the main message? (Grade 8 only)

Relevant VSC Informational Reading Objectives:
8.2.A.7.g.:  Analyze the effect of elements of style on meaning

Suggestions for Instruction:
    Consider with the students formal versus informal language and its effect on
       meaning
    Have the class identify varied sentence structure and explain its effect on meaning
    Examine sentences versus non-sentences and discuss their effect on meaning
    Have students describe the contribution of style to meaning of text
                                 Lesson Plan Template

Lesson Designer:
Course/Grade:
Unit:
Lesson:
Date:

Outcomes: At the end of this lesson, students will be able to:


VSC Objectives Alignment (Includes both content AND skills and processes
objectives):


Materials Needed:


Procedure (Includes motivation, guided practice, independent activity, wrap-up):




Homework Assignment/Assessment:


Differentiation/Modifications


In the next lesson:
                                  Sample Lesson Plan

Lesson Designer: Kevin Jenkins Kjenkins@bcps.k12.md.us
Course: Grade 8 Social Studies
Unit: V. The Civil War
Lesson: Historical Investigation: Was Abraham Lincoln “The Great Liberator?”

Outcomes: After completing this lesson, the students will be able to:
1. analyze primary source documents to construct and defend a thesis statement based
   on a focus question
2. discuss Abraham Lincoln’s role in the emancipation of slaves in the United States

Content Standards:
5. History
6. Social Studies Skills and Processes

Voluntary State Curriculum Objectives:
-8.5.C.7.a Identify the goals, resources, and strategies of the North and South
-8.5.C.7.c Describe the views and lives of leaders and soldiers on both sides of the war,
including black soldiers and regiments
-8.6.A.2.c Set a purpose for reading the text
-8.6.B.3 Use formal writing to persuade
-8.6.F.1.c Analyze a document to determine point of view
-8.6.F.2.a Compare information from a variety of sources

Materials needed: videotape of Ken Burns’s “The Civil War” television series, part IX;
primary source packets, primary source analysis sheets, overhead, transparencies

In preparing for this lesson, the teacher must: acquire Ken Burns’s video, assemble
conflicting primary sources aligned with focus question, prepare document analysis
forms, prepare writing prompt

Procedure:

   1. The teacher will greet the students at the door and closely monitor entry into the
      room.
   2. Motivation. The teacher will show a brief excerpt from Ken Burns’s “The Civil
      War” series documenting the assassination of Abraham Lincoln and its aftermath.
   3. The teacher will announce that today, the class will conduct an investigation to
      consider Abraham Lincoln’s role in freeing the slaves. The focus question, “Was
      Abraham Lincoln the Great Liberator?” will be introduced and written on the
      blackboard.
   4. The students will be divided into groups of four and primary source packets will
      be distributed. Each cooperative group will read and ascertain the meaning of
      each source from the packet. In doing so, they will complete the first two
      columns of the Primary Source Analysis Sheet.
   5. When preliminary analysis of the sources is completed, the students will
      INDIVIDUALLY reexamine each of the sources to draw conclusions about the
      focus question and respond to the third column of the Primary Source Analysis
      Sheet.
   6. In full class discussion, the students will share conclusions about the individual
      sources as they relate to the focus question. The teacher will record these
      responses on a transparency copy of the Primary Source analysis sheet. When
      each source has been discussed, the teacher will ask the students to share and
      defend some preliminary conclusions regarding the focus question.
   7. Assessment. The teacher will distribute the writing prompt, which requires the
      students to write appreciations of Lincoln on the occasion of the anniversary of
      his death. Each appreciation will require students to assess Lincoln’s role as the
      Great Liberator.

Homework Assignment: The students will complete writing planning sheets in which
they will write their own thesis statements and support these statements with bulleted lists
of supporting details.

Differentiation/Modifications:
   1. Alter primary source documents and/or the text of the documents to make them
       easier for students to read and understand.
   2. Provide students with excerpts of primary source documents.
   3. Provide students with visual primary source documents and minimize print.
   4. Provide students with one or a few documents at a time for analysis.

In the next lesson: The students will assess the role of other events and individuals in
bringing about the abolition of slavery.
                         Recommended Resources for Teachers

Teaching and Learning Social Studies
Curriculum Standards for Social Studies: Expectations of Excellence, National Council
for the Social Studies. Order form available at www.ncss.org.

“A Vision of Powerful Teaching and Learning in the Social Studies: Building Social
Understanding and Civic Efficacy,” prepared by NCSS Task Force on Standards for
Teaching and Learning Social Studies. Available in the Curriculum Standards
document, and in the September, 1993 issue of Social Education

“Social Studies in the Middle School: A Report of the Task Force on Social Studies in
the Middle School,” National Council for the Social Studies, 1991

50 Social Studies Strategies for K-8 Classrooms, by Kathryn Obenchain and Ronald
Morris, available online at www.amazon.com

Passport to Learning: Teaching Social Studies to ESL Students, by Barbara C. Cruz,
Joyce W. Nutta, Jason O’Brien, Carine M. Feyton and Jane M. Govoni. NCSS Bulletin
on teaching social studies to ESOL students, order form available online at www.ncss.org

Arts & Humanities in the Social Studies, by Douglas Selwyn. 15 lesson plans for
teaching social studies concepts through the arts

Social Studies and Literacy
Guiding Readers and Writers: Grades 3-6, by Irene C. Fountas and Gay Su Pinnell,
available online at www.amazon.com Contains extensive cross curricular reading and
writing strategies

Children’s Literature in Social Studies: Teaching to the Standards, by DeAn M. Krey.
Guide to teaching social studies concepts through children’s literature, order form
available online at www.ncss.org

Enhancing Social Studies Through Literacy Strategies, by Judith L. Irvin, John
Lunstrum, Carol Lynch-Brown, Mary Friend Shepard, NCSS Bulletin with suggestions
for enhancing literacy skills with social studies materials, order form available at
www.ncss.org

Linking Literature with Life: The NCSS Standards and Children’s Literature in the
Middle Grades, by Alexa Sandmann and John F. Ahern. Recommends children’s
literature suitable for the middle grades that illustrates social studies concepts, order form
available at www.ncss.org
Political Science
National Standards for Civics and Government, developed by the Center for Civic
Education, order forms available at www.civiced.org, and at www.ncss.org.

C is for Citizenship: Children’s Literature and Civic Understanding, by Laurel R.
Singleton. Contains an overview of techniques for teaching citizenship through
children’s literature and guides to 20 children’s books. Order form available at
www.ncss.org

Peoples of the Nations and World
Teaching About Native Americans, by Karen D. Harvey, Lisa D. Harjo, and Jane K.
Jackson, NCSS Bulletin that contains lesson plans, instructional suggestions, and content
for teaching about Native Americans. Order form available at www.ncss.org.

Tora No Maki: Lessons for Teaching About Contemporary Japan, by NCSS.
Sourcebook for case studies illustrating concepts from BCPSS grade 7 curriculum in
particular. Order form available at www.ncss.org

Teaching About China CD-ROMs and Teaching Units for teaching about three periods
in Chinese history (960 – 1279 – grade 6; 1368 – 1664 – grade 6; and 1839 – 1989).
Order form available at www.ncss.org

History
National Standards for History, developed by the National Center for History in the
Schools, order form available at www.ncss.org

In Search of America’s Past: Learning to Read History in Elementary School, by Bruce
Van Sledright, available at www.amazon.com, and to participants in the Teaching
American History in Baltimore City grant. Excellent resource for history teachers at all
levels

“What Does it Mean to Think Historically. . . and How Do You Teach It?” by Bruce Van
Sledright, available in the April 2004 issue of Social Education. A scholarly overview of
thinking skills that should be developed in K-12 history classrooms

A Link to the Past: Engaging Students in the Study of History, by Michael Yell,
Geoffrey Schueman, and Keith Reynolds. NCSS Bulletin that contains many
suggestions for teaching history in K – 12 classrooms, order form available at
www.ncss.org

Bring History Alive! A Sourcebook for Teaching U.S. History and Bring History Alive! A
Sourcebook for Teaching World History, from the National Center for History in the
Schools, provides extensive suggestions for teaching U.S. and World History. Order
form available online at www.ncss.org
An Annotated Bibliography of Historical Fiction for the Social Studies, by Fran
Silverbank. Lists 1000 + books to enhance instruction of specific periods in history,
available at www.ncss.org

Homespun: Teaching Local History in Grades 6-12, by Robert L. Stevens. Presents
strategies for engaging students’ interest through local history, order form available at
www.ncss.org

Mysteries of Antiquity: Lessons to Engage Middle School Students in Ancient/Medieval
History, by Max W. Fischer. 13 lessons on topics aligned to BCPSS grade 6 units. Order
form available at www.ncss.org

Economics
Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics, developed by the National Council
on Economic Education, order form available at www.ncss.org

Economics Explained, by Robert Heilbroner and Lester Thurow, available at
www.amazon.com. Outstanding introductory overview of basic economic concepts.

Geography
Geography for Life: National Geography Standards, published by the Geography
Education Standards Project, order form available at www.ncss.org

Geography Skills Activities, by Barbara Gregorich. Guide to teaching about cultural and
physical regions of the earth. Includes maps, background information, classroom
activities. Order form available at www.ncss.org

Guns, Germs, and Steel, by Jared Diamond, available online and at most bookstores.
This bestseller connects concepts from geography to explain major developments from
world history, especially the dominance of western civilization
           VSC Indicators and Instructional Objectives for Social Studies
                                   First Grade

1.1    Political Science

1.1.A The Foundations and Function of Government

1.1A.1 Explain the importance of rules

       1.1A.1.a Explain how rules promote fairness in the school and community

       1.1A.1.b Identify leadership positions in the school and explain their role in
                keeping students safe and maintaining order

1.1A.2 Identify symbols and practices associated with the United States of America

       1.1A.2.a Describe how actions, such as pledging allegiance to the American flag
                and singing songs, such as the national anthem and “America”
                demonstrate patriotism

1.1B   Individual and Group Participation in the Political System

1.1B.1 Identify and describe people important to the American Political System

       1.1B.1a   Identify and describe the importance of people, such as Harriet Tubman
                 and Benjamin Franklin

       1.1B.1b   Describe why holidays, such as President’s Day and Martin Luther
                 King, Jr. Day are celebrated

1.1C   Protecting Rights and Maintaining Order

1.1C.1 Describing the rights and responsibilities of being a participating member of
       the family, school and community

       1.1C.1a   Identify the rights, responsibilities and choices that students have in the
                 family, school and community

       1.1C.1b   Describe ways to work together to maintain a clean and safe
                 environment

1.2    Peoples of the Nations and World

1.2A   Elements of Culture

1.2A.1 Describe Elements of Culture
       1.2A.1.a Identify that clothing, food, shelter, recreation, education, stories, art
                and music may distinguish a culture

       1.1A.1.b Describe how traditions are celebrated in families and schools

1.2B   Cultural Diffusion

1.2B.1 Describe How Groups of People Interact

       1.2B.1.a Identify and demonstrate appropriate social skills for working together
                in a cooperative group

       1.2B.1.b Identify leadership positions in the school and explain their role in
                keeping students safe and maintaining order

1.2C   Conflict and Compromise

1.3    Geography

1.3A   Using Geographic Tools

1.3A.1 Locate and describe places using maps and globes

       1.3A.1.a Describe where places are located on a map using relative distance and
                direction, such as near-far, above-below and cardinal directions (north,
                south, east, and west)

       1.3A.1.b Locate the continents and oceans using maps and a globe

       1.3A.1.c Define map elements as parts of a map that make it easy to use

       1.3A.1.d Describe places using photographs

1.3B   Geographic Characteristics of Places and Regions

1.3B.1 Describe places and regions

       1.3B.1.a Identify: land forms, such as: valley, island, plains; and bodies of water,
                such as: lakes, and bays

       1.3B.1.b Identify human-made features, such as: monuments, bridges and
                factories

       1.3b.1.c   Describe places and regions using climate, animal life and vegetation

       1.3B.1.d Describe places and regions by how people make a living and where
                they live, such as: rural and urban places
1.3C   Movement of People, Goods and Ideas

1.3C.1 Explain how transportation and communication networks link places by the
       movement of goods, messages and people

       1.3C.1.a Compare types of transportation used to move goods and people today
                and long ago

       1.3C.1.b Compare ways people communicate today and long ago

1.3D   Modifying and Adapting the Environment

1.3D.1 Explain how people adapt to, modify and protect their natural environment

       1.3D.1.a Describe how people in a community modify their environment to
                accommodate changing needs for transportation, housing and how
                people make a living

       1.3C.1.b Describe how and why people protect the natural environment


1.4    Economics

1.4A   Scarcity and Economic Decision-making

1.4A.1 Identify how goods and services are acquired

       1.4A.1.a Describe how people earn money by working at a job, to make or grow
                products or to do things to help other people

       1.4A.1.b Explain how getting something one wants may mean giving up
                something in return

       1.4A.1.c Identify markets in the local community, such as grocery stores,
                farmers’ markets, toy stores and fast food restaurants

1.4A.2 Describe the production process

       1.4A.2.a Give examples of natural and human resources used in production,
                such as making butter, making ice cream, building houses

       1.4A.2.b Describe the skills people need in the work they do in the home, school
                and community

1.4A.3 Explain how technology affects the way people live, work and play
       1.4A.3.a Explain how changes in tools and products have affected the way
                people live, work or play

1.4B   Economics Systems and the Role of Government in the Economy

1.4B.2 Identify and classify goods and services

       1.4B.2.a Distinguish between a good and a service

       1.4B.2.b Identify goods and services as products people want

1.5    History

1.5A   Individuals and Societies Change over Time

1.5A.1 Distinguish among past, present, and future time

       1.5A.1.a Classify objects or events as belonging to the past, present or future

1.5A.2 Describe people, places and events in the past

       1.5A.2.a Construct meaning from stories and pictures about the past

1.6    Social Studies Skills and Processes

1.6A   Read to Learn and Construct Meaning about Social Studies

1.6B   Write to Communicate Social Studies Understandings

1.6B.1 Use writing strategies, such as journal writing, quick writes, and graphic
       organizers, remember and/or express new understandings

       1.6B.1.a Connect ideas to prior knowledge (personal experience, text, and
                world)

1.6C   Asking Social Studies Questions

1.6C.1 Identify a topic that requires study

       1.6C.1.a Identify prior knowledge about a topic

       1.6C.1.b Make comments and ask relevant questions

1.6C.2 Identify a situation or problem that requires study

       1.6C.2.a Define the problem/situation
       1.6C.2.b Identify prior knowledge about the problem/situation

1.6D   Acquiring Social Studies Information

1.6D.1 Develop comprehension skills by listening to a variety of information texts

       1.6D.1.a Listen to appropriate print sources, such as trade books that relate to a
                topic

       1.6D.1.b Listen to and discuss trade books that include diversity and culture

       1.6D.1.c Listen to and respond to new vocabulary through a variety of words,
                print and non print sources

1.6D.2 Recognize field work that relates to the topic being studied

       1.6D.2a   Observe and record observations

       1.6D.2b Conduct simple surveys

1.6E. Organize Social Studies Information

1.6E.1 Organize information from non print sources

       1.6E.1a   Discuss information gathered according to importance and relevance

       1.6E.1b   Distinguish factual from fictional information

       1.6E.1c   Display information on various types of graphic organizers, maps and
                 charts

1.6E2 Organize information from print sources

       1.6E.2a   Identify information gathered according to importance and relevance

       1.6E.2b   Distinguish factual from fictional information

       1.6E.2c   Display information on various types of graphic organizers, maps and
                 charts

1.6F. Analyze Social Studies Information

1.6F.1 Identify and apply information from primary and secondary sources
       including pictures, graphics and artifacts

       1.6F.1a   Begin to recognize cause and effect and sequence of events in sources
      1.6F.1b   Create timeless using personal timelines

1.6G. Answer Social Studies Questions

1.6G.1 Describe how their community has changed over time and how people have
       contributed to its change, drawing from maps, photographs and other
       sources

      1.6G.1a   Begin to recognize the importance of civic participation in school and
                neighborhood

      1.6G.1b Describe how diversity in people and cultures affects a community
           VSC Indicators and Instructional Objectives for Social Studies
                                  Second Grade

2.1    Political Science

2.1A   The Foundations and Function of Government

2.1A.1 Explain the importance of rules

       2.1A.1.a Explain how school and community rules promote orderliness, fairness
                and safety

       21A.1.b Identify leadership positions in the community and explain how they
               can be helpful in maintaining safety and order

2.1A.2 Identify democratic skills and attitudes associated with the United States of
America

       2.1A.2.a Connect certain symbols, landmarks, songs and poems to the
                democratic ideals they represent, such as the Statue of Liberty
                represents fairness and justice, the American flag represents liberty,
                and the Star Spangled Banner represents freedom

2.1B   Individual and Group Participation in the Political System

2.1B.1 Explain the contributions of people important to the American political
system

       2.1B.1a   Describe the contributions of local government leaders and current
                 leaders of their community, such as county executive, county council or
                 mayor, and city council

       2.1B.1b   Describe how holidays, such as President’s Day, Martin Luther King,
                 Jr. Day, memorial Day and Maryland Day reflect democratic beliefs,
                 such as patriotism, equality, justice, truth, diversity, and individual
                 rights that are commonly held by Americans

2.1C   Protecting Rights and Maintaining Order

2.1C.1 Describing the rights and responsibilities of being a participating member of
       the family, school and community

       2.1C.1a   Recognize and describe how making choices influences how members
                 of the family, school, and community perform their roles and
                 responsibilities to make a difference
       2.1C.1b   Identify concerns in the community, such as safety issues and pollution
                 problems and identify ways to resolve concerns

2.     Peoples of the Nations and World

2.2A   Elements of Culture

2.2A.1 Examine elements of two difference cultures of the world

       2.2A.1.a Compare elements of at least two diverse culture

       2.2A.1.b Explain ways people of different ages and/or cultural backgrounds help
                pass on traditions

2.2B   Cultural Diffusion

2.2B.1 Describe How Groups of People Interact

       2.2B.1.a Identify and demonstrate appropriate social skills for working together
                in a cooperative group

       2.2B.1.b Recognize that people may have different points of view about an issue
                or problem

2.2C   Conflict and Compromise

2.2C.1 Explain how different points of view affect the way groups of people interact

       2.2C.1a    Recognize that different points of view may result in conflict

       2.2C.1b Explain situations that demonstrate conflict, cooperation and
       compromise

2.3    Geography

2.3A   Using Geographic Tools

2.3A.1 Locate and describe places using maps and globes

       2.3A.1.a Identify the purpose and use of a variety of maps, such as physical
                maps, school maps and neighborhood maps

       2.3A.1.b Recognize the equator, poles, hemispheres, seven continents, and four
                oceans on a map and globe

       2.3A.1.c Identify and use simple map elements to read a map
       2.3A.1.d Describe a place using pictures and photographs

2.3B   Geographic Characteristics of Places and Regions

2.3B.1 Classify places and regions

       2.3B.1.a Describe and classify how natural/physical features, such as
                peninsulas, beaches, coastlines identify a place

       2.3B.1.b Describe and classify human-made features, such as, buildings,
                streets, bridges, cultivated land, dams and tunnels identify a place

       2.3B.1.c Describe places using weather, climate, vegetation and
                natural/physical features, such as mountain, beach and plain

       2.3B.1d   Describe places and regions by how people make a living and where
                 they live, such as: rural and urban places

2.3C   Movement of People, Goods and Ideas

2.3C.1 Explain how transportation and communication networks link places by the
       movement of goods, messages and people

       2.3C.1.a Identify how transportation networks link people and goods to places

       2.3C.1.b Identify how communication networks link people and messages to
                places

2.3D   Modifying and Adapting the Environment

2.3D.1 Explain how people adapt to, modify and protect their natural environment

       2.3D.1.a Describe ways that people adapt to the natural environment for food,
                clothing, and shelter

       2.3C.1.b Describe ways that people modify their natural environment and the
                impact of those modifications, such as clearing trees, building a dam
                and farming land

2.4    Economics

2.4A   Scarcity and Economic Decision-making

2.4A.1 Explain why people have to make economic choices about goods and services

       2.4A.1.a Identify why they had to make a choice
       2.4.A.1.b Explain that choices have consequences some of which are more
                 important than others

       2.4A.1.c Describe different market situations where buyers and sellers meet to
                exchange goods and services

2.4A.2 Describe the production process

       2.4A.2.a Identify the natural, capital and human resources used in the
                production of a good service

       2.4A.2.b Identify examples of specialized workers in the school and community,
                such as nurses, truck drivers, trash collectors, lawyers and postal
                workers

2.4A.3 Explain how technology affects the way people live, work and play

       2.4A.3.a Identify examples of technology used by consumers, such as
                automobiles, cameras, telephones, microwaves, televisions and
                computers

       2.4A.3.b Explain that consumers use technology in their daily lives to do things
                better, faster or more easily

2.4B   Economics Systems and the Role of Government in the Economy

2.4B.2 Identify and classify goods and services

       2.4B.2.a Identify goods and services provided by businesses

       2.4B.2.b Identify goods and services provided by government

2.5    History

2.5A   Settlements and Beginnings of New Societies

2.5A.1 Distinguish among past, present, and future time

       2.5A.1.a Compare community life now to community life in the past

2.5A.2 Describe people, places and events in the past

       2.5A.2.a Interpret a variety of print and non-print sources of information about
                the past

2.6    Social Studies Skills and Processes
2.6A   Read to Learn and Construct Meaning about Social Studies

2.6B   Write to Communicate Social Studies Understandings

2.6B.1 Use writing strategies, such as journal writing, quick writes, and graphic
       organizers, remember and/or express new understandings

       2.6B.1.a Connect ideas to prior knowledge (personal experience, text, and
                world)

2.6C   Asking Social Studies Questions

2.6C.1 Identify a topic that requires study

       2.6C.1.a Identify prior knowledge about a topic

       2.6C.1.b Pose questions about the topic

2.6C.2 Identify a situation or problem that requires study

       2.6C.2.a Define the problem/situation

       2.6C.2.b Identify prior knowledge about the problem/situation

       2.6C.2.c Pose questions about the problem/situation

2.6D   Acquiring Social Studies Information

2.6D.1 Develop comprehension skills by listening to a variety of information texts

       2.6D.1.a Listen to appropriate print sources, such as trade books that relate to a
                topic

       2.6D.1.b Listen to and discuss trade books that include diversity and culture

       2.6D.1.c Listen to and gain information from appropriate non print sources, such
                as music, maps, graphs, photographs, video clips, illustration,
                paintings, cartoons, interviews and oral histories

2.6D.2 Observe field work and gain information that relates to the
       topic/situation/problem being studied

       2.6D.2a   Identify and gather data

       2.6D.2b Make and record observations

       2.6D.2.c Conduct simple surveys and oral histories
2.6E. Organize Social Studies Information

2.6E.1 Organize information from non print sources

      2.6E.1a   Discuss information gathered according to importance and relevance

      2.6E.1b   Distinguish factual from fictional information

      2.6E.1c   Display information on various types of graphic organizers, maps and
                charts

2.6E.2 Organize information from print sources

      2.6E.2a   Identify information gathered according to importance and relevance

      2.6E.2b   Distinguish factual from fictional information

      2.6E.2c   Display information on various types of graphic organizers, maps and
                charts

2.6F. Analyze Social Studies Information

2.6F.1 Identify and apply information from primary and secondary sources
       including pictures, graphics and artifacts

      2.6F.1a   Recognize cause and effect and sequence of events in sources

      2.6F.1b   Create timeless using personal timelines

2.6G. Answer Social Studies Questions

2.6G.1 Describe how their community has changed over time and how people have
       contributed to its change, drawing from maps, photographs and other
       sources

      2.6G.1a   Recognize the importance of civic participation in school and
                neighborhood

      2.6G.1b Describe how diversity in people and cultures affects a community
          VSC Indicators and Instructional Objectives for Social Studies
                                  Third Grade

3.1    Political Science

3.1A   The Foundations and Function of Government

3.1A.1 Explain the role of individuals and groups in creating rules and law to
       maintain order, protect citizens, and provide services

       3.1A.1.a Identify local government leaders, such as the mayor, county council
                members or commissioners, and county executive and explain their role
                in protecting citizens and maintaining order

       3.1A.1.b Explain why all citizens must follow rules and laws even when rules
                conflict with that they want

       3.1A.1.c Describe the role of government leaders in making and enforcing laws

3.1A.2 Explain how certain symbols are associated with the democratic principles
       and values of the United States Government

       3.1A.2.a describe democratic principles and values associated with symbols, and
                landmarks, such as freedom represented by the bald eagle, patriotism
                represented by the American flag, the power of the United States
                government represented by the Statue of Liberty and authority by the
                White House

       3.1A.2.b Explain the importance of the democratic principles and values, such
                as individual rights, common good, fairness and equal treatment, and
                patriotism

3.1B   Individual and Group Participation in the Political System

3.1B.1 Describe how people and past events have contributed to the American
       political system

       3.1B.1.a Describe the contributions of local people who contributed to the
                common good of society, such as Rosa Parks – civil rights, Caesar
                Chavez – equal rights for migrant workers, Jimmy Carter – world peace
                efforts

       3.1B.1.b Describe the democratic values and events associated with national
                holiday, such as Flag Day, Fourth of July, Memorial Day and Veterans
                Day as patriotism, equality, justice, truth, diversity, and individual
                rights that are commonly held by Americans
3.1B.2 Analyze the role of individual and group participation in creating a
       supportive community

       3.1B.2.a Explain the decision making process used to accomplish a community
                goal or solve a community problem

       3.1B.2.b Describe the actions of people who have made a positive difference in
                their community, such as community and civic leaders

3.1C   Protecting Rights and Maintaining Order

3.1C.1 Explain the rights and responsibilities of being a member

       3.1C.1.a Describe the responsibilities of being a good citizen, such as voting,
                being informed, following laws, participating in government and
                volunteering

3.1C.2 Explain how government protects individuals and groups

       3.1C.2.a Describe the meaning of civic life and government

3.2A   Elements of Culture

3.2A.1 Describe the benefits of a multicultural setting

       3.2A.1.a Describe how media provides information about cultures

       3.2A.1.b Compare the clothing, food, shelter, recreation, education, stories, art,
                music and language of several cultures

       3.2A.1.c Explain how a variety of cultures may contribute to society

3.2B   Cultural Diffusion

3.2B.1 Describe How Groups of People Interact

       3.2B.1.a Identify and demonstrate appropriate social skills for working together
                in a cooperative group

       3.2B.1.b Recognize that people may have different points of view about an issue
                or problem

3.2C   Conflict and Compromise

3.2C.1 Explain how different points of view affect the way groups of people interact
       3.2C.1.a   Describe how different points of view may result in cooperation or
       conflict

       3.2C.1.b   Explain how a school-based issue can be resolved through cooperation

3.3    Geography

3.3A   Using Geographic Tools

3.3A.1 Locate and describe places using geographic tools

       3.3A.1.a Describe the purposes of a variety of maps, such as community,
                transportation, physical and political

       3.3A.1.b Construct and interpret maps by using elements, such as title, order,
                compass rose, simple grid system, author and date, and legend/key

       3.3A.1.c Identify and describe the location of communities, major cities in
                Maryland and the United States using maps, globes and photographs

3.3B   Geographic Characteristics of Places and Regions

3.3B.1 Classify places and regions

       3.3B.1.a Describe the similarities and differences of communities using
                geographic characteristics affect the ways people live and work, and the
                population distribution of a place and region

       3.3B.1.b Describe how geographic characteristics of a community or a region
                change over time

       3.3B.1.c Compare places and regions based on their geographic characteristics

3.3C   Movement of People, Goods and Ideas

3.3C.1 Describe how transportation and communication networks link places
       through the movement of goods, messages and people

       3.3C.1.a Explain how transportation and communication networks connect
                places, people and idea

       3.3C.1.b Identify reasons for the movement of people from one community or
                region to another

3.3D   Modifying and Adapting the Environment

3.3D.1 Explain how people adapt to, modify and protect their natural environment
       3.3D.1.a Describe how people in a community modify their environment to
                accommodate changing needs for transportation, housing and how
                people make a living

       3.3C.1.b Describe how and why people protect the natural environment


3.4    Economics

3.4A   Scarcity and Economic Decision-making

3.4A.1 Explain that people must make choices because resources are limited relative
       to wants for goods and services

       3.4A.1.a Explain why people must make economic choices

       3.4A.1.b Identify and apply the steps in the decision-making process

       3.4A.1.c Identify the opportunity cost of a choice or decision

3.4A.2 Describe the production process

       3.4A.2.a Explain how producers make choices because of limited natural,
                human and capital resources

       3.4A.2.b Give examples of how limited resources affect the decision producers
                make

       3.4A.2.c   Describe steps in the production process to produce a simple product

3.4A.3 Explain how technology affects the way people live, work and play

       3.4A.3.a Describe how changes in technology have affected the lives of
                consumers and producer

3.4A.4 Explain how specialized work results in increased production

       3.4A.4.a Explain how the amounts of goods and services that are produced may
                increase when workers specialize

       3.4A.4.b Describe the interdependence of people because of specialization

3.4B   Economics Systems and the Role of Government in the Economy

3.4B.1 Describe different types of market buyers and sellers meet
       3.4B.1.a Identify markets that are not face-to-face meetings, such as Internet
                shopping or catalog shopping

       3.4B.1.b Describe how prices affect personal spending choices

3.4B.2 Identify goods and services provided by the government and paid for by
       taxes, such as roads, police protection and public schools
       3.4B.2.a Classify goods and services according to who produces them; the
                 government, business or both

3.5    History

3.5A   Settlements and Beginnings of New Societies

3.5A.1 Distinguish among past, present, and future time

       3.5A.1.a Identify the relationship among events in a timeline

       3.5A.1.b Compare family life in the local community by considering such things
                as jobs, communication, and transportation

3.5A.2 Explain how people lived in the past by using a variety of primary and
       secondary sources

       3.5A.2.a Identify information about people, places or events of the past using
                pictures, photographic, maps, audio or visual tapes and/or documents

3.5B   Emergence, Expansion and Changes in Nations and Empires

3.5C   Conflict Between Ideas and Institutions

3.6    Social Studies Skills and Processes

3.6A   Read to Learn and Construct Meaning about Social Studies

3.6A.1 Use appropriate strategies and opportunities to increase understanding of
       social studies vocabulary

       3.6A.1.a Acquire and apply new vocabulary through investigating, listening,
                independent reading and discussing a variety of print and non print
                sources

       3.6A.1.b Identify and use new vocabulary acquired through study of their
                relationships to prior knowledge and experiences

       3.6A.1.c Use context clues to understand new social studies vocabulary
       3.6A.1.d Use new vocabulary in speaking and writing to gain and extend content
                knowledge and clarify expression

3.6A.2 Use strategies to prepare for reading (before reading)
       3.6A.2.a Identify the characteristics of informational texts, such as print features,
                graphic aids, informational aids, organizational aids, and online
                features

       3.6A.2.b Preview the text by examining features, such as the title, pictures,
                maps, illustrations, photographs, charts, timelines, graphs and icons

       3.6A.2.c Set a purpose for reading the text

       3.6A.2.d Ask questions and make predictions about the text

       3.6A.2.e Make connections to the text from prior knowledge and experiences

3.6A.3 Use strategies to monitor understanding and make meaning form text
       (during reading)

       3.6A.3.a Identify and use knowledge of organizational structures, such as
                chronological order, cause/effect, main ideas and details, description,
                similarities/differences, and problem/solution to gain meaning

       3.6A.3.b Reread slowly and carefully, restate, or read on and revisit difficult
                parts

       3.6A.3.c Use a graphic organizer or another note-taking technique to record
                important ideas or information

       3.6A.3.d Look back through the text to search for connections between and
                among ideas

       3.6A.3.e Make, confirm, or adjust predictions about the text

       3.6A.3.f Periodically summarize or paraphrase important ideas while reading

       3.6A.3.g Visualize what was read for deeper meaning

       3.6A.3.h Explain personal connections to the ideas or information in the text

3.6A.4 Use strategies to demonstrate understanding of the text (after reading)

       3.6A.4.a Identify and explain what is directly stated in the text

       3.6A.4.b Identify, paraphrase, or summarize the main idea of the text
       3.6A.4.c Determine and explain the author’s purpose

       3.6A.4.d Distinguish between facts and opinions

       3.6A.4.e Explain whether or not the author’s opinion is presented fairly

       3.6A.4.f Explain what is not directly stated in the text by drawing inferences

       3.6A.4.g Confirm or refute predictions made about the text to form new ideas
       3.6A.4.h Connect the text to prior knowledge or personal experiences

       3.6A.4.i Draw conclusions and make generalizations based on the text, multiple
                texts, and/or prior knowledge

3.6B   Write to Learn and Communicate Social Studies Understanding

3.6B.1 Use informal writing strategies, such as journal writing, note taking, quick
       writes, and graphic organizers to clarify, organize, remember, and/or express
       new understandings
       3.6B.1.a Identify key ideas

       3.6B.1.b Connect key ideas to prior knowledge (personal experience, text, and
                world)

3.6B.2 Use formal writing, such as paragraphs, reports, letters to inform
       3.6B.2.a Identify form, audience, topic and purpose before writing

       3.6B.2.b organize facts and/or data to support topic

3.6B.3 Use formal writing, such as paragraphs, letters to persuade
       3.6B.3.a Identify form audience, topic and purpose

       3.6B.3.b State a clear opinion or position

       3.6B.3.c Support the opinion or position which facts and/or data

3.6B.4Use timed, on-demand writing to demonstrate understanding on assessments
      (Constructed response)
       3.6B.4.a Address the topic

       3.6B.4.b Provide accurate information

       3.6B.4.c Support topic with appropriate details
3.6C   Asking Social Studies Questions

3.6C.1 Identify a topic that requires further study

       3.6C.1.a Identify prior knowledge about a topic

       3.6C.1.b Pose questions about the topic

3.6C.2 Identify a situation or problem that requires study

       3.6C.2.a Define the problem/situation

       3.6C.2.b Identify prior knowledge about the problem/situation

       3.6C.2.c Pose questions about the problem/situation

3.6D   Acquiring Social Studies Information

3.6D.1 Identify primary and secondary sources of information that relate to the
       topic/situation/problem being studied

       3.6D.1.a Gather and read appropriate print sources, such as journals, textbooks,
                timelines, trade books, and web sites

       3.6D.1.b Read and obtain information from texts representing diversity in
                content, culture authorship and perspective

       3.6D.1.c Locate and gather data and information from appropriate non print
                sources, such as music, maps, graphs, photographs, video clips,
                illustrations, paintings, cartoons, interviews and oral histories

3.6D.2 Engage in field work that relates to the topic/situation/problem being studies
       being studied

       3.6D.2.a Gather data

       3.6D.2.b Make and record observations

       3.6D.2.c Conduct surveys and oral histories

3.6E. Organize Social Studies Information

3.6E.1 Organize information from non print sources

       3.6E.1.a Prioritize information gathered according to importance and relevance
      3.6E.1.b Distinguish factual from fictional information

      3.6E.1.c Find relationships between gathered information

      3.6E.1.d Display information on various types of graphic organizers, maps and
               charts

      3.6E.1.e Categorize information obtained from surveys and field work

3.6E.2 Organize information from print sources

      3.6E.2.a Prioritize information gathered according to importance and relevance

      3.6E.2.b Distinguish factual from fictional information

      3.6E.2.c Find relationships between gathered information

      3.6E.2.d Display information on various types of graphic organizers, maps and
               charts

3.6F. Analyze Social Studies Information

3.6F.1 Interpret and apply information from primary and secondary sources
       including pictures, graphics, maps, atlases, artifacts and timelines

      3.6F.1.a Determine the reliability of the information from the sources

      3.6F.1.b Identify the perspective of the sources

      3.6F.1.c Compare information to prior knowledge

      3.6F.1.d Recognize relationships in and among ideas or events, such as cause
               and effect, sequential order, main idea and details

3.6G. Answer Social Studies Questions

3.6G.1 Describe how their community has changed over time and how people have
       contributed to its change, drawing from maps, photographs and other
       sources

      3.6G.1.a Recognize that there is logical consequence between active citizens and
               the health of a community

      3.6G.1.b How diversity in peoples and cultures affects a community
3.6G.1.c Recognize that location and activities affect the distribution of people
         in a community

3.6G.1.d Defend decisions and identify the process for making those decisions
          VSC Indicators and Instructional Objectives for Social Studies
                                 Fourth Grade

4.1    Political Science

4.1A   The Foundations and Function of Government

4.1A.1 Describe how the political structure in early Maryland developed and
       changed over time

       4.1A.1.a Describe how the colony of Maryland was established and governed
                including the establishment of rule of law and power with authority,
                such as Proprietorships, Royal Governor, and Early General
                Assembly

       4.1A.1.b Describe the structure and function of the Maryland General Assembly
                and the roles of state senators and delegates

4.1A.2 Analyze the documents, and democratic ideas that developed in the
       Maryland Colony

       4.1A.2.a Analyze how colonial law influenced individuals in Maryland and other
                colonies, such as indentured servants contracts, Tolerance Acts of
                1649, Maryland Charter of 1632

       4.1A.2.b Describe how the Maryland State Constitution includes democratic
                principles and values

4.1A.3 Describe the role of Maryland government regarding public policy and issues

       4.1A.3.a Describe perspectives and policies in Maryland regarding historic and
                current public issues

       4.1A.3.b Explain the effect that regional interests have on shaping government
                policy in and around Maryland, such as Chesapeake Bay issues,
                availability of land for mining, and use

4.1B   Individual and Group Participation in the Political System

4.1B.1 Describe how individuals and groups contributed to the political system

       4.1B.1.a Describe the role of key Maryland people who influenced the building
                of our new nation, such as William Paca, Charles Carroll, Thomas
                Stone, and Samuel Chase

4.1B.2 Explain the importance of civic participation as a citizen of Maryland
       4.1B.2.a Identify various sources of information that are available to citizens to
                make political decisions

       4.1B.2.b Describe ways people can participate in the political process including
                voting, petitioning elected officials and volunteering

4.1C   Protecting Rights and Maintaining Order

4.1C.1 Describe how the rights and responsibilities of being a citizen are protected
       in Maryland

       4.1C.1.a Describe responsibilities associated with certain basic rights of citizens,
                such as freedom of speech, religion and press, and explain why these
                responsibilities are important

4.1C.2 Explain how Maryland government protects the rights of individuals and
groups

       4.1C.2.a Describe the rule of law and explain how it impacts individuals and
                groups

       4.1C.2.b Describe the balance between private life and government in providing
                order and protecting rights

4.1C.4 Examine the principle of due process

       4.1C.4.a Identify how due process of law protects the accused

       4.1C.4.b Identify how the Maryland State Constitution provides fairness and
                order

4.2A   Elements of Culture

4.2A.1 Describe the various cultures of early societies in Maryland

       4.2A.1.a Define culture

       4.2A.1.b Describe the social, political and religious character of the earliest
                colonies

       4.2A.1.c Compare and describe elements of culture including shelter, recreation,
                education, oral traditions, art, music and language of Native American
                societies

4.2B   Cultural Diffusion
4.2B.1 Analyze how Maryland society was influenced by the contributions of people
       and groups

       4.2B.1.a Describe the contributions of past Maryland leaders, such as Lord
                Baltimore, Calvert and Carroll families, Margaret Brent, and Mathias
                DeSousa

       4.2B.1.b Describe the contribution of individuals and groups, such as Francis
                Scott Key, Benjamin Banneker, Mary Pickersgill, Clara Barton and
                Freedmen’s Bureau

4.2B.2 Describe cultural characteristics of various groups of people

       4.2B.2.a Describe the similarities and differences of religious, ethnic and
                economic groups in colonial Maryland

       4.2B.2.b Identify and describe the similarities and differences of religious, ethnic
                and economic groups in Maryland today

4.2C   Conflict and Compromise

4.2C.1 Explain the causes of conflict between conscience and the respect for
       authority in Maryland during the Revolutionary period

       4.2C.1.a   Describe the differing perspectives of the Patriots and Loyalists

4.3    Geography

4.3A   Using Geographic Tools

4.3A.1 Locate places and describe the human and physical characteristics of those
       places using geographic tools

       4.3A.1.a Interpret a variety of maps using map elements

       4.3A.1.b Describe geographic characteristics of Maryland/United States using
                resources, such as photographs, maps, charts, graphs and atlases

       4.3A.1.c Identify geographic locations of physical features and settlements of
                Maryland, such as St. Mary's, Annapolis, Chesapeake Bay, the
                Allegany Plateau and Potomac River

       4.3A.1.d Identify regions of Maryland: Appalachian, Piedmont Plateau and
                Atlantic Coastal Plain by their geographic characteristics

4.3B   Geographic Characteristics of Places and Regions
4.3B.1 Describe similarities and differences of regions by using geographic
       characteristics

       4.3B.1.a Compare geographic characteristics of different Maryland
                communities and regions

       4.3B.1.b Describe how geographic characteristics of a place or region change
                over time
       4.3B.1.c Explain how geographic characteristics affect how people live and
                work, and the population distribution of a place or region

4.3C   Movement of People, Goods and Ideas

4.3C.1 Explain how transportation and communication networks link places
       through the movement of people, goods and ideas

       4.3C.1.a Explain how changes in transportation and communication led to the
                growth and development of towns and cities in Maryland

       4.3C.1.b Identify reasons for the movement of people to, from and within
                Maryland

4.3D   Modifying and Adapting the Environment

4.3D.1 Describe how people adapt to, modify and impact the natural environment

       4.3D.1.a Describe ways and reasons people modify the natural environment and
                the consequences of the modifications

       4.3D.1.b Explain how the growth of communities and suburbs have changed the
                environment, such as building roads and shopping centers

       4.3D.1.c Describe how state government makes decisions on land use and
                growth through laws

4.4    Economics

4.4A   Scarcity and Economic Decision-making

4.4A.1 Explain that people must make choices because resources are limited relative
       to wants for goods and services in Maryland

       4.4A.1.a Identify the costs, including opportunity cost and the benefits of
                economic decisions made by individuals, businesses and governments
                in Maryland, past and present
4.4A.2 Describe how limited economic resources (natural, human and capital) are
       used to produce goods and services to satisfy economic wants in Maryland

       4.4A.2.a Explain how scarcity and the availability of economic resources
                determine what is produced and the effects on consumers in Maryland

4.4A.3 Explain how technological changes have affected production and
       consumption in Maryland

       4.4A.3.a Describe how technological changes over time have affected the
                production of goods and services, such as how wheat is grown

       4.4A.3.b Describe how technological ideas, such as the building of roads, impact
                the way people live and work

       4.4A.3.c Describe technological changes in transportation and communication
                over time, such as the Chesapeake Bay Bridge, the Baltimore and
                Washington beltways, the telephone and the Internet, and its impact on
                Marylanders

4.4A.4 Describe regional economic specialization in Maryland

       4.4A.4.a Explain how available resources have influenced specialization in
                Maryland in the past and present

4.4B   Economics Systems and the Role of Government in the Economy

4.4B.1 Describe examples of tradition command and market economics in
       Maryland’s economy

       4.4B.1.a Identify examples of tradition in the Maryland economy, such as
                businesses and skills that are handed down through families

       4.4B.1.b Describe examples of supply and demand in markets in Maryland

       4.4B.1.c Identify examples of command in Maryland’s economy, such as the
                school board deciding how to spend school funds

4.4B.3 Describe the role of government in regulating economic activity in Maryland

       4.4B.3.a Give examples of government rules and laws that affect how people
                and businesses work, such as requiring licenses to drive and to open a
                business and regulating how people use the resources of the
                Chesapeake Bay

4.4B.4 Identify examples of barter and money exchanges that occur because of
       specialization and interdependence
       4.4B.4.a Give examples of how money v. barter is used in Maryland

4.4B.5 Identify the role of local and state governments in Maryland’s economy

       4.4B.5.a Give examples of governments help Maryland’s economy to grow and
                provide jobs and services, such as public education

4.5    History

4.5A   Settlements and Beginnings of New Societies

4.5A.1 Explain the significance and chronology of key historical events leading to
       early settlement in Maryland

       4.5A.1.a Explain how and why the Maryland colony was established, including
                political and economic motives for coming to the new world

       4.5A.1.b Compare the development of towns and regions, such as St. Mary’s
                City and Annapolis

       4.5A.1.c Describe the establishment of slavery and how it shaped life in
                Maryland

4.5A.2 Describe Native American societies indigenous to Maryland

       4.5A.2.a Identify the development of indigenous societies from the Paleo-
                Indians to the Woodland Indians

       4.5A.2.b Compare Native American societies in Maryland before and after
                European colonization

4.5B   Emergence, Expansion and Changes in Nations and Empires

4.5C   Conflict Between Ideas and Institutions

4.5C.1 Describe the consequences of interactions among groups and cultures in
       Maryland

       4.5C.1.a Describe Maryland colonists’ reactions to changing economic policies
                from England using events that led to the American Revolutionary
                War, such as the boycotting of goods, the Chestertown Tea Party and
                the burning of the Peggy Stewart

       4.5C.1.b Explain the interactions between colonists and the British during the
                Pre-Revolutionary period
4.5C.2 Describe the political, cultural, economic and social changes in Maryland
       during the early 1800s

       4.5C.2.a Explain Maryland’s role in the War of 1812, such as the Battle of
                Baltimore, the Battle of Bladensburg, and the burning of Washington

       4.5C.2.b Describe the changes in industry, transportation, education, rights and
                freedoms in Maryland, such as roads and canals, slavery, B&O
                railroad, the National Road, immigration, public schools and religious
                freedoms

4.5C.3 Identify the causes of the Civil War and its effects on people in Maryland

       4.5C.3.a Describe the different economic interests in our nation
       4.5C.3.b Describe the economic interests in Maryland, such as agricultural v.
                industrial and slave v. non-slave

       4.5C.3.c Describe why loyalties to the North and the South were divided in
                Maryland
4.5C.4 Explain how the institution of slavery impacted individuals and groups in
       Maryland

       4.5C.4.a Compare the living conditions of slave families and free blacks

       4.5C.4.b Describe the abolitionist movement in Maryland

       4.5C.4.c Describe the conditions that promoted the growth of the Underground
                Railroad in Maryland

4.6    Social Studies Skills and Processes

4.6A   Read to Learn and Construct Meaning about Social Studies

4.6A.1 Use appropriate strategies and opportunities to increase understanding of
       social studies vocabulary

       4.6A.1.a Acquire and apply new vocabulary through investigating, listening,
                independent reading and discussing a variety of print and non print
                sources

       4.6A.1.b Identify and use new vocabulary acquired through study of their
                relationships to prior knowledge and experiences

       4.6A.1.c Use context clues to understand new social studies vocabulary
       4.6A.1.d Use new vocabulary in speaking and writing to gain and extend content
                knowledge and clarify expression

4.6A.2 Use strategies to prepare for reading (before reading)
       4.6A.2.a Identify the characteristics of informational texts, such as print features,
                graphic aids, informational aids, organizational aids, and online
                features

       4.6A.2.b Preview the text by examining features, such as the title, pictures,
                maps, illustrations, photographs, charts, timelines, graphs and icons

       4.6A.2.c Set a purpose for reading the text

       4.6A.2.d Ask questions and make predictions about the text

       4.6A.2.e Make connections to the text from prior knowledge and experiences

4.6A.3 Use strategies to monitor understanding and make meaning form text
       (during reading)

       4.6A.3.a Identify and use knowledge of organizational structures, such as
                chronological order, cause/effect, main ideas and details, description,
                similarities/differences, and problem/solution to gain meaning

       4.6A.3.b Reread slowly and carefully, restate, or read on and revisit difficult
                parts

       4.6A.3.c Use a graphic organizer or another note-taking technique to record
                important ideas or information

       4.6A.3.d Look back through the text to search for connections between and
                among ideas

       4.6A.3.e Make, confirm, or adjust predictions about the text

       4.6A.3.f Periodically summarize or paraphrase important ideas while reading

       4.6A.3.g Visualize what was read for deeper meaning

       4.6A.3.h Explain personal connections to the ideas or information in the text

4.6A.4 Use strategies to demonstrate understanding of the text (after reading)

       4.6A.4.a Identify and explain what is directly stated in the text

       4.6A.4.b Identify, paraphrase, or summarize the main idea of the text
       4.6A.4.c Determine and explain the author’s purpose

       4.6A.4.d Distinguish between facts and opinions

       4.6A.4.e Explain whether or not the author’s opinion is presented fairly

       4.6A.4.f Explain what is not directly stated in the text by drawing inferences

       4.6A.4.g Confirm or refute predictions made about the text to form new ideas

       4.6A.4.h Connect the text to prior knowledge or personal experiences

       4.6A.4.i Draw conclusions and make generalizations based on the text, multiple
                texts, and/or prior knowledge

4.6B   Write to Learn and Communicate Social Studies Understanding

4.6B.1 Use informal writing strategies, such as journal writing, note taking, quick
       writes, and graphic organizers to clarify, organize, remember, and/or express
       new understandings
       4.6B.1.a Identify key ideas

       4.6B.1.b Connect key ideas to prior knowledge (personal experience, text, and
                world)

4.6B.2 Use formal writing, such as paragraphs, reports, letters to inform
       4.6B.2.a Identify form, audience, topic and purpose before writing

       4.6B.2.b Organize facts and/or data to support topic

       4.6B.2.c Include information from various reference materials

4.6B.3 Use formal writing, such as paragraphs, letters to persuade
       4.6B.3.a Identify form audience, topic and purpose

       4.6B.3.b State a clear opinion or position

       4.6B.3.c Support the opinion or position which facts and/or data

4.6B.4Use timed, on-demand writing to demonstrate understanding on assessments
      (Constructed response)
       4.6B.4.a Address the topic
       4.6B.4.b Provide accurate information

       4.6B.4.c Support topic with appropriate details

       4.6B.4.d Incorporate social studies knowledge

4.6C   Asking Social Studies Questions

4.6C.1 Identify a topic that requires further study

       4.6C.1.a Identify prior knowledge about a topic

       4.6C.1.b Pose questions about the topic

       4.6C.1.c Develop a plan for how to answer questions about the topic

4.6C.2 Identify a situation or problem that requires study

       4.6C.2.a Define the problem/situation

       4.6C.2.b Identify prior knowledge about the problem/situation

       4.6C.2.c Pose questions about the problem/situation

       4.6C.2.d Develop a plan for how to answer questions about the
                problem/situation

4.6D   Acquiring Social Studies Information

4.6D.1 Identify primary and secondary sources of information that relate to the
       topic/situation/problem being studied

       4.6D.1.a Gather and read appropriate print sources, such as journals, textbooks,
                timelines, trade books, and web sites

       4.6D.1.b Read and obtain information from texts representing diversity in
                content, culture authorship and perspective

       4.6D.1.c Locate and gather data and information from appropriate non print
                sources, such as music, maps, graphs, photographs, video clips,
                illustrations, paintings, cartoons, interviews and oral histories

4.6D.2 Engage in field work that relates to the topic/situation/problem being studies
       being studied

       4.6D.2.a Gather data
      4.6D.2.b Make and record observations

      4.6D.2.c Conduct surveys and oral histories

4.6E. Organize Social Studies Information

4.6E.1 Organize information from non print sources

      4.6E.1.a Prioritize information gathered according to importance and relevance

      4.6E.1.b Distinguish factual from fictional information

      4.6E.1.c Find relationships between gathered information

      4.6E.1.d Display information on various types of graphic organizers, maps and
               charts

      4.6E.1.e Categorize information obtained from surveys and field work

4.6E.2 Organize information from print sources

      4.6E.2.a Prioritize information gathered according to importance and relevance

      4.6E.2.b Distinguish factual from fictional information

      4.6E.2.c Find relationships between gathered information

      4.6E.2.d Construct various types of graphic organizers, maps and charts to
               display information

4.6F. Analyze Social Studies Information

4.6F.1 Interpret information from primary and secondary sources

      4.6F.1.a Interpret information in maps, charts and graphs

      4.6F.1.b Interpret information from field studies and surveys

      4.6F.1.c Analyze a document to determine point of view

4.6F.2 Evaluate information from a variety of sources

      4.6F.2.a   Compare information from a variety of sources

      4.6F.2.b   Compare information to prior knowledge
4.6F.3 Analyze Social Studies Information

       4.6F.3.a Recognize relationships in and among ideas or events, such as cause
                and effect, sequential order, main idea and details

4.6G. Answer Social Studies Questions

4.6G.1 Describe how the state has changed over time and how people have
       contributed to its change, drawing from maps, photographs, newspapers and
       other sources

       4.6G.1.a Present social studies information in creative ways, such as mock trials,
                simulations, debates, and skits

4.6G.2 Use historic contexts to answer questions

       4.6G.2.a Use historically accurate resources to answer questions, make
                predictions and support ideas

       4.6G.2.b Explain why historic interpretations vary and are subject to change

       4.6G.2.c Construct a sound historical interpretation

4.6G.3 Use current events/issues to answer questions

       4.6G.3.a   Summarize the main points of an issue explaining different viewpoints

       4.6G.3.b Make a decision based on the analysis of issues and evaluate the
                consequences of these decisions
           VSC Indicators and Instructional Objectives for Social Studies
                                   Fifth Grade

5.1    Political Science

5.1A   The Foundations and Function of Government

5.1A.1 Describe the early foundation, functions and purposes of government

       5.1A.1.a Describe how the European policies affected the interactions of
                explorers and colonists with Native Americans, such as the French and
                Indian War

       5.1A.1.b Describe how Europe’s philosophies and policies affected the political
                structure of the early American Colonies

       5.1A.1.c Explain the characteristics of limited/unlimited governments

       5.1A.1.d Identify how democratic principles, such as rule of law, consent of the
                governed, representative democracy, and the limitation of power
                influenced our founding documents
       5.1A.1.e Explain the early democratic ideas and practices that emerged during
                the early colonial period, including the significance of representative
                assemblies and town meetings

5.1A.2 Analyze the historic events, documents, and practices that are the foundation
       of our political systems

       5.1A.2.a Explain early examples of self-government, such as the Mayflower
                Compact and the House of Burgesses

       5.1A.2.b Analyze the principles articulated in the Articles of the Confederation
                and the successes and failures in meeting the challenges of governing

       5.1A.2.c Describe the significance of principles in the development of the
                Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, Preamble,
                U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights

       5.1A.2.d Describe the three branches of government and their individual powers
                and responsibilities, such as separation of powers and checks and
                balances

       5.1A.2.e Identify and explain the meaning and importance of democratic
                principles and values of the United States government that evolved
                during the revolutionary period

5.1A.3 Describe the roles of colonial government regarding public policy and issues
       5.1A.3.a Explain the effect that regional interests and perspectives had on
                shaping government policy, such as midland class v. gentry, plantation
                owners v. proprietors

5.1B   Individual and Group Participation in the Political System

5.1B.1 Describe how individuals and groups contributed to the political system

       5.1B.1.a Examine the contributions of people associated with the drafting of the
                Declaration of Independence and the framing of the Constitution, such
                as James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, John Jay, George Washington

       5.1B.1.b Analyze how individuals with varying economic and regional interests
                contributed to the first political parties and special interest groups

5.1B.2 Explain the importance of civic participation as a citizen of Maryland of the
       United States

       5.1B.2.a Analyze the usefulness of various sources of information used to make
                political decisions

       5.1B.2.b Compare ways people can participate in the political process including
                voting, petitioning elected officials, and volunteering

5.1C   Protecting Rights and Maintaining Order

5.1C.1 Describe how the rights and responsibilities of being a citizen are protected
       in United States

       5.1C.1.a Describe responsibilities associated with certain basic rights of citizens,
                such as freedom of speech, religion, and press, and explain why these
                responsibilities are important

       5.1C.1.b Describe the power and responsibility of the Supreme Court including
                the power of judicial review

5.1C.2 Explain how early United States government protected the rights of
       individuals and groups

       5.1C.2.a Explain the balance between providing for the common good and
                protecting individual rights

       5.1C.2.b Explain how government needs to provide more protection and order
                during times of crisis, such as the American Revolution
5.1C.4 Examine the principle of due process

       5.1C.4.a Identify how due process of law protects the accused

       5.1C.4.b Describe the due process protections in the Bill of Rights

5.2A   Elements of Culture

5.2A.1 Describe the various cultures of early colonial societies and how the
       environment influenced them

       5.2A.1.a Define the study of cultures

       5.2A.1.b Describe how the native societies expressed their culture through
                music, oral traditions, art and dance

       5.2A.1.c Describe the impact of location on the Native American way of life

       5.2A.1.d Analyze the religious beliefs of early settlers, the motives for
                migration and the difficulties they encountered in early settlements

5.2B   Cultural Diffusion

5.2B.1 Analyze how native societies were influenced by the diverse cultures of the
       explorers and settlers

       5.2B.1.a Describe how native societies responded to exploration including
                examples of compromise or conflict

       5.2B.1.b Compare perspectives of Native American societies and the European
                explorers

       5.2B.1.c Describe how cultures changed as a result of Native American and
                European interaction

5.2B.2 Describe how increased diversity in the colonies resulted from immigration,
       settlement patterns and economic development

       5.2B.2.a Identify the different religious, economic and ethnic groups that
                migrated to the colonies

5.2C   Conflict and Compromise

5.2C.1 Compare the causes and consequences of conflict

       5.2C.1.a Analyze how conflict affected relationships among individuals and
                groups, such as early settlers and Native Americans
       5.2C.1.b Explain how conflict was resolved between groups of people during the
                American Revolution.

       5.2C.1.c Analyze how conflict affected relationships among individuals and
                groups, such as the Patriots v. Loyalists

       5.2C.1.d Explain how conflict was or was not resolved among different groups
                of people during the Constitutional Convention.

5.3    Geography

5.3A   Using Geographic Tools

5.3A.1 Locate places and describe the human and physical characteristics of those
       places using geographic tools

       5.3A.1.a Construct and interpret a variety of maps of Colonial America using
                map elements

       5.3A.1.b Use a variety of maps, atlases and globes to identify physical features
                of colonial settlements

       5.3A.1.c Describe geographic characteristics of colonial America using maps
                and photographs

       5.3A.1.d Compare geographic locations and physical features of settlements in
                early American history, such as the thirteen colonies, Jamestown,
                Plymouth, St. Mary’s City, Boston, Philadelphia, Charleston and New
                York City

5.3B   Geographic Characteristics of Places and Regions

5.3B.1 Examine the similarities and differences of regions in the United States

       5.3B.1.a Compare the natural/physical and human characteristics of the three
                colonial regions
                 New England
                 Middle
                 Southern

       5.3B.1.b Describe how geographic characteristics of a place or region changed
                from early settlements through the colonial period

       5.3B.1.c Explain how geographic characteristics affect how people live and
                work, and the population distribution of a place or region
       5.3B.1.d Explain how geographic information influenced the formation of
                colonial policy, such as the Proclamation of 1763

5.3C   Movement of People, Goods and Ideas

5.3C.1 Analyze and describe population growth, migration and settlement patterns
       in colonial America

       5.3C.1.a Explain how geographic characteristics influenced settlement patterns
                in colonial America

       5.3C.1.b Analyze the consequences of migration between the colonies and
                immigration to the colonies, such as Europeans and Africans
                immigrating to the east coast of the United States

       5.3C.1.c Explain the importance of shipping and trading to the economic
                development of the colonies, such as Triangular Trade

5.3D   Modifying and Adapting the Environment

5.3D.1 Explain why people modify the natural environment and the impact of those
       modifications

       5.3D.1.a Compare ways Native American societies used the natural environment
                for food, clothing and shelter

       5.3D.1.b Describe ways that colonists in the New England, Middle and Southern
                regions adapted to and modified the environment, such as the uses of
                the grist mill, water wheels and plantation farming

       5.3D.1.c Explain how the geographic characteristics of the colonial regions
                influenced the way colonists adapted to and modified their
                environments and how these modifications sometimes created
                environmental problems

5.4    Economics

5.4A   Scarcity and Economic Decision-making

5.4A.1 Explain that people made choices because resources were limited relative to
       wants for goods and services in colonial America

       5.4A.1.a Identify the costs, including opportunity cost and the benefits of
                colonial decisions, such as whether or not to buy products on which
                British taxes were imposed
5.4A.2 Describe how limited economic resources (natural, human and capital) were
       used to satisfy economic wants in colonial America

       5.4A.2.a Explain how limited resources and unlimited economic wants caused
                colonists to choose certain goods and services and give up others

       5.4A.2.b Explain how available resources affected specialization and trade in
                colonial America

       5.4A.2.c Explain how available economic resources, production and
                consumer wants changed over time in the colonies, such as in the
                1650s compared to 1750s and before v. during the Revolutionary War

       5.4A.2.d Identify the benefits and costs, including opportunity cost of remaining
                a British colony v. fighting for independence and economic freedom

5.4A.3 Explain how technological changes affected the production of goods and
       services over time in colonial America

       5.4A.3.a Explain how the development of new products and new technologies
                affected the way people lived in colonial America

       5.4A.3.b Explain how technology changed the production of goods and services,
                such as wheat/grist mills, crops/farm equipment horseshoe/artisan tools
                and candles/candle molds

5.4A.4 Explain the consequences of specialized work on interdependence, trade and
       economic growth before 1790

       5.4A.4.a Identify economic activities of Native American societies, including
                trade, that lived in Colonial America

       5.4A.4.b Explain the consequences of specialized work on interdependence,
                trade and economic growth in colonial America

       5.4A.4.c Explain specialization and interdependence using the triangular trade
                routes

5.4B   Economics Systems and the Role of Government in the Economy

5.4B.1 Describe examples of tradition command and market in the economy of
       Colonial America

       5.4B.1.a Describe how political decisions in Colonial America impacted the
                supply of and demand for natural resources and manufactured goods
       5.4B.1.b Identify examples of tradition in the colonial economy, such as the
                economic roles of men and women

       5.4B.1.c Identify examples of command in the colonial economy, such as the
                imposition of the Stamp Act and the Tea Act

5.4B.4 Describe the role of money in the colonial economy

       5.4B.4a   Compare the benefits of a money economy compared to a barter
                 economy

5.4B.5 Identify the role of government in the colonial economy

       5.4B.5.a Describe the effects of British taxation on the colonial economy

5.5    History

5.5A   Settlements and Beginnings of New Societies

5.5A.1 Explain the significance and chronology of key historical events leading to
       early settlement in Maryland

       5.5A.1.a Describe the major settlements in pre-colonial America

       5.5A.1.b Compare Native American societies before and after European
                colonization

5.5B   Emergence, Expansion and Changes in Nations and Empires

5.5B.1 Explain the significance and chronology of key historical events during the
       age of European exploration

       5.5B.1.a Identify the origin, destination and goals of the North American
                explorers

       5.5B.1.b Explain the results of the interactions between European explorers and
                North American natives

5.5B.2 Explain the growth and development of colonial America

       5.5B.2.a Describe the religious, political and economic motives of individuals
                who migrated to North America and the difficulties they encountered

       5.5B.2.b Compare the political, economic and social lives of people in New
                England, Middle and the Southern colonies
       5.5B.2.c Describe the different roles and viewpoints of individuals and groups,
                such as women, men, free and enslaved Africans, and Native
                Americans during the Revolutionary period

5.5C   Conflict Between Ideas and Institutions

5.5C.1 Describe the causes of the American Revolution

       5.5C.1.a Explain the viewpoints of Patriots and Loyalists regarding British
                colonial policy after the Seven Years’ War

       5.5C.1.b Identify and sequence key events between the French and Indian War
                and the American Revolution


5.5C.2 Explain the effects of the American Revolution

       5.5C.2.a Describe how the revolution altered colonial and national governments

       5.5C.2.b Describe individual freedoms that resulted from the conflict

       5.5C.2.c Compare the system of government under the Articles of
                Confederation and the Constitution

5.6    Social Studies Skills and Processes

5.6A   Read to Learn and Construct Meaning about Social Studies

5.6A.1 Use appropriate strategies and opportunities to increase understanding of
       social studies vocabulary

       5.6A.1.a Acquire and apply new vocabulary through investigating, listening,
                independent reading and discussing a variety of print and non print
                sources

       5.6A.1.b Identify and use new vocabulary acquired through study of their
                relationships to prior knowledge and experiences

       5.6A.1.c Use context clues to understand new social studies vocabulary

       5.6A.1.d Use new vocabulary in speaking and writing to gain and extend content
                knowledge and clarify expression

5.6A.2 Use strategies to prepare for reading (before reading)
       5.6A.2.a Identify the characteristics of informational texts, such as print features,
                graphic aids, informational aids, organizational aids, and online
                features

       5.6A.2.b Preview the text by examining features, such as the title, pictures,
                maps, illustrations, photographs, charts, timelines, graphs and icons

       5.6A.2.c Set a purpose for reading the text

       5.6A.2.d Ask questions and make predictions about the text

       5.6A.2.e Make connections to the text from prior knowledge and experiences

5.6A.3 Use strategies to monitor understanding and make meaning form text
       (during reading)

       5.6A.3.a Identify and use knowledge of organizational structures, such as
                chronological order, cause/effect, main ideas and details, description,
                similarities/differences, and problem/solution to gain meaning

       5.6A.3.b Reread slowly and carefully, restate, or read on and revisit difficult
                parts

       5.6A.3.c Use a graphic organizer or another note-taking technique to record
                important ideas or information

       5.6A.3.d Look back through the text to search for connections between and
                among ideas

       5.6A.3.e Make, confirm, or adjust predictions about the text

       5.6A.3.f Periodically summarize or paraphrase important ideas while reading

       5.6A.3.g Visualize what was read for deeper meaning

       5.6A.3.h Explain personal connections to the ideas or information in the text

5.6A.4 Use strategies to demonstrate understanding of the text (after reading)

       5.6A.4.a Identify and explain what is directly stated in the text

       5.6A.4.b Identify, paraphrase, or summarize the main idea of the text

       5.6A.4.c Determine and explain the author’s purpose

       5.6A.4.d Distinguish between facts and opinions
       5.6A.4.e Explain whether or not the author’s opinion is presented fairly

       5.6A.4.f Explain what is not directly stated in the text by drawing inferences

       5.6A.4.g Confirm or refute predictions made about the text to form new ideas

       5.6A.4.h Connect the text to prior knowledge or personal experiences

       5.6A.4.i Draw conclusions and make generalizations based on the text, multiple
                texts, and/or prior knowledge

5.6B   Write to Learn and Communicate Social Studies Understanding

5.6B.1 Use informal writing strategies, such as journal writing, note taking, quick
       writes, and graphic organizers to clarify, organize, remember, and/or express
       new understandings
       5.6B.1.a Identify key ideas

       5.6B.1.b Connect key ideas to prior knowledge (personal experience, text, and
                world)

5.6B.2 Use formal writing, such as multi-paragraphs essay, historical investigations,
       research reports, letters and summaries to inform
       5.6B.2.a Identify form, audience, topic and purpose before writing

       5.6B.2.b Organize facts and/or data to support topic

       5.6B.2.c Provide introduction, body and conclusion

       5.6B.2.d Cite sources of information

5.6B.3 Use formal writing, such as multi-paragraphs essay, historical investigations,
       editorials and letters to persuade
       5.6B.3.a Identify form audience, topic and purpose

       5.6B.3.b State a clear opinion or position

       5.6B.3.c Support the opinion or position which facts and/or data

5.6B.4Use timed, on-demand writing to demonstrate understanding on assessments
      (Constructed response)
       5.6B.4.a Address the topic
       5.6B.4.b Provide accurate information

       5.6B.4.c Support topic with appropriate details

       5.6B.4.d Incorporate social studies knowledge

5.6C   Asking Social Studies Questions

5.6C.1 Identify a topic that requires further study

       5.6C.1.a Identify prior knowledge about a topic

       5.6C.1.b Pose questions about the topic

       5.6C.1.c Formulate research questions

       5.6C.1.d Develop a plan for how to answer questions about the topic

5.6C.2 Identify a problem/situation that requires further study

       5.6C.2.a Define the problem/situation

       5.6C.2.b Identify prior knowledge about the problem/situation

       5.6C.2.c Pose questions about the problem/situation from a variety of
                perspectives

       5.6C.2.d Pose questions that elicit higher order thinking responses

       5.6C.2.e Formulate research questions

       5.6C.2.f Develop a plan for how to answer questions about the
                problem/situation

5.6D   Acquiring Social Studies Information

5.6D.1 Identify primary and secondary sources of information that relate to the
       topic/situation/problem being studied

       5.6D.1.a Gather and read appropriate print sources, such as journals, textbooks,
                timelines, trade books, and web sites

       5.6D.1.b Read and obtain information from texts representing diversity in
                content, culture authorship and perspective
       5.6D.1.c Locate and gather data and information from appropriate non print
                sources, such as music, maps, graphs, photographs, video clips,
                illustrations, paintings, cartoons, interviews and oral histories

5.6D.2 Engage in field work that relates to the topic/situation/problem being studies
       being studied

       5.6D.2.a Gather data

       5.6D.2.b Make and record observations

       5.6D.2.c Design and conduct surveys and oral histories

5.6E. Organize Social Studies Information

5.6E.1 Organize information from non print sources

       5.6E.1.a Prioritize information gathered according to importance and relevance

       5.6E.1.b Distinguish factual from fictional information

       5.6E.1.c Find relationships between gathered information

       5.6E.1.d Display information on various types of graphic organizers, maps and
                charts

       5.6E.1.e Categorize information obtained from surveys and field work

5.6E.2 Organize information from print sources

       5.6E.2.a Prioritize information gathered according to importance and relevance

       5.6E.2.b Distinguish factual from fictional information

       5.6E.2.c Find relationships between gathered information

       5.6E.2.d Construct various types of graphic organizers, maps and charts to
                display information

5.6F. Analyze Social Studies Information

5.6F.1 Interpret information from primary and secondary sources

       5.6F.1.a Interpret information in maps, charts and graphs

       5.6F.1.b Interpret information from field studies and surveys
       5.6F.1.c Analyze a document to determine point of view

       5.6F.1.d Analyze the perspective of the author

       5.6F.1.e Identify the bias and prejudice

5.6F.2 Evaluate information from a variety of sources

       5.6F.2.a   Compare information from a variety of sources

       5.6F.2.b   Compare information to prior knowledge

       5.6F.2.c   Determine the reliability of the document

5.6F.3 Analyze Social Studies Information

       5.6F.3.a Recognize relationships in and among ideas or events, such as cause
                and effect, sequential order, main idea and details

5.6G. Answer Social Studies Questions

5.6G.1 Describe how the county has changed over time and how people have
       contributed to its change, drawing from maps, photographs, newspapers and
       other sources

       5.6G.1.a Present social studies information in creative ways, such as mock trials,
                simulations, debates, and skits

       5.6G.1.b Engage in civic participation and public discourse

5.6G.2 Use historic contexts to answer questions

       5.6G.2.a Use historically accurate resources to answer questions, make
                predictions and support ideas

       5.6G.2.b Explain why historic interpretations vary and are subject to change

       5.6G.2.c Construct a sound historical interpretation

5.6G.3 Use current events/issues to answer questions

       5.6G.3.a   Summarize the main points of an issue explaining different viewpoints

       5.6G.3.b Make a decision based on the analysis of issues and evaluate the
                consequences of these decisions
5.6G.3.c identify and formulate a position on a course of action on an issue

5.6G.3.d Propose and justify solutions to social studies problems
           VSC Indicators and Instructional Objectives for Social Studies
                                   Sixth Grade

6.1    Political Science

6.1A   The Foundations and Function of Government

6.1A.1 Examine the necessity and purpose of government in early world history

       6.1A.1.a Identify forms of government and various distributions of power, such
                as those found in ancient civilizations, dynastic China, absolute and
                constitutional monarchies

       6.1A.1.b Describe the positions taken on government by political philosophers
                from early civilizations through the Middle Ages

6.1A.2 Analyze the historic events, documents, and practices in early world history
       that are the foundations of political systems

       6.1A.2.a Identify the roots of democratic principles in World History, such as
                Sumerian written law, Hammurabi’s Code, Greek city-states, Roman
                Republicanism, and the British Constitution (Magna Carta, English
                Bill of Rights)

       6.1A.2.b Examine the decline of feudalism and the emergence of monarchies


6.1A.3 Describe the roles of institutions and government in early world history
       regarding public policy and issues

       6.1A.3.a Describe the conflict between the church and the state in the formation
                and implementation of policy

       6.1A.3.b Describe perspectives regarding issues in a feudal society, such as the
                church leaders v. lords of the manor, joining the Crusades, the growth
                of trade

6.1B   Individual and Group Participation in the Political System

6.1B.1 Analyze the methods used by individuals and groups to shape governmental
       policy and actions in early world history

       6.1B.1.a Compare methods used in early world history to change governments,
                such as coups, elections and revolts

       6.1B.1.b Examine the role of citizens in Greek city-states and the Roman
                Republic/Empire
       6.1B.1.c Examine how the Christian church shaped and influenced government
                policy

6.1C   Protecting Rights and Maintaining Order

6.1C.1 Describe the rights and responsibilities of being a citizen in an ancient world
       civilization

       6.1C.1.a Describe the importance of citizenship ancient Rome and Greece

       6.1C.1.b Describe the significance of Hammurabi’s Code and how it defined
                rights of citizens

6.1C.2 Explain how ancient governments around the world protected or failed to
       protect this rights of individuals and groups

       6.1C.2.a Explain how the Roman Republic and the rule of the Senate affected
                individuals and groups

       6.1C.2.b Compare power and authority of rulers in Ancient Egypt, India, Persia
                and China v. the protection of citizens in Greek city-states

       6.1C.2.c Examine the balance between providing for the common good of the
                manor v. the rights of the individual serfs

6.2A   Elements of Culture

6.2A.1 Describe characteristics that are used to organize people into cultures

       6.2A.1.a Describe and compare elements of culture, such as art, music, religion,
                government, social structure, education, values, beliefs and customs
                from civilizations in early world history

       6.2A.1.b Describe the social, political and religious character of societies in early
                world history

6.2B   Cultural Diffusion

6.2B.1 Explain how cultural diffusion influenced the development of cultures

       6.2B.1.a Describe factors that resulted in cultural diffusion, such as trade,
                conflict and migration

6.2B.2 Describe how increased diversity in ancient societies resulted from
       immigration, settlement patterns and economic development
       6.2B.2.a Identify the concepts of monotheism and polytheism

       6.2B.2.b Examine the practices and beliefs of world religions and philosophies

       6.2B.2.c Analyze the impact of various religions on a civilization, such as its
                effect on political, economic and social systems

       6.2B.2.d Describe interactions in ancient societies that promoted or failed to
                promote relationships between groups, civilizations, empires and
                nations

6.2C   Conflict and Compromise

6.2C.1 Analyze factors that affected relationships in early world history

       6.2C.1.a Describe the impact of trade and the exchange of ideas and beliefs that
                resulted because of events such as the Silk Road, Iron technology, the
                Crusades, the Roman Empire, Black Plague.

6.3    Geography

6.3A   Using Geographic Tools

6.3A.1 Locate places and describe the human and physical characteristics of those
       places using geographic tools

       6.3A.1.a Compare the geographic locations of civilizations from world history
                using maps
                 Mesopotamia
                 Africa including Egypt, Nubia/Kush and sub-Saharan Africa
                 Indus River Valley
                 Northern China
                 Greeks and Romans
                 Mesoamerican, such as the Incas, Mayans and Aztecs

       6.3A.1.b Identify and describe physical and human characteristics of early
                civilizations using thematic maps, such as climate, natural features,
                transportation networks and settlement patterns

6.3B   Geographic Characteristics of Places and Regions

6.3B.1 Analyze interrelationships among physical and human characteristics that
       shape the identity of places and regions and the development of civilizations

       6.3B.1.a Identify and describe physical characteristics that attracted human
                settlement in the ancient world
       6.3B.1.b Explain how physical characteristics of a place influenced human
                activities, such as agriculture, transportation, art and architecture and
                economic activity in the ancient world

       6.3B.1.c Explain how human perception of and interaction with the
                environment changed over time in response to new technologies, such
                as the building of cities and walls, roads, dams and agricultural
                improvements


6.3C   Movement of People, Goods and Ideas

6.3C.1 Analyze and describe population growth, migration and settlement patterns
       in World History

       6.3C.1.a Explain how the development of transportation and communication
                networks influenced the movement of people, goods and ideas from
                place to place, such as trade routes in Africa, Asia and Europe, and the
                spread of Islam

       6.3C.1.b Describe how economic systems and cultural diffusion help to shape
                patterns of human settlement and interaction

6.3D   Modifying and Adapting the Environment

6.3D.1 Analyze how and why humans modify their natural environment and the
       impact of those modifications

       6.3D.1.a Describe ways humans modified their environment to meet their
                needs, such as the building of dams, roads and aqueducts

       6.3D.1.b Analyze how humans in ancient times perceived and reacted to
                environmental concerns, such as flooding, drought and depletion of
                natural resources and evaluate the consequences of those actions

6.4    Economics

6.4A   Scarcity and Economic Decision-making

6.4A.1 Explain that people made choices because resources were limited relative to
       wants for goods and services in the context of early world history

       6.4A.1.a Identify the costs, including opportunity cost and the benefits of
                economic decisions made by individuals and groups, including
                governments in early world history, such as the decision to engage in
                trade
6.4A.2 Examine the relationship between available natural, human and capital
       resources and the production and consumption of goods and services in the
       context of early world history

       6.4A.2.a Identify ways, such as domesticated agriculture, Nile River trade and
                the gold/salt trade that people throughout world history have used to
                meet economic wants
       6.4A.2.b Explain how available resources affected specialization and trade in
                early world history

       6.4A.2.c Explain how trade contributes to economic growth

6.4A.3 Explain how technological changes affected the production and consumption
       of goods and services over time in early world history

       6.4A.3.a Give examples from world history of how technology changed the
                production and consumption of goods and services, such as the
                development of the printing press, the food preservation process and
                the loom

6.4A.4 Examine how specialization, interdependence and trade affected the
       production of goods and services in the context of world history

       6.4A.4.a Analyze examples of regional specialization that resulted from
                available human, natural and capital resources, such as silk
                production in China, bronze casting in Africa and terraced farming in
                the Americas and China

       6.4A.4.b Describe the effects of agricultural surplus and job specialization on
                the emergence of early towns and cities in various parts of the world

       6.4A.4.c Identify African and Eurasian trade routes, such as the Saharan Trade
                and the Silk Road, to explain how surplus goods and regional
                specialization resulted in economic interdependence

6.4B   Economics Systems and the Role of Government in the Economy

6.4B.1 Describe examples of tradition command and market in early world history

       6.4B.1.a Compare the ways in which buyers acquired resources, goods and
                services from producers and sellers

       6.4B.1.b Describe examples of tradition in economies in early world history,
                such as the economic roles of men and women and tribal societies

       6.4B.1.c Describe examples of command in economies in early world history,
                such as the feudal system
6.4B.2 Explain the role of government in providing goods and services in early
       world societies

       6.4B.2.a Compare the importance of the role of government in answering the
                basic questions of what, how and for whom to produce in the
                economies of various early world societies

6.4B.4 Describe the importance of money in early world societies

       6.4B.4a   Describe how early world societies used gold to facilitate trade and
                 help their economies grow

6.4B.5 Identify the role of government in early world societies

       6.4B.5a   Describe the effects of government spending in mercantile systems,
                 such as maintaining a military force in the colonies and investing in
                 ships

6.5    History

6.5A   Settlements and Beginnings of New Societies

6.5A.1 Explain how the rise of the earliest communities led to the emergence of
       agricultural societies

       6.5A.1.a Identify characteristics of hunting and gathering societies, such as
                nomadic lifestyles, inventors of tools, adaptation to animal migration
                and vegetation cycles and the shift from food gathering to food-
                producing activities

       6.5A.1.b Identify innovations that permitted permanent human settlements, such
                as spears, bow and arrows, harpoons, agricultural methods and fire

       6.5A.1.c Explain why towns and cities emerged from human settlements, such as
                the need for security and an organized system of government
6.5A.2. Examine the emergence, growth and decline of empires in the Americas

       6.5A.2.a Describe the development of political and social structures of the Incas,
                Mayans and Aztecs

       6.5A.2.b Explain the distribution of power among the early American empires of
                the Incas, Mayans and Aztecs

       6.5A.2.c Compare the decline of the Incas and the Aztecs
6.5B   Emergence, Expansion and Changes in Nations and Empires

6.5B.1 Explain how civilizations emerged in the river valley areas

       6.5B.1.a Identify the characteristics of a civilization, such as social hierarchy,
                government, writing system, specialization in an area of trade and the
                establishment of cities

       6.5B.1.b Describe major cultural, political and economic achievements of river
                valley civilizations, such as the Tigris and Euphrates River Valley, the
                Huang River Valley, the Indus River Valley and the Nile River Valley
                including Egypt, Nubia and Kush

6.5B.2 Analyze the emergence and enduring influence of Aegean civilizations

       6.5B.2.a Describe the major cultural achievements of the Greek civilization,
                such as art, science, political systems and philosophy

       6.5B.2.b Explain the emergence, rise and decline of the Greek city-states

6.5B.3 Describe the emergence, expansion and decline of the Roman Empire

       6.5B.3.a Describe the major achievements of the Roman Era, such as legal,
                artistic, architectural, technological, and literary

       6.5B.3.b Describe the transition from Roman Republic to Roman Empire
                including the social structure, significance of citizenship and the
                development of political institutions

       6.5B.3.c Describe the causes and consequences of the unification of the
                Mediterranean basin under Roman rule
6.5B.4 Describe the emergence and expansion of dynasties and empires in ancient
       China

       6.5B.4.a Describe the causes and consequences of the unification of China under
                early imperial dynasties, such as the Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han and Tang

       6.5B.4.b Describe the major traditions, customs and beliefs of Confucianism and
                Taoism in the context of early Chinese imperial dynasties

       6.5B.4.c Explain China’s cultural, political and economic influence on Japan,
                Korea and countries in Southeast Asia
6.5B.5 Describe the emergence, growth and decline of African Empires
       6.5B.5a   Describe the contributions of major African monarchies, cities, and
                 trade networks, such as Ghana, Mali and Songhai

       6.5B.5b   Analyze the cultural and economic impact of African regional and
                 worldwide trade routes

6.5C   Conflict Between Ideas and Institutions

6.5C.1 Describe the effect of interactions between civilizations in the ancient world

       6.5C.1.a Describe how these civilizations promoted or failed to promote
                development, such as the Fertile Crescent Empire, Greek city-states,
                Roman Empire, Chinese Dynasties, Indian Empires, African
                Kingdoms, European nation-states and Latin Empires

       6.5C.1.b Analyze the causes of the rise and fall, expansion and contraction of
                political entities and nation-states

6.5C.2 Describe the major traditions, customs and beliefs of Hinduism and
       Buddhism and their expansion throughout Asia

       6.5C.2.a Describe the major traditions, customs and beliefs of Buddhism from
                India throughout Asia

       6.5C.2.b Describe the major traditions, customs and beliefs of Hinduism and its
                political and social impact on India

6.5C.3 Describe the emergence and expansion of Islamic civilization

       6.5C.3.a Describe the founding and the beliefs of Islam

       6.5C.3.b Analyze the influence and impact of the Islamic culture and its
                contributions, such as art, science, medicine, literature and philosophy

       6.5C.3.c Describe causes and consequences of the expansion of Islam into other
                regions, such as Southwest Asia, North Africa, Europe and India

6.5C.4 Analyze the changes in the European society during the Middle Ages

       6.5C.4.a Describe the founding and the beliefs of Christianity

       6.5C.4.b Describe the growth and influence of the Christian church in Europe as
                a social, cultural and political institution

       6.5C.4.c Explain the origins and consequences of the Black Death during the
                14th century, such as bacterium without medicine, its spread by
                 tradesmen, anti-Semitism, population decrease, a decline in trade, the
                 elimination of the social order and the decline of religious power

       6.5C.4.d Analyze the characteristics of the development and decline of
                feudalism and the emergence of monarchies, such as governing and
                land holding practices, the development of the social order under the
                feudal system and the limitations placed on rulers

       6.5C.4.e Describe the causes, consequences and cultural diffusion that resulted
                from the Crusades, such as the increase in Mediterranean trade and the
                exchange of knowledge and ideas

6.6    Social Studies Skills and Processes

6.6A   Read to Learn and Construct Meaning about Social Studies

6.6A.1 Use appropriate strategies and opportunities to increase understanding of
       social studies vocabulary

       6.6A.1.a Acquire and apply new vocabulary through investigating, listening,
                independent reading and discussing a variety of print and non print
                sources

       6.6A.1.b Identify and use new vocabulary acquired through study of their
                relationships to prior knowledge and experiences

       6.6A.1.c Use context clues to understand new social studies vocabulary

       6.6A.1.d Use new vocabulary in speaking and writing to gain and extend content
                knowledge and clarify expression

6.6A.2 Use strategies to prepare for reading (before reading)
       6.6A.2.a Identify the characteristics of informational texts, such as print features,
                graphic aids, informational aids, organizational aids, and online
                features

       6.6A.2.b Preview the text by examining features, such as the title, pictures,
                maps, illustrations, photographs, charts, timelines, graphs and icons

       6.6A.2.c Set a purpose for reading the text

       6.6A.2.d Ask questions and make predictions about the text

       6.6A.2.e Make connections to the text from prior knowledge and experiences
6.6A.3 Use strategies to monitor understanding and make meaning form text
       (during reading)

       6.6A.3.a Identify and use knowledge of organizational structures, such as
                chronological order, cause/effect, main ideas and details, description,
                similarities/differences, and problem/solution to gain meaning

       6.6A.3.b Reread slowly and carefully, restate, or read on and revisit difficult
                parts

       6.6A.3.c Use a graphic organizer or another note-taking technique to record
                important ideas or information

       6.6A.3.d Look back through the text to search for connections between and
                among ideas

       6.6A.3.e Make, confirm, or adjust predictions about the text

       6.6A.3.f Periodically summarize or paraphrase important ideas while reading

       6.6A.3.g Visualize what was read for deeper meaning

       6.6A.3.h Explain personal connections to the ideas or information in the text

6.6A.4 Use strategies to demonstrate understanding of the text (after reading)

       6.6A.4.a Identify and explain what is directly stated in the text

       6.6A.4.b Identify, paraphrase, or summarize the main idea of the text

       6.6A.4.c Determine and explain the author’s purpose

       6.6A.4.d Distinguish between facts and opinions

       6.6A.4.e Explain whether or not the author’s opinion is presented fairly

       6.6A.4.f Explain what is not directly stated in the text by drawing inferences

       6.6A.4.g Confirm or refute predictions made about the text to form new ideas

       6.6A.4.h Connect the text to prior knowledge or personal experiences

       6.6A.4.i Draw conclusions and make generalizations based on the text, multiple
                texts, and/or prior knowledge

6.6B   Write to Learn and Communicate Social Studies Understanding
6.6B.1 Select and use informal writing strategies, such as journal writing, note
       taking, quick writes, and graphic organizers to clarify, organize, remember,
       and/or express new understandings
       6.6B.1.a Identify key ideas

       6.6B.1.b Connect key ideas to prior knowledge (personal experience, text, and
                world)

6.6B.2 Use formal writing, such as multi-paragraphs essay, historical investigations,
       research reports, letters and summaries to inform
       6.6B.2.a Identify form, audience, topic and purpose before writing

       6.6B.2.b Organize facts and/or data to support topic

       6.6B.2.c Provide introduction, body and conclusion

       6.6B.2.d Cite sources when paraphrasing, summarizing and quoting

6.6B.3 Use formal writing, such as multi-paragraphs essay, historical investigations,
       editorials and letters to persuade
       6.6B.3.a Identify form audience, topic and purpose

       6.6B.3.b State a clear opinion or position

       6.6B.3.c Support the opinion or position which facts and/or data

       6.6B.3.d Identify an opposing position

6.6B.4Use timed, on-demand writing to demonstrate understanding on assessments
      (Constructed response)
       6.6B.4.a Address the topic

       6.6B.4.b Provide accurate information

       6.6B.4.c Support topic with appropriate details

       6.6B.4.d Integrate social studies concepts and skills

6.6C   Asking Social Studies Questions

6.6C.1 Identify a topic that requires further study

       6.6C.1.a Identify prior knowledge about a topic
       6.6C.1.b Pose questions about the topic

       6.6C.1.c Formulate research questions

       6.6C.1.d Develop a plan for how to answer questions about the topic

6.6C.2 Identify a situation/issue that requires further study

       6.6C.2.a Define the situation/issue

       6.6C.2.b Identify prior knowledge about the situation/issue

       6.6C.2.c Pose questions about the situation/issue from a variety of perspectives

       6.6C.2.d Pose questions that elicit higher order thinking responses

       6.6C.2.e Formulate research questions

       6.6C.2.f Develop a plan for how to answer questions about the situation/issue

6.6D   Acquiring Social Studies Information

6.6D.1 Identify primary and secondary sources of information that relate to the
       topic/situation/problem being studied

       6.6D.1.a Gather and read appropriate print sources, such as journals, textbooks,
                timelines, trade books, and web sites

       6.6D.1.b Read and obtain information from texts representing diversity in
                content, culture authorship and perspective

       6.6D.1.c Locate and gather data and information from appropriate non print
                sources, such as music, maps, graphs, photographs, video clips,
                illustrations, paintings, cartoons, interviews and oral histories

       6.6D.1.d Access and process information that is factual and reliable from
                reading, investigations, and/or oral communications

6.6D.2 Engage in field work that relates to the topic/situation/problem being studies
       being studied

       6.6D.2.a Gather data

       6.6D.2.b Make and record observations

       6.6D.2.c Design and conduct surveys and oral histories
6.6E. Organize Social Studies Information

6.6E.1 Organize information from non print sources

      6.6E.1.a Prioritize information gathered according to importance and relevance

      6.6E.1.b Distinguish factual from fictional information

      6.6E.1.c Find relationships among gathered information

      6.6E.1.d Display information on various types of graphic organizers, maps and
               charts

      6.6E.1.e Summarize information obtained from surveys and field work

6.6E.2 Organize information from print sources

      6.6E.2.a Prioritize information gathered according to importance and relevance

      6.6E.2.b Determine the bias and reliability of a source

      6.6E.2.c Find relationships among gathered information

      6.6E.2.d Construct various types of graphic organizers, maps and charts to
               display information

6.6F. Analyze Social Studies Information

6.6F.1 Interpret information from primary and secondary sources

      6.6F.1.a Interpret information in maps, charts and graphs

      6.6F.1.b Interpret information from field studies and surveys

      6.6F.1.c Analyze a document to determine point of view

      6.6F.1.d Analyze the perspective of the author to determine if the document or
               topic is historically significant

      6.6F.1.e Identify the bias and prejudice

6.6F.2 Evaluate information from a variety of sources

      6.6F.2.a   Compare information from a variety of sources
       6.6F.2.b   Compare information to prior knowledge

       6.6F.2.c   Determine the reliability of the document

6.6F.3 Synthesize information from a variety of sources

       6.6F.3.a Recognize relationships in and among ideas or events, such as cause
                and effect, sequential order, main idea and details

       6.6F.3.b Reconstruct the arguments of issues or events

       6.6F.3.c Assess the costs and benefits of alternatives

       6.6F.3.d Modify understandings of social studies concepts and trends

       6.6F.3.e Verify or change prior understandings based on new information

6.6G. Answer Social Studies Questions

6.6G.1 Describe how the world has changed over time and how people have
       contributed to its change, drawing from maps, photographs, newspapers and
       other sources

       6.6G.1.a Present social studies information in creative ways, such as mock trials,
                simulations, debates, and skits

       6.6G.1.b Engage in civic participation and public discourse

       6.6G.1.c Use effective speaking techniques to deliver narrative, persuasive and
                research presentations

6.6G.2 Use historic contexts to answer questions

       6.6G.2.a Use historically accurate resources to answer questions, make
                predictions and support ideas

       6.6G.2.b Explain why historic interpretations vary and are subject to change

       6.6G.2.c Construct a sound historical interpretation

       6.6G.2.d Understand the meaning, implication and impact of historic events and
                recognize that events could have taken other directions

6.6G.3 Use current events/issues to answer questions

       6.6G.3.a Summarize the main points of an issue explaining different viewpoints
6.6G.3.b Make a decision based on the analysis of issues and evaluate the
         consequences of these decisions

6.6G.3.c Identify and formulate a position on a course of action on an issue

6.6G.3.d Propose and justify solutions to social studies problems
           VSC Indicators and Instructional Objectives for Social Studies
                                 Seventh Grade

7.1    Political Science

7.1A   The Foundations and Function of Government

7.1A.1 Compare the characteristics and structure of various systems of government
       around the world

       7.1A.1.a Describe the advantages and disadvantages of limited governments,
                such as representative democracy and parliamentary democracy

       7.1A.1.b Describe the advantages and disadvantages of unlimited government,
                such as authoritarian and dictatorships

       7.1A.1.c Explain how nation-states interact with each other

       7.1A.1.d Describe how past events assisted or impeded the development of
                nations, such as the founding of Israel, the break up of the Soviet Union
                and the fall of the Iron Curtain

7.1A.2 Analyze the historic events, documents, and practices that are the
       foundations of political systems around the world

       7.1A.2.a Identify examples of historic events, documents and practices that have
                influenced individuals and groups around the world, such as the UN
                Declaration of Rights, German reunification, the formation of NATO,
                and Apartheid

7.1A.3 Describe the roles of governments around the world regarding public policy
       and issues

       7.1A.3.a Compare the various policies of governments in addressing issues, such
                as health, poverty, crime, security, and environmental concerns

       7.1A.3.b Describe the effect that the different world regions have on shaping
                international interests, such as rainforest conservation, ozone depletion,
                oil drilling, pollution, nuclear power, and alternative energy sources

7.1B   Individual and Group Participation in the Political System

7.1B.1 Analyze the methods used by individuals and groups to shape governmental
       policy and actions

       7.1B.1.a Evaluate ways citizens use, monitor and influence the formation and
                implementation of public policy
       7.1B.1.b Describe how political parties and special interest groups influence
                and change government policy, such as third parties, and non-
                governmental organizations

       7.1B.1.c Analyze the role of media and public opinion in shaping government
                policy and action

       7.1B.1.d Compare methods used to change governments, such as coups,
                elections and revolts

7.1C   Protecting Rights and Maintaining Order

7.1C.1 Describe the rights and responsibilities of being a citizen in an ancient world
       civilization

       7.1C.1.a Describe responsibilities associated with certain basic rights in a global
                society

       7.1C.1.b Explain how international rules and laws protect individual rights and
                protect the common good, such as the U.N. Declaration of Human
                Rights, European Union membership, Geneva Conventions

7.1C.2 Explain how governments around the world protect or fail to protect the
       rights of individuals and groups

       7.1C.2.a Explain how the definition of the common good differs in limited and
                unlimited governments

       7.1C.2.b Explain how the balance between providing for the common good and
                protecting individual rights differs in governments around the world,
                such as the political tension in Northern Ireland and Chile

7.1C.3 Examine the impact of governmental decisions on the rights of individuals
       and groups around the world

       7.1C.3.a Explain the role of international organizations and policies in
                maintaining order during a time of crisis, such as the International Red
                Cross, the United Nations, the Geneva Conventions, the World Health
                Organization (WHO), United States Agency for International
                Development (USAID)


7.2A   Elements of Culture

7.2A.1 Analyze characteristics that are used to organize people into cultures
       7.2A.1.a Apply understandings of the elements of culture to the studies of
                modern world regions, such as art, music, religion, government, social
                structure, education, values, beliefs and customs

       7.2A.1.b Describe the characteristics of a sovereign nation, such as the legitimate
                use of authority, autonomy and establishment of borders

       7.2A.1.c Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of democratic and
                authoritarian political systems throughout the world

7.2B   Cultural Diffusion

7.2B.1 Analyze how diverse cultures shape a pluralistic society

       7.2B.1.a Identify cultural groups within a modern world region

       7.2B.1.b Describe how migration contributes to the diversity of nations and
                regions around the world

       7.2B.1.C Analyze how cultural diffusion is influenced by factors, such as trade,
                migration, immigration and conflict

7.2B.2 Examine how increasing diversity in global societies results from
       immigration, settlement and economic development

       7.2B.2.a Examine policies related to human rights, such as foreign aid, subsidies
                to developing countries, ethnic persecution and economic sanctions

       7.2B.2.b Examine contemporary world wide concerns that affect international
                relationships, such as world health, nation-building, national security,
                weapons of mass destruction

7.2C   Conflict and Compromise

7.2C.1 Analyze major sources of tension, cooperation and conflict in the world and
       the efforts that have been made to address them

       7.2C.1.a Evaluate causes of conflict in the global community, such as Apartheid,
                the acquisition of natural resources like oil or water, the decline of
                communism, ethnic persecution, weapons of mass destruction and
                domestic and international terrorism

       7.2C.1.b Analyze and describe the efforts of world nations and groups to assist
                in the resolution of conflicts within and among regions, such as the
                United Nations, the International Red Cross and other humanitarian
                organizations
       7.2C.1.c Analyze and describe efforts by nations to promote cooperation within
                and among those regions, such as the creation of the International
                Monetary Fund, North American Free Trade Agreement, United
                Nations, European Union and world-wide healthcare initiatives

7.3    Geography

7.3A   Using Geographic Tools

7.3A.1 Locate places and describe the human and physical characteristics of those
       places using geographic tools

       7.3A.1.a Describe the human and physical characteristics of modern world
                regions, such as distribution of natural resources and modifications to
                the environment, by constructing, interpreting and using appropriate
                maps, graphs, charts and data

       7.3A.1.b Compare climate, land use, natural resources, population distribution,
                demographics and density maps of a world region

       7.3A.1.c Analyze thematic maps to determine demographic and economic
                information about a region

7.3B   Geographic Characteristics of Places and Regions

7.3B.1 Analyze interrelationships among physical and human characteristics that
       shape the identity of regions and places around the world

       7.3B.1.a Explain how physical and human characteristics of a region such as
                vegetation, climate, minerals, population density and religion, affect its
                economic growth

       7.3B.1.b Compare how the physical and human characteristics of regions, such
                as climate and vegetation (desert, tropical) and population distribution
                (urban and rural) affect the way people make a living

       7.3B.1.c Analyze how the characteristics of world regions define and shape
                world politics

       7.3B.1.d Analyze how regional characteristics and interests including economic
                development, climate and the environment impact government policies

       7.3B.1.e Explain how geographic factors influence international relations and
                policies, such as the Three Gorges Dam project
       7.3B.1.f Identify geographic factors that have influenced economic development
                in world regions, such as international organization, infrastructure and
                health issues

7.3C   Movement of People, Goods and Ideas

7.3C.1 Analyze and describe population growth, migration and settlement patterns

       7.3C.1.a Identify reasons why people migrate, such as economic opportunity,
                climate, political reasons and government policies

       7.3C.1.b Analyze the patterns of migration and settlement within regions and
                throughout the world, such as urban to suburban, rural to urban or
                immigration

       7.3C.1.c Evaluate the consequences of migration and settlement in various
                regions of the world, such as employment, changes in population and
                cultural diversity/conflict

       7.3C.1.d Examine population patterns, trends and projections in places and
                regions and explain how these affect the environment and influence
                government policies
7.3D   Modifying and Adapting the Environment

7.3D.1 Analyze how and why humans modify their natural environment and the
       impact of those modifications

       7.3D.1.a Identify trade offs of using resources to pursue economic opportunities
                v. preserving the environment, such as water use, the burning of fossil
                fuels, deforestation and strip mining

       7.3D.1.b Explain the consequences of modifying the natural environment, such
                as desertification, air pollution and global warming

       7.3D.1.c Evaluate the way governments develop policy to address land use and
                environmental issues, such as urban sprawl and environmental
                preservation

7.4    Economics

7.4A   Scarcity and Economic Decision-making

7.4A.1 Explain that people must make choices because resources are limited relative
       to wants for goods and services in the world today
       7.4A.1.a Identify the costs, including opportunity cost, and the benefits of
                economic decisions made by individuals, businesses and governments
                in the world today, such as decisions about investing in education and
                about trade
7.4A.2 Describe how scarcity of natural, human and capital resources affects
       economic choices producers and consumers make in the world today

       7.4A.2.a Describe the importance of different economic goals in different
                countries and how the importance of these goals affects the way people
                use resources, such as subsistence farming v. commercial farming,
                pursuit of economic growth, and sustainable development

       7.4A.2.b Identify opportunity costs and trade offs in decisions made in the
                production, distributions, and consumption of goods and services

       7.4A.2.c Explain how available resources affect specialization and trade in the
                modern world

7.4A.3 Explain how technological changes have affected the production and
       consumption of goods and services in the modern world

       7.4A.3.a Give examples in the modern world of how technology has changed the
                production and consumption of goods and services, such as the
                development of computers, supertankers, oil pipelines, surveillance
                equipment, fiber optics and nanotechnolology

7.4A.4 Compare the levels of specialization and economic development in different
       parts of the modern world

       7.4A.4.a Describe the standard of living and the quality of life in a world region
                using economic characteristics, such as Gross National Product (GNP),
                Gross Domestic Product (GDP), per capita income and the Human
                Development Index (HDI)

       7.4A.4.b Identify factors that have influenced economic development in various
                regions, such as individuals, corporations, natural resources,
                technology, military power, population growth, international
                organizations, infrastructure and public health issues

7.4B   Economics Systems and the Role of Government in the Economy

7.4B.1 Describe examples of tradition, command and market in economies in the
       modern world
       7.4B.1.a Compare the ways producers, sellers and consumers communicate
                supply and demand information in different countries and regions in the
                modern world, such as face to face and using various electronic
                mediums

       7.4B.1.b Describe examples of tradition in modern world economies, such as
                who receives education and the economic roles of men and women

       7.4B.1.c Describe examples of command in modern economies, such as
                government ownership of land and other resources
7.4B.2 Explain the involvement of government in the economies of various countries
       in the modern world

       7.4B.2.a Identify the elements of tradition, command and market decisions in
                modern economies

       7.4B.2.b Describe the relative importance of command v. market in economies
                of countries in the modern world

       7.4B.2.c Compare the involvement of government in the economies of countries
                with respect to providing goods and services and regulating market
                activities

       7.4B.2.d Describe the ways that governments can help or impede economic
                activity in the modern world, such as providing a stable monetary
                system, protecting property rights, maintaining infrastructure, providing
                stable political environments and providing public goods and services

7.4B.3 Examine the economic, social, and political impact of regulatory agencies in
       different countries in the modern world

       7.4B.3.a Give examples of how contemporary governments regulate business
                and consumer behavior, such as air traffic management and
                environmental protection

7.4B.4 Describe the money and banking systems in various countries in the modern
       world

       7.4B.5.a Explain why a stable money and banking system is necessary for an
                economy to grow and prosper
7.4B5. Identify the role of government in the economies of modern world societies

       7.4B.5.a Give examples of how government spending and taxation influence an
                economy’s ability to grow and provide jobs and services in the modern
                world
7.5    History

7.5A   Settlements and Beginnings of New Societies

7.5B   Emergence, Expansion and Changes in Nations and Empires

7.5B.1 Describe the effects of interactions between religious, political and social
       institutions on the modern world

       7.5B.1.a Describe the social, political and economic impacts of various world
                religions on a global society, such as Judaism, Christianity, Islam,
                Hinduism, Taoism and Buddhism

       7.5B.1.b Describe the effect of political and cultural changes in nations in the
                modern world, such as Independence from British Colonial rule in
                India, democratic reforms in China

7.5C   Conflict Between Ideas and Institutions

7.5C.1 Explain the major sources of tension and conflict in the modern world

       7.5C.1.a Describe how the changes in political structures impacted individuals
                and groups, such as African Independence movements, Arab-Israeli
                conflict, the war in the Balkans and the breakup of the Soviet Union

       7.5C.1.b Describe the impact of philosophies and policies of leaders in the
                modern world, such as Adolf Hitler, Joseph Stalin, Fidel Castro,
                Ayatollah Khomeini, Mahatma Ghandi, Winston Churchill, Dwight D.
                Eisenhower

7.6    Social Studies Skills and Processes

7.6A   Read to Learn and Construct Meaning about Social Studies

7.6A.1 Use appropriate strategies and opportunities to increase understanding of
       social studies vocabulary

       7.6A.1.a Acquire and apply new vocabulary through investigating, listening,
                independent reading and discussing a variety of print and non print
                sources

       7.6A.1.b Identify and use new vocabulary acquired through study of their
                relationships to prior knowledge and experiences

       7.6A.1.c Use context clues to understand new social studies vocabulary
       7.6A.1.d Use new vocabulary in speaking and writing to gain and extend content
                knowledge and clarify expression

7.6A.2 Use strategies to prepare for reading (before reading)
       7.6A.2.a Identify the characteristics of informational texts, such as print features,
                graphic aids, informational aids, organizational aids, and online
                features

       7.6A.2.b Preview the text by examining features, such as the title, pictures,
                maps, illustrations, photographs, charts, timelines, graphs and icons

       7.6A.2.c Set a purpose for reading the text

       7.6A.2.d Ask questions and make predictions about the text

       7.6A.2.e Make connections to the text from prior knowledge and experiences

7.6A.3 Use strategies to monitor understanding and make meaning form text
       (during reading)

       7.6A.3.a Identify and use knowledge of organizational structures, such as
                chronological order, cause/effect, main ideas and details, description,
                similarities/differences, and problem/solution to gain meaning

       7.6A.3.b Reread slowly and carefully, restate, or read on and revisit difficult
                parts

       7.6A.3.c Use a graphic organizer or another note-taking technique to record
                important ideas or information

       7.6A.3.d Look back through the text to search for connections between and
                among ideas

       7.6A.3.e Make, confirm, or adjust predictions about the text

       7.6A.3.f Periodically summarize or paraphrase important ideas while reading

       7.6A.3.g Visualize what was read for deeper meaning

       7.6A.3.h Explain personal connections to the ideas or information in the text

7.6A.4 Use strategies to demonstrate understanding of the text (after reading)

       7.6A.4.a Identify and explain what is directly stated in the text
       7.6A.4.b Identify, paraphrase, or summarize the main idea of the text

       7.6A.4.c Determine and explain the author’s purpose

       7.6A.4.d Distinguish between facts and opinions

       7.6A.4.e Explain whether or not the author’s opinion is presented fairly

       7.6A.4.f Explain what is not directly stated in the text by drawing inferences

       7.6A.4.g Confirm or refute predictions made about the text to form new ideas

       7.6A.4.h Connect the text to prior knowledge or personal experiences

       7.6A.4.i Draw conclusions and make generalizations based on the text, multiple
                texts, and/or prior knowledge

7.6B   Write to Learn and Communicate Social Studies Understanding

7.6B.1 Select and use informal writing strategies, such as journal writing, note
       taking, quick writes, and graphic organizers to clarify, organize, remember,
       and/or express new understandings
       7.6B.1.a Identify key ideas

       7.6B.1.b Connect key ideas to prior knowledge (personal experience, text, and
                world)

7.6B.2 Use formal writing, such as multi-paragraphs essay, historical investigations,
       research reports, letters and summaries to inform
       7.6B.2.a Identify form, audience, topic and purpose before writing

       7.6B.2.b Organize facts and/or data to support topic

       7.6B.2.c Provide introduction, body and conclusion

       7.6B.2.d Cite sources when paraphrasing, summarizing and quoting

       7.6B.2.e Enhance text with graphics, such as charts, maps and diagrams

7.6B.3 Use formal writing, such as multi-paragraphs essay, historical investigations,
       editorials and letters to persuade
       7.6B.3.a Identify form audience, topic and purpose

       7.6B.3.b State a clear opinion or position
       7.6B.3.c Support the opinion or position which facts and/or data

       7.6B.3.d Identify an opposing position

7.6B.4Use timed, on-demand writing to demonstrate understanding on assessments
      (Constructed response)
       7.6B.4.a Address the topic

       7.6B.4.b Provide accurate information

       7.6B.4.c Support topic with appropriate details

       7.6B.4.d Integrate social studies concepts and skills

7.6C   Asking Social Studies Questions

7.6C.1 Identify a topic that requires further study

       7.6C.1.a Identify prior knowledge about a topic

       7.6C.1.b Pose questions about the topic

       7.6C.1.c Formulate research questions

       7.6C.1.d Develop a plan for how to answer questions about the topic

7.6C.2 Identify a situation/issue that requires further study

       7.6C.2.a Define the situation/issue

       7.6C.2.b Identify prior knowledge about the situation/issue

       7.6C.2.c Pose questions about the situation/issue from a variety of perspectives

       7.6C.2.d Pose questions that elicit higher order thinking responses

       7.6C.2.e Formulate research questions

       7.6C.2.f Develop a plan for how to answer questions about the situation/issue

7.6D   Acquiring Social Studies Information

7.6D.1 Identify primary and secondary sources of information that relate to the
       topic/situation/problem being studied
       7.6D.1.a Gather and read appropriate print sources, such as journals, textbooks,
                timelines, trade books, and web sites

       7.6D.1.b Read and obtain information from texts representing diversity in
                content, culture authorship and perspective

       7.6D.1.c Locate and gather data and information from appropriate non print
                sources, such as music, maps, graphs, photographs, video clips,
                illustrations, paintings, cartoons, interviews and oral histories

       7.6D.1.d Access and process information that is factual and reliable from
                reading, investigations, and/or oral communications

7.6D.2 Engage in field work that relates to the topic/situation/problem being studies
       being studied

       7.6D.2.a Gather data

       7.6D.2.b Make and record observations

       7.6D.2.c Design and conduct surveys and oral histories

7.6E. Organize Social Studies Information

7.6E.1 Organize information from non print sources

       7.6E.1.a Prioritize information gathered according to importance and relevance

       7.6E.1.b Distinguish factual from fictional information

       7.6E.1.c Find relationships among gathered information

       7.6E.1.d Display information on various types of graphic organizers, maps and
                charts

       7.6E.1.e Summarize information obtained from surveys and field work

7.6E.2 Organize information from print sources

       7.6E.2.a Prioritize information gathered according to importance and relevance

       7.6E.2.b Determine the bias and reliability of a source

       7.6E.2.c Find relationships among gathered information
      7.6E.2.d Construct various types of graphic organizers, maps and charts to
               display information

7.6F. Analyze Social Studies Information

7.6F.1 Interpret information from primary and secondary sources

      7.6F.1.a Interpret information in maps, charts and graphs

      7.6F.1.b Interpret information from field studies and surveys

      7.6F.1.c Analyze a document to determine point of view

      7.6F.1.d Analyze the perspective of the author to determine if the document or
               topic is historically significant

      7.6F.1.e Identify the bias and prejudice

7.6F.2 Evaluate information from a variety of sources

      7.6F.2.a   Compare information from a variety of sources

      7.6F.2.b   Compare information to prior knowledge

      7.6F.2.c   Determine the reliability of the document

      7.6F.2.d   Compare ideas, models, systems and perspectives

7.6F.3 Synthesize information from a variety of sources

      7.6F.3.a Recognize relationships in and among ideas or events, such as cause
               and effect, sequential order, main idea and details

      7.6F.3.b Reconstruct the arguments of issues or events

      7.6F.3.c Assess the costs and benefits of alternatives

      7.6F.3.d Modify understandings of social studies concepts and trends

      7.6F.3.e Verify or change prior understandings based on new information

7.6G. Answer Social Studies Questions

7.6G.1 Describe how the world has changed over time and how people have
       contributed to its change, drawing from maps, photographs, newspapers and
       other sources
       7.6G.1.a Present social studies information in creative ways, such as mock trials,
                simulations, debates, and skits

       7.6G.1.b Engage in civic participation and public discourse

       7.6G.1.c Use effective speaking techniques to deliver narrative, persuasive and
                research presentations

7.6G.2 Use historic contexts to answer questions

       7.6G.2.a Use historically accurate resources to answer questions, make
                predictions and support ideas

       7.6G.2.b Explain why historic interpretations vary and are subject to change

       7.6G.2.c Construct a sound historical interpretation

       7.6G.2.d Understand the meaning, implication and impact of historic events and
                recognize that events could have taken other direction

7.6G.3 Use current events/issues to answer questions

       7.6G.3.a Summarize the main points of an issue explaining different viewpoints

       7.6G.3.b Make a decision based on the analysis of issues and evaluate the
                consequences of these decisions

       7.6G.3.c Identify and formulate a position on a course of action on an issue

       7.6G.3.d Propose and justify solutions to social studies problems

       7.6G.3.e Use media resources to deliberate and advocate issues and policy
           VSC Indicators and Instructional Objectives for Social Studies
                                  Eighth Grade

8.1    Political Science

8.1.A The Foundations and Function of Government

8.1A.1 Describe the evolution of the U.S. political system as expressed in the United
       States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights.

       8.1A.1.a Compare the confederate form of government under the Articles of
                Confederation with the federal form under the Constitution

       8.1A.1.b Describe the principles of federalism, popular sovereignty, rule of
                law, consent of the governed, separation of powers, checks and
                balances, majority rule, limited government and how they protect
                individual rights and impact the functioning of government

       8.1A.1.c Describe how the powers and functions of the three branches of
                government are divided and shared to protect people’s sovereignty

       8.1A.1.d Explain how the supremacy of the national government was defined by
                events, such as Shay’s Rebellion and early decisions of the Supreme
                Court, such as McCulloch v. Maryland

       8.1A.1.e Describe the role and responsibility of a legislator in a representative
                democracy

       8.1A.1.f Explain the impact of precedence in the office of the President, such as
                the establishment of a cabinet and foreign policy

       8.1A.1.g Describe an individual’s legal obligations to obey the law, pay taxes,
                serve on a jury and serve as a witness

8.1A.2 Analyze the impact of historic documents and practices that became the
       foundations of the American political system during the early national period

       8.1A.2.a Explain how government affects individuals

       8.1A.2.b Explain what government is and evaluate why governments are formed

       8.1A.2.c Explain how the philosophies of Hobbes, Locke and Montesquieu
                influenced the principles that shaped United States government
       8.1A.2.d Explain how historic documents, such as the Magna Carta, English
                Bill of Rights and Mayflower Compact influenced the framers during
                the development of the U.S. Constitution

       8.1A.2.e Describe the significance of principles in the development of the
                Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, Preamble,
                U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights

       8.1A.2.f Describe the major debates and compromises that occurred during the
                Constitutional Convention and their effects on the ratification process

       8.1A.2.g Describe the development of political parties and their effects on
                elections and political life

       8.1A.2.h Evaluate the significance of the Civil War Amendments (13th, 14th
                and 15th) and how they expanded protections in the Bill of Rights

8.1A.3 Evaluate roles and policies of the United States government regarding public
       policy and issues

       8.1A.3.a Examine the effect that national interests have on shaping government
                policy, such as the abolitionist movement and slavery, states’ rights,
                and regional commerce

       8.1A.3.b Evaluate regional and international perspectives regarding the
                formation and implementation of public policy, such as Washington’s
                Farewell Address, Monroe Doctrine, westward expansion,
                sectionalism, plantation holders in the South v. the industrialists in the
                North

8.1B   Individual and Group Participation in the Political System

8.1B.1 Analyze the influence of individuals and groups on shaping public policy

       8.1B.1.a Analyze the influence of the media on political life

       8.1B.1.b Explain how the media, interest groups, and public opinion affected
                elected officials and government policy prior to the Civil War

       8.1B.1.c Evaluate ways the citizens should use, monitor and influence the
                formation and implementation of public policy

       8.1B.1.D Examine the roles and functions of political parties in the American
                system of government
8.1B.2 Explain the importance of civic participation as a citizen of the United States
       8.1B.2.a Evaluate ways people can participate in the political process including
                voting, analyzing the media, petitioning elected officials, and
                volunteering

       8.1B.2.b Analyze the concept of citizenship and explain how the concept has
                changed from colonial times through Reconstruction

       8.1B.2.c Explain how various groups provide opportunities for individuals to
                participate in the political process
8.1C   Protecting Rights and Maintaining Order

8.1C.1 Describe the impact of landmark Supreme Court decisions on governmental
       powers, rights, and responsibilities of citizens

       8.1C.1.a Describe responsibilities associated with certain basic rights of citizens,
                such as freedom of speech, religion, and press, and explain why these
                responsibilities are important

       8.1C.1.b Explain how rules and laws protect individual rights and protect the
                common good

       8.1C.1.c Explain the significance of the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case
                Marbury v. Madison (1803)

       8.1C.1.d Analyze the significance of the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case
                McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
8.1C.2 Explain how the United States government protected or failed to protect the
       rights of individuals and groups

       8.1C.2.a Describe provisions and effects of the Emancipation Proclamation

       8.1C.2.b Explain the protections and provisions of the Civil War Amendments
                (13th, 14th and 15th)

       8.1C.2.c Examine the use of Presidential power in Lincoln’s suspension of the
                writ of habeas corpus

       8.1C.2.d Describe methods that were used to deny civil rights to women, African
                Americans and Native Americans, such as Jim Crow laws
8.1C.4 Examine the principle of due process

       8.1C.4.a Identify how due process of law protects the accused
       8.1C.4.b Describe the due process protections in the Bill of Rights and the 14th
                Amendment

       8.1C.4.c Explain the limitations of due process protections before the Civil War

8.2A   Elements of Culture

8.2A.1 Analyze why America is a diverse society

       8.2A.1.a Describe the influence of religious tolerance and intolerance in the
                colonies from 1763-1787

       8.2A.1.b Describe how the colonies developed into diverse states reflecting
                various cultural elements

       8.2A.1.c Explain the interaction of cultures prior to the Civil War

       8.2A.1.d Trace the evolution of the United States government from confederate
                to federal forms

8.2B   Cultural Diffusion

8.2B.1 Analyze how America continued to evolve into a society consisting of diverse
       cultures, customs, and traditions

       8.2B.1.a Describe the effects of cultural exchange and interactions among
                Europeans, Africans and Native Americans on the development of the
                United States

       8.2B.1.b Analyze issues regarding assimilation, immigration and nativism

8.2B.2 Describe how the increased diversity of American culture resulted from
       immigration, settlement and economic development in the United States

       8.2B.2.a Explain how the interaction of different ethnic, religious and gender
                groups resulted in cooperation and conflict

       8.2B.2.b Describe the effect of trade and trade policies, such as tariffs and
                economic sanctions, on relationships with other countries

8.2C   Conflict and Compromise

8.2C.1 Explain situations that illustrate conflicts between conscience and respect for
       authority

       8.2C.1.a Explain differing points of view about slavery and states’ rights
       8.2C.1.b Describe various reform movements, such as abolition, women’s rights
                and education reform

       8.2C.1.c Describe the effects of early industrialization on individuals and
                families

       8.2C.1.d Describe how War of 1812 created a spirit of emerging nationalism
                within the United States

       8.2C.1.e Describe how cultural, economic and political differences contributed
                to sectionalism

       8.2C.1.f Analyze factors that contributed to armed conflicts, such as the War of
                1812, the Mexican-American War, border disputes and freedom of the
                seas

8.3    Geography

8.3A   Using Geographic Tools

8.3A.1 Analyze geographic issues and problems using geographic tools

       8.3A.1.a Locate places and describe the human and physical characteristics
                using thematic maps, such as settlement patterns, migration, population
                density, transportation and communication networks prior to 1877

       8.3A.1.b Explain interrelationships among physical and human characteristics
                that shaped the nation

       8.3A.1.c    Analyze thematic maps to determine demographic and economic
                  information about a region

8.3B   Geographic Characteristics of Places and Regions

8.3B.1 Analyze how geographic characteristics influenced the location and
       development of regions

       8.3B.1.a Analyze how geographic characteristics influenced the location and
                development of economic activities, such as farming, lumbering, fur
                trading, whaling and the rise of the industry in the early national period

       8.3B.1.b Describe how changes in transportation systems, such as roads, canals
                and railroads affected the expansion of trade and settlement

       8.3B.1.c Analyze how geographic characteristics stimulated regional growth,
                such as the purchase of the Louisiana Territory
8.3C   Movement of People, Goods and Ideas

8.3C.1 Analyze the geographic characteristics that have influenced migration and
settlement patterns

       8.3C.1.a Explain why Americans migrated west, such as fertile soil, abundant
                resources and economic opportunity, and the impact on that region

       8.3C.1.b Describe the effects of the influx of immigrants on the United States

       8.3C.1.c Explain how the demographic factors of constituents, such as race,
                ethnicity, education and wealth affect public policy and voting issues

8.3D   Modifying and Adapting the Environment

8.3D.1 Analyze how and why people modify their natural environment and the
       impact of those modifications

       8.3D.1.a Analyze the trade offs of using resources to pursue economic
                opportunities v. preserving the environment, such as westward
                movement

       8.3D.1.b Explain the consequences of modifying the natural environment, such
                as canals, waterways, clearing land and mining

       8.3D.1.c Analyze how the federal government controlled the use of land and
                managed growth, such as the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the
                Northwest Ordinance of 1787

8.4    Economics

8.4A   Scarcity and Economic Decision-making

8.4A.1 Explain that people made choices because resources were limited relative to
       wants for goods and services in America

       8.4A.1.a Identify the costs, including opportunity cost, and the benefits of
                economic decisions by individuals, businesses and governments in the
                U.S. through 1877, such as the decision about westward expansion

       8.4A.1.b Analyze the economic consequences of the Civil War


8.4A.2 Analyze how scarcity affected the choices in the production of goods and
       services
       8.4A.2.a Describe the relationship among available resources, production and
                consumption in different regions of the United States between 1850 and
                1865

       8.4A.2.b Compare the importance of economic freedom, economic efficiency
                and economic equity on growth in the North and South prior to 1860

       8.4A.2.c Explain how available resources affected specialization and trade in the
                United States through 1877

       8.4A.2.d Compare the importance of various socio-economic goals in the North
                and South prior to the Civil War

8.4A.3 Describe the influence of technology and resource use on the growth of the
       United States through 1877

       8.4A.3.a Describe the effects of technological change, new technologies and
                resource use on economic growth, such as factories, machinery, roads
                and the telegraph

       8.4A.3.b Describe how the technology of the industrial North influenced the
                outcome of the Civil War

8.4A.4 Compare economic decisions about specialization in the North and the South
       before and after the Civil War

       8.4A.4.a Analyze the growth, economic costs and economic benefits of the
                institution of slavery

       8.4A.4.b Describe how differences between the economic foundations of the
                agrarian South and the industrial North heightened tensions among the
                economic, social and political regions of the United States

       8.4A.4.c Examine the importance of population growth and trade to economic
                development prior to the Civil War

       8.4A.4.d Describe the economic opportunities and obstacles faced by different
                individuals and groups of people during this era

8.4B   Economics Systems and the Role of Government in the Economy

8.4B.1 Describe the effects of political hostilities on supply and demand

       8.4B.1.a Explain the effects of tariffs and embargoes on the supply of goods
       8.4B.1.b Explain the effects of the Civil War on the supply of various goods and
                services demanded by the consumers

8.4B.2 Explain how the development of the United States’ economic system included
       a role for government in the economy

       8.4B.2.a Describe the difficulties related to currency, debt and trade under the
                Articles of Confederation

       8.4B.2.b Explain how the underlying principles of the Constitution provided for
                the protection of private property rights, regulation of trade, imposition
                of taxes and creation of a monetary system and why these
                characteristics were necessary for the growth of the economy

       8.4B.2.c Give examples of goods and services provided by government prior to
                and during the Civil War

       8.4B.2.d Describe examples of traditional, market and command decision-
                making in the early United States economy

8.4B.4 Describe the effects of government actions on the banking system prior to
       1877

       8.4B.4.a Describe the effects of the boom and bust cycles on economic growth
                and stability

       8.4B.4.b Describe the effects of the absence of a national banking system on
                economic stability, such as the effects of the panic of 1837

8.4B.5. Identify the role of government in the U.S. economy prior to 1877

       8.4B.5.a Give examples of how government spending and taxation influenced
                the U.S economy’s ability to grow and provide jobs, such as the
                expansion of the railroad system

8.5    History

8.5A   Settlements and Beginnings of New Societies

8.5B   Emergence, Expansion and Changes in Nations and Empires

8.5B.1 Analyze reasons for exploration and the acquisition of territories

       8.5B.1.a Explain the political and economic impact of the Louisiana Purchase on
                the United States
       8.5B.1.b Explain Manifest Destiny and its impact on territorial expansion of the
                nation

8.5B.2 Describe the importance of Jacksonian Democracy and how it represented a
       change in the social, political and economic life of the United States

       8.5B.2.a Explain how the philosophies and policies of the Jacksonian Era
                represented a move towards greater democratization

       8.5B.2.b Explain how tariff policy and issues of states’ rights influenced
                political party development and prompted sectional differences

8.5B.3 Evaluate westward movement in the United States

       8.5B.3.a Describe the political, economic and social factors that motivated
                people to move west

       8.5B.3.b Describe the government strategies used to acquire territory

       8.5B.3.c Analyze the impact of westward movement on relations with Native
                Americans, such as treaty relations, land acquisition and the policy of
                Indian Removal
8.5B.4 Analyze patterns of immigration to the United States before 1877

       8.5B.4.a Identify the push and pull factors responsible for immigration to the
                United States, such as the forced migration of Africans and Western
                European migration

       8.5B.4.b Analyze the causes and describe the characteristics of the rapid
                settlement of California and Oregon in the late 1840s and 1850s

8.5B.5 Analyze the political, economic and social goals of Reconstruction

       8.5B.5.a Explain the goals and policies of the various Reconstruction plans

       8.5B.5.b Explain how the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments addressed the issue
                of civil rights through abolition, the granting of citizenship and the
                right to vote

       8.5B.5.c Describe the origin of the Ku Klux Klan and its impact on post- Civil
                War society

       8.5B.5.d Evaluate the effects of the Freedman’s Bureau

       8.5B.5.e Evaluate the impact of the Reconstruction period on the lives of
                African Americans, such as Jim Crow laws and sharecropping
8.5C   Conflict Between Ideas and Institutions

8.5C.1 Identify and explain the role of religious, social and political institutions in
       America at the end of the American Revolution

       8.5C.1.a Describe the religious, ethnic and cultural perspectives of the New
                England, Middle and Southern colonies

       8.5C.1.b Sequence the escalation of tensions that led to the American Revolution

       8.5C.1.c Identify the political effects of the American Revolution on American
                society and culture
8.5C.2 Describe the evolution of the American system of government

       8.5C.2.a Identify how the United States changed from a confederal to a federal
                system of government.

       8.5C.2.b Describe unresolved issues regarding social, economic and political
                positions of Native Americans, free blacks, slaves, women, indentured
                servants and the poor

8.5C.3 Explain the emerging foreign policy of the United States

       8.5C.3.a Explain why the United States adopted a policy of neutrality prior to
                the War of 1812

       8.5C.3.b. Explain how the continuing conflict between Great Britain and France
                 influenced the domestic and foreign policy of the United States

       8.5C.3.c Describe the origins and provisions of the Monroe Doctrine and explain
                how it influenced foreign affairs

       8.5C.3.d Explain causes and effects of the Mexican-American War
8.5C.4 Analyze the influence of industrialization and technological developments on
       society in the United States

       8.5C.4.a Describe changes in land and water transportation, including the
                expanding network of roads, canals, and railroads, and their impact on
                the economy and settlement patterns

       8.5C.4.b Explain how the cotton gin and the opening of new lands in the South
                and West impacted the institution of slavery
       8.5C.4.c Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of early industrialization on
                the economy and society

8.5C.5 Analyze the institution of slavery and its influence on societies in the United
       States

       8.5C.5.a Describe pro-slavery and anti-slavery positions and explain how
                debates over slavery influenced politics and sectionalism

       8.5C.5.b Analyze the experiences of African-American slaves, free blacks and
                the influence of abolitionists

       8.5C.5.c Describe the relationship of abolitionists to the other reform
                movements
8.5C.6 Prioritize causes and key events leading to secession and Civil War

       8.5C.6.a Analyze government policies regarding slavery, such as the three-fifths
                clause, the Missouri Compromise (1820) and the Compromise of 1850

       8.5C.6.b Analyze government policies regarding economics, such as creation of
                a national bank, tariffs, internal improvements and industrialization

       8.5C.6.c Analyze the ideological breakdown that resulted from different events
                and issues, such as Virginia-Kentucky resolutions, the Hartford
                Convention, nullification/states’ rights, political party division, the
                Dred Scott decision, John Brown raids

       8.5C.6.d Explain why the 1860 election led to the secession of the southern
                states
8.5C.7 Analyze factors affecting the outcome of the Civil War

       8.5C.7.a Identify the goals, resources and strategies of the North and the South

       8.5C.7.b Identify the geographic, technological and military factors that
                contributed to the outcome of the Civil War

       8.5C.7.c Describe the views and lives of leaders and soldiers on both sides of the
                war, including black soldiers and black regiments

       8.5C.7.d Examine the transition of economic and political power in the South
                with the decline of slavery

8.6    Social Studies Skills and Processes

8.6A   Read to Learn and Construct Meaning about Social Studies
8.6A.1 Use appropriate strategies and opportunities to increase understanding of
       social studies vocabulary

       8.6A.1.a Acquire and apply new vocabulary through investigating, listening,
                independent reading and discussing a variety of print and non print
                sources

       8.6A.1.b Identify and use new vocabulary acquired through study of their
                relationships to prior knowledge and experiences

       8.6A.1.c Use context clues to understand new social studies vocabulary

       8.6A.1.d Use new vocabulary in speaking and writing to gain and extend content
                knowledge and clarify expression

       8.6A.1.e read and interpret problems from social studies context

8.6A.2 Use strategies to prepare for reading (before reading)
       8.6A.2.a Identify the characteristics of informational texts, such as print features,
                graphic aids, informational aids, organizational aids, and online
                features

       8.6A.2.b Preview the text by examining features, such as the title, pictures,
                maps, illustrations, photographs, charts, timelines, graphs and icons

       8.6A.2.c Set a purpose for reading the text

       8.6A.2.d Ask questions and make predictions about the text

       8.6A.2.e Make connections to the text from prior knowledge and experiences

8.6A.3 Use strategies to monitor understanding and make meaning form text
       (during reading)

       8.6A.3.a Identify and use knowledge of organizational structures, such as
                chronological order, cause/effect, main ideas and details, description,
                similarities/differences, and problem/solution to gain meaning

       8.6A.3.b Reread slowly and carefully, restate, or read on and revisit difficult
                parts

       8.6A.3.c Use a graphic organizer or another note-taking technique to record
                important ideas or information
       8.6A.3.d Look back through the text to search for connections between and
                among ideas

       8.6A.3.e Make, confirm, or adjust predictions about the text

       8.6A.3.f Periodically summarize or paraphrase important ideas while reading

       8.6A.3.g Visualize what was read for deeper meaning

       8.6A.3.h Explain personal connections to the ideas or information in the text

8.6A.4 Use strategies to demonstrate understanding of the text (after reading)

       8.6A.4.a Identify and explain what is directly stated in the text

       8.6A.4.b Identify, paraphrase, or summarize the main idea of the text

       8.6A.4.c Determine and explain the author’s purpose

       8.6A.4.d Distinguish between facts and opinions

       8.6A.4.e Explain whether or not the author’s opinion is presented fairly

       8.6A.4.f Explain what is not directly stated in the text by drawing inferences

       8.6A.4.g Confirm or refute predictions made about the text to form new ideas

       8.6A.4.h Connect the text to prior knowledge or personal experiences

       8.6A.4.i Draw conclusions and make generalizations based on the text, multiple
                texts, and/or prior knowledge

8.6B   Write to Learn and Communicate Social Studies Understanding

8.6B.1 Select and use informal writing strategies, such as journal writing, note
       taking, quick writes, and graphic organizers to clarify, organize, remember,
       and/or express new understandings
       8.6B.1.a Identify key ideas

       8.6B.1.b Connect key ideas to prior knowledge (personal experience, text, and
                world)

8.6B.2 Use formal writing, such as multi-paragraphs essay, historical investigations,
       research reports, letters and summaries to inform
       8.6B.2.a Identify form, audience, topic and purpose before writing
       8.6B.2.b Organize facts and/or data to support topic

       8.6B.2.c Provide introduction, body and conclusion

       8.6B.2.d Cite sources when paraphrasing, summarizing and quoting

       8.6B.2.e Enhance text with graphics, such as charts, maps and diagrams

8.6B.3 Use formal writing, such as multi-paragraphs essay, historical investigations,
       editorials and letters to persuade
       8.6B.3.a Identify form audience, topic and purpose

       8.6B.3.b State a clear opinion or position

       8.6B.3.c Modify or refute a position when appropriate

       8.6B.3.d Provide reasons and cite reliable supporting evidence

       8.6B.3.e Demonstrate understandings of social studies knowledge

8.6B.4Use timed, on-demand writing to demonstrate understanding on assessments
      (Constructed response)
       8.6B.4.a Address the topic

       8.6B.4.b Provide accurate information

       8.6B.4.c Support topic with appropriate details

       8.6B.4.d Integrate social studies concepts and skills

8.6C   Asking Social Studies Questions

8.6C.1 Identify a topic that requires further study

       8.6C.1.a Identify prior knowledge about a topic

       8.6C.1.b Pose questions about the topic

       8.6C.1.c Formulate research questions

       8.6C.1.d Develop a plan for how to answer questions about the topic

8.6C.2 Identify a situation/issue that requires further study
       8.6C.2.a Define the situation/issue

       8.6C.2.b Identify prior knowledge about the situation/issue

       8.6C.2.c Pose questions about the situation/issue from a variety of perspectives

       8.6C.2.d Pose questions that elicit higher order thinking responses

       8.6C.2.e Formulate research questions

       8.6C.2.f Develop a plan for how to answer questions about the situation/issue

8.6D   Acquiring Social Studies Information

8.6D.1 Identify primary and secondary sources of information that relate to the
       topic/situation/problem being studied

       8.6D.1.a Gather and read appropriate print sources, such as journals, textbooks,
                timelines, trade books, and web sites

       8.6D.1.b Read and obtain information from texts representing diversity in
                content, culture authorship and perspective

       8.6D.1.c Locate and gather data and information from appropriate non print
                sources, such as music, maps, graphs, photographs, video clips,
                illustrations, paintings, cartoons, interviews and oral histories

       8.6D.1.d Access and process information that is factual and reliable from
                reading, investigations, and/or oral communications

8.6D.2 Engage in field work that relates to the topic/situation/problem being studies
       being studied

       8.6D.2.a Gather data

       8.6D.2.b Make and record observations

       8.6D.2.c Design and conduct surveys and oral histories

8.6E. Organize Social Studies Information

8.6E.1 Organize information from non print sources

       8.6E.1.a Prioritize information gathered according to importance and relevance

       8.6E.1.b Distinguish factual from fictional information
      8.6E.1.c Find relationships among gathered information

      8.6E.1.d Display information on various types of graphic organizers, maps and
               charts

      8.6E.1.e Summarize information obtained from surveys and field work

8.6E.2 Organize information from print sources

      8.6E.2.a Prioritize information gathered according to importance and relevance

      8.6E.2.b Determine the bias and reliability of a source

      8.6E.2.c Find relationships among gathered information

      8.6E.2.d Construct various types of graphic organizers, maps and charts to
               display information

8.6F. Analyze Social Studies Information

8.6F.1 Interpret information from primary and secondary sources

      8.6F.1.a Interpret information in maps, charts and graphs

      8.6F.1.b Interpret information from field studies and surveys

      8.6F.1.c Analyze a document to determine point of view

      8.6F.1.d Analyze the perspective of the author to determine if the document or
               topic is historically significant

      8.6F.1.e Identify the bias and prejudice

8.6F.2 Evaluate information from a variety of sources

      8.6F.2.a   Compare information from a variety of sources

      8.6F.2.b   Compare information to prior knowledge

      8.6F.2.c   Determine the reliability of the document

8.6F.3 Synthesize information from a variety of sources

      8.6F.3.a Recognize relationships in and among ideas or events, such as cause
               and effect, sequential order, main idea and details
       8.6F.3.b Reconstruct the arguments of issues or events

       8.6F.3.c Assess the costs and benefits of alternatives

       8.6F.3.d Modify understandings of social studies concepts and trends

       8.6F.3.e Verify or change prior understandings based on new information

8.6G. Answer Social Studies Questions

8.6G.1 Describe how the world has changed over time and how people have
       contributed to its change, drawing from maps, photographs, newspapers and
       other sources

       8.6G.1.a Present social studies information in creative ways, such as mock trials,
                simulations, debates, and skits

       8.6G.1.b Engage in civic participation and public discourse

       8.6G.1.c Use effective speaking techniques to deliver narrative, persuasive and
                research presentations

8.6G.2 Use historic contexts to answer questions

       8.6G.2.a Use historically accurate resources to answer questions, make
                predictions and support ideas

       8.6G.2.b Explain why historic interpretations vary and are subject to change

       8.6G.2.c Construct a sound historical interpretation

       8.6G.2.d Understand the meaning, implication and impact of historic events and
                recognize that events could have taken other directions

8.6G.3 Use current events/issues to answer questions

       8.6G.3.a Summarize the main points of an issue explaining different viewpoints

       8.6G.3.b Make a decision based on the analysis of issues and evaluate the
                consequences of these decisions

       8.6G.3.c Identify and formulate a position on a course of action on an issue

       8.6G.3.d Propose and justify solutions to social studies problems

       8.6G.3.e Use media resources to deliberate and advocate issues and policy

								
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