VIEWS: 47 PAGES: 33 POSTED ON: 7/4/2012
Tahir Rafiq Problem: there are a lot of people mainly teenagers who use their laptops in bed at night. What I have found out about this issue is that a number of people have suffered from problems such as severe burns, damage to the laptops, and other parts which in the long-term can have some affects. To this day the main problems for us in this world is the greenhouse affect and emissions caused by unesccery power usage . For example using a room light to be able to view your keyboard to be able to type. From this problem I will design and produce a product that helps in all ways to both humans and the planet. What I mean by this is that i make my product. Interesting, safe , comfortable, adaptable, and most of all environmentally friendly I would also use a number of materials that are not as used commonly. Firstly I would find a client who would be interested in the laptop holder. I will also look at the different types of materials I can use, and a wide number of designs which can be questioned by the public to see their thoughts and views. Researching the current problems, and current designs would help me to design a product that is not in the current market. The most important part is the way that the laptop holder is designed by researching it the antrometrics and safety of the current holders I will then have a clear idea on what to do. http://www.nhs.uk/news /2010/10October/Pages /Skin-damage-linked- with-laptop-use.aspx Balancing your laptop on your knees could cause permanent discolouration of the skin and, in rare cases, cancer,” warned the Daily Mail. The story is of a 12-year-old boy who developed a skin condition caused by the heat from a laptop that was balanced on his bare legs. The condition, erythema ab igne, is also known as “toasted skin syndrome”, and is characterised by mottled-looking skin resulting from prolonged exposure to heat or an infrared source. Since 2004, there have been at least 10 reported cases of the condition or of burns related to laptop use. This is a rare condition, but the connection between it and laptops has been documented several times before. The incidence is likely to become more frequent as laptops become more widespread. The skin damage itself is usually harmless and has no symptoms. As reported, there is a chance that the condition can develop into cancer, but this is a small risk. Simple common-sense precautions can remove this risk. The researchers suggest using a heat-protective barrier between the skin and the laptop (such as the laptop bag), or placing the machine on another surface. Where did the story come from? The study was carried out by researchers from the Department of Dermatology at University Hospital Basel, Switzerland. It was published in the peer-reviewed medical journal Pediatrics. What kind of research was this? This was a case report of a 12-year-old boy who developed a skin condition called erythema ab igne, caused by the heat from a laptop that was balanced on his bare legs. The researchers also carried out a review of the literature on the skin condition. Erythema ab igne is indicated by discolouration and mottling of the skin, and is caused by prolonged exposure to an infrared heat source. What did the research involve? The case report was of a boy who had presented to the emergency department with marks on one of his upper legs. The researchers also carried out a literature search for studies of similar cases in a review of the topic. They found that nine cases of laptop-induced erythema have been reported since 2004, plus one case of a burn produced by a laptop. To assure my project is kept up to-date. I will make a plan on the step by step procedures that I will take on board. I have researched in the best ways to plan a project and I have realised that making a table can be the most simplest way and organised. Project criteria explanation dates Context and objectives By using the design brief and my analysis , I would then need to Oct 2011 plan a time scale Clarification of problems Research in same products in the market (primary and Oct 2011 secondary), research into different materials, to find the most suitable material to use in the manufacture. Also having constant contact with the client. Development of design proposal Using rough sketches and previous models , also feedback from Jan 2010 the client , would help me to design the perfect design that fits the clients needs. Manufacture Using classical manufacture methods to make my product. Mainly Jan 2011 concentrating on machinery the manufacture in huge bulks. Modelling Using under classed materials and different method to model. Jan 2011 Conclusions client meeting, Meeting with the client, after each design idea is made to Feb 2011 recommendations evaluate the design also to make changes if not good enough. Improving the prototypes and creating a product that fits the clients needs. Evaluation Evaluating the products helps to see where I when wrong and to March 2011 see the changes that I would make encase I make the product again Communication, presentation Communication is needed for both research and designing , for April 2011 example I would contact the makers of laptop holders, and then I would contact my client to discuss the perfect design, then actually designing. Joints should be tested for The laptop holder should Based on a original wooden excessive weight held upon. not have any effect from grain effect Bright attractive colour excessive heat Not containing loose based on options for the pieces Health and safety of young aged people e.g. No sharp edges Pin for girls, blue for boys manufacturing the laptop holder. All electronic parts should be Can be customized , made to checked and tested adapt Equipment for mass or one off production The reason my actual product will have Profits gained safety the original wooden grain effect is colours because .I think it would look most The type of equipment needed attractable and classical . Equipment and Costs of materials Cost Laptop plastic holders pvc How much of the similar design is materials After pvc testing I can see that certain temperatures affect the polymer. Due to in the market the laptop heat it would not be Shape and size sufficient for me to use polymers for my laptop holding stand. Wood Metal How much time and money I would use aluminium Aluminium has a number of helping Shape should be proportion to a laptop size. pine plywood ways for a bedside laptop holder such as the main frame structure that balances out the whole holder which Modern shapes which look attractive makes it stand upright. I have chosen to use plywood as one of my Custom design to be adapted to the materials for a part of my project. Reason for For my project I would use room surroundings this is because it is seen as a less attractive Heat affected , easy to aluminium piping . The piping material to use for purposes like this however work with? would be used for adjusting the . I would like to take a chance to make Durable and attractive. laptop holder . Aluminium is light plywood attractive and be able make it more New up to date technologies Also to see if its reliable strong and attractable making the pratical for use not just for covering up broken should be added e.g mug for long term. stand look attractive. windows etc. warmer, extra usb slots For a professional project in production a client is most needed .The main reason for a client is so I could base my project design upon a problem of the age looked at . I could also refer back to my client for step by step procedures I take. I have decided to use my friend as a client , the reason for this is : 1) He is a friend which is easy to contact when needed, 2) He works at pc world so he is aware of the current trends of sales of laptops and holders. 3) He is a teenager , who uses a laptop in bed where he finds most appropriate time of use. So the client is perfect for my current situation. This list shows the times where I would make a link with my client at different stages of my project : • The current problem of my project • Design viewer • Questionnaire filler • feedback on models that I have made • Interview on the types of designs • Reviewing on designs and final product • Customization of product Client requirements: after speaking to my client I have got a list of requirements that’s required for the laptop holder. 1) To have a new and funky design 2) Must have a original glossy/shine finish 3) Use of different materials 4) A number of different electronic features (mug warmer/ Bluetooth/ led) 5) Environmentally friendly materials. 6) Teenage based design with a side logo 7) New and unique design. At this very minute I am not sure of the material that I would use for my project. The best material to use can be analysed by testing the materials. I have already thought of man made material that I would like to use that’s plywood. However I need to make sure that it would be suitable as a laptop holder so a number of tests have to be done. I already no the brief design of my laptop holder and that is that the frame structure itself will have a attractive bend style. Until this day I didn't no that woods could be bent in such a way. I found the best way to bend my plywood that was by using a powdered resin glue called cascamite. By reading the ingredients and researching into them I have found that the compounds inside the glue turn out to be stronger then the wood bends itself Acrylic has to be tested. The reason for this is to see the limitations of using pvc for my project. The way that i would test the pvc is by using a method of bending and flexibility. advantage After taking the heated thermo pvc out of the Acrylic is an extremely versatile material used in the oven. I then shaped the plastic into different manufacturing of a huge variety of products--ranging forms and shapes to test the flexibility of it. On the above picture we can see how from signage, desktop awards and desk accessories After leaving the pvc to cool back to room each en of the pvc has been twisted to internally illuminated signs, skylights and aircraft temperature the bonds fit back into place 360 degree around .so the flexibility windshields. This material has many attractive making the figure harden and stay into place. test has been passed characteristics, including exceptional durability and extreme optical clarity. Acrylic is also easy to work with. This allows it to be fabricated into many different shapes and sizes. One of the easiest ways to form acrylic is through a process called thermo bending, The quality of using this material is which involves heating the plastic to soften it and that it can be reheated and moulded then bending it into a shape to create products such back into any place. as counter signs, picture frames, business card holders and display racks. disadvantage we can see from these pictures how the pvc has deformed. I tried my upmost best in By using an clay oven which was bending the thermal plastic to set on heat of 150 degree i placed make it into a leg sort of design. my two different tones of pvcs in the oven. Powdered resintite is added to water to make a thick paste. this paste thickens over time so it has to be used quickly so the oxygen does not take effect on the paste. Cascimite is a strong bonding resin that is commonly used when I made a pine holder which is used to bonding two or more pieces of test if the plywood can bend in two I placed a sheet of wood together my first step in the ways. By making the pieces of wood plain paper to plywood bending testing shows open I placed a hinge to open and prevent the me making up the paste by adding close the holder. cascamite sticking to three parts of cascamite to one of the holder. Which water. would ruin the test. After placed in a tight vice the figure is left to stand for 24hr to keep a strong structure in place. Opening the holder we can see a result of the a disfigured piece of plywood showing that my test has worked. When removing By using a brush the paste is applied carefully. Overdoing the the stuck on paper a finish is just needed to plywood would then add layers upon the plywood giving an complete the test of using this product. unattractive finish. The adjustable poles are controlled by two toggles where the poles can be supported properly. What i have done in this first picture is that i have drilled a hole for which the screw For my project i am testing the would be able to push steel poles. Where i would against the inner part to hold custom make them to fit my the piping together. project to see if they are To make my laptop holder i compatable. Research shows that caught my idea from The high quality, low maintenance steel pipe systems has caused a noticeable steel piping is best for these custom made projector shift in attitudes toward steel. The distinctive features of steel pipes are: situations as they are dense holder that i saw in the Toughness : Toughness requirements for a pipe is more complex than the unlike aluminium which have the food tech room. As we can tensile property requirements. The steel pipe toughness level is specified to advantage of being light. see the structure is guard against crack propagation. balanced by a central pole Fittings Properties : Fittings are components of the steel pipe that are usually of complex geometry and not made from line pipe, such as bends, After sandint down balancing the weight the rough edges i among four castor. tees, flanges, valves and set-on and set-in forged branches. Flexibility : Steel pipes can be designed and fabricated to any height and the sprayed the strength, this enables the customer reduce costs by designing a line for the steel pipe with optimum structure spacing. Steel structures are also easily modified in the black gloss spray. field, making them easy to rework. Ease of Installation : When compared to lattice structures, the speed and ease of installation of steel tubing is a proven winner. Also, the behaviour of a steel tubing is easily predicted, while a lattice structure, with its hundreds of bolted joints, is difficult to quantify precisely. Spraying was done by holding the pipe on a wooden stick Inserting the inner pole and screwing in the screw to hold the pipes together shows that the test has This attractive has made me worked where i placed think about using sprays for the heavy weights onto. finish on steel piping however i would consider a chrome finish. I now know for a fact that I would be using plywood for my project , I know this because of the bending test which inspired me, by looking from my aim I am after we can see how I would like to use finishes that are original as so is the material that I would use. However in many cases as this project is based mainly on a teen product colours have to be taken into account when taken into production. Colours are seen as moods, usually based on sex of the user. E.g sky blue for a boy and pink for a girl. I have decided to test finishes on plywood and on separate pieces of wood . I applied a total of two layers on the pieces of The paint soaks into plywood looking for the best result. We can see the grain of the wood hoe the black looks faded out. From this test I making it easy to would choose for my final product to be in red if The types of paint that I used were a water based strong coated paint. apply. I used the finish. Reason for choosing this was because it would be safe and non-toxic to children. So toddlers can crawl around the plywood and not be affected. Acrylic Paint - Acrylic paint is a durable paint that has pigments suspended in an acrylic (or plastic) binder. acrylic paints are plastic based and not natural. However, they come in a wide range of vibrant colours, are colour fast, easy to apply and clean up and have no fumes. They can even be mixed with water to create a "wash" of paint, To get the natural finishes from the wooden grain i am testing Not all acrylic paint is created equally however! Not all acrylic paint is non-toxic or the use of waxes and varnishes. I would test the bent plywood safe for toys either! labels show the "AP Non-toxic" seal. Some artist's paints piece with one side of briwax which would be put on by coat of have mercury, arsenic and cadmium in them for pigments . sanding sealer before, then rubbed n with a cloth following the grain to get a deep finish I would repeat this procedure 10 times. Varnish is a common used finish, The briwax is good for putting on the mainly used for window sills, plywood as the grain soaks in the staircases, wooden doors. Unlike properties of the wax, helping to keep briwax the wood soaks up the bonding the wood waterproof and also give it a agent from the varnish itself, making it shine that looks attractive. After doing this testing I have decided to easy to apply and also giving an use the briwax for a clean and elegant attractive and dry look mainly, good for finish. I protection against water and rotting of wood, The main point of making a product that would go into production is to investigate before hand. As it is said that everybody has different options and views. So what I am planning to do is to ask 100 people of the public and also students 8 questions that would help to give an idea on how to product the best type of bedside laptop holder. However I am aiming at people ages 14+. I infer that the knowlegde that I will extract for the public would give me a great understanding of the design. 1) Do you have a laptop that you use at night whilst in bed? 2) If you do use a laptop in bed what do you use to support you laptop? a)Knees a) Yes b)Bed table b) No c)Pillow d)Other 3)On average how long do you use your laptop in bed? 4)Are you aware of the problems that are caused from laptops a) <1 hour overheating on human contact? b) 1-2 hours a)Yes c) 2+ hours b)No 6)What materials would you prefer to have for you bedside laptop holder? 5)Are you most likely to buy a product that prevents a)All wood design (e.g pine, plywood, etc) harm to your body and that is comfortable to use your b)All metal design (aluminium, steel etc) laptop in bed? c)All polyester design a)Yes d)A combination of all of those materials. b)No 7) What type of finishes would you prefer to have on your end product? a)No finish just natural b)Wax finish c) Varnish finish d)Paint finish 8) in terms of aesthetics of the bedside laptop holder it should be a) A plain and original design b) Straight forward common bedside table design c) New never seen unique design The whole idea of doing a questionnaire is to find out what the current views are of a certain product. So after handing my questionnaire to the public and my client I have decided to conclude all the information. The information that I have gathered from these questions would help me to conduct ideas for my deigns. Question 1: the fist question that I asked was ne o the main and most important question that was to find out how many people actually use a laptop in bed. I found out that more then 3 quarters of the people I asked actually use a laptop in bed . This information tells me that the future product that I will make would entitle to the use of people. Question 2: it is obvious that people do use their laptops at night however I had to find out the ways and positions that people use their laptops in. so the second question was based on finding the technique, I found that the majority of people actually use their knees for support of their laptop. This alerted me as I already the no the consequences of using the laptop in this manner. After finding this information I defiantly now that some type of holder is needed, Question 3: time is a major issue as there would be no point of making a product that the users would use at the minimum so I have decided to ask the average use of laptop in their beds. I found out that the mass majority of people use their laptop between 1 and 2 hours a night . From this data I now no there would be a common use of a laptop holder. Question 4: I have decided to ask everyone if they new of the conditions caused by using your laptops on your knees to see what their current views and to also make them aware of the consequences of what could happen by over use. I found out that more then 3 quarters of the people don’t know what happens when over using. Question 5: after making everyone aware of what the consequences were of laptop burns . I then asked the people if they would buy a product to prevent this serious problem that could occur from the laptop. I realised that 99% of the people were interested in a product that prevents the problem. It is alarming how a product would do good in the open market. Question 6: it is always best to ask what type of materials are best to use as an option, this would show me how the public and client would like their product and also the features that they may like. before asking the question I inferred that most people would like a mix of materials and this was surely the outcome. Question 7: finishes on a product is seen as the most crucial procedures., as this is the one thing that the buyer has control over to keep the product up-to-date. I can see how a natural finish of bri-wax would look most attractive . This is what the public have chosen Ergonomics & Anthropometrics We can obviously see how the laptop holder This laptop holder is a clear example of the Video recorder stands are very good due to the fully adjustable feature has its positives in adjusting for different ways that ideas evolve around current that they have. To make the laptop holder position fully adjustable the angles. However these are the only positives products. What I mean by this is that the final product is made from an aluminium plate where the laptop would be of the design itself that relates to the current design of the laptop holder is held placed on, and also held by Velcro straps. The laptop plate would then be ergonomics. I cant see any way of comfort the same features stand of a video recorder. connected to the main joint of the aluminium stand. for the user . As you would obviously have to sit up and use this stand. There is no way of The way that these laptop holders are manufactured would be in a laying on a bed and having in front of you. number of stages. These are the limitations of the product. The Legs adjustable from 40cm to 1 and 1) The aluminium plate is designed to hold all sorts of laptops where main negative point about this product is that half metres. Made from light aluminium the sizes vary from big to small. is not originally designed but by the use of pipes different products that you can buy and then 2) aluminium legs made to keep the laptop stiff and not sturdy when put into one. the laptop would be at a high height. Conclusion Personally the only attractive look I like about this design is that it looks modern with the use of great thought material, aluminium this is good because it is light to transportation would be compatible. However the over all design and structure is just a camera/videocam holder making it an old theory as it is currently used for other purposes the only thing that has been made from originating production is the laptop plate and the elastic straps that keep the laptop in place. Personally I like the idea of this design and looks stable and very adjustable but I wouldn’t like to use it for myself in bed as . There is a sense of hard structure which doesn’t look atractive, however I can see how anyone can set this up and store away into different places. Aluminium plate designed in such a way that the laptop stays cool and easily ventilated Style and function There is ability of using the laptop from inclining and declining. Usually helps for viewing and typing methods. The original colour of gunmetal grey has a Thermo plastic made handles to prevent absorbent of good affect as it seems original. heat that comes of the laptop. This is positive link on the design. As this is what prevents the melting of the Limitation of this would be when aiming handle. for teenagers they would most likely prefer a number of themed colour Elasticised straps to keep the laptop in upright choices which suits them. position and prevent it from falling. So this design clearly shows how sizes of laptops are taken into account. I find this product a well designed and An original finished wooden bed most adaptable compared to a lot of laptop holder and dinner table, is laptop holders as anyone can use it, with adaptable and easy to carry around the site of the table it self. This product is table. Valued at £30 it is seen as good priced at £29.99 and can be delivered to value for money with its handle and your door, with no setup techniques as it briefcase carriage box. comes as a folded piece Ergonomics and anthropometrics Ergonomically both designs are attractive in their own way as the As we can see the laptop is on a angle pine table is more natural. And the acrylic and steel table is more where it is easier to use when in bed adaptable to the user, making it anthropometric comfortable to the it is also durable and well designed, users. and at the same time it has the natural look. That is fairly attractive. Manufacturing processes & finishes On the left the disability table is manufactured in batches where the table itself is thermo set acrylic which would be made through excursion where it would be moulded into shape. The piping for the structure is rubber coated steel keeping the structure strong and durable. Drop mechanisms are made to help the table swing into place and fold away. This laptop table has its own main use for so there are three main stages in manufacture for the product. That would be to get the people with disabilities, or those in wheelchairs. materials then to make the polymer into shape. Then the steel piping to cut and bed, then It is light due to the use of light materials, drilling holes which would be done by a machines. making it adaptable , strong and at the same time adjustable in a way making it flat and easy for storage. Personally I think that both these designs new good in the sense of compatibility and transfer as they are both easy to store and move around. I wouldn’t use any of these designs for my ideas as they seem to common, however I would be using a natural finish with a natural material pine. Versatile Rolling Table - Laptop Table - Wheelchair Table Over bed Table - Versatile Pivot & Tilt Over bed Table - Wheelchair Table - Rolling Laptop Table The mast of the table pivots and can be locked in one of the three positions from flat on the It is also a bonus to have other functions floor to 90 degrees. that the laptop holder can do, books are The pivot feature allows the table top to be positioned closer to individuals in a bed, sitting in seen as the most used activity in bed. a chair or wheelchair, or folded for storage Firstly the reason why I have done research on both standing /bed laptop stand and a bedside table is because I have already decided to Design and anthropometrics collaborate these together making a never seen The overall design of this laptop stand has two main design which I cannot find out in the market, functions one is clearly to hold a laptop which is adjustable making my design new and unique. only up and down as the limitation of this design is that it cannot swivel all the way around I will make sure my laptop stand function is able to be adjusted in all directions making is easy and adjustable for the user. Overall the stand it self is not attractable due to its main Same type of steel legging material as what you structure which is seen as a bond of metal work. The would find on computer tables. The t shape at finishes used on this product is rubber based for the bottom is commonly used for stability of the protection. Preventing strain it has the adjustable function whole structure preventing the laptop falling off. with a twisted knob. Overall I am pleased with the function of the holder, and the design of the bedside tables so I will keep in mind the designs and finishes used, as my aim is for a surreal design I have decided to bond these two together and making it extra safe and fully adjustable at the same time. Manufacture and materials It is very important to choose the materials that you would use when making a product like this. You have to think about the overall structure of the design itself . As we can see by both side tables here they are surreal with they crooked looked legs, so it is important that the materials chosen are strong enough to hold the heavy weight that is on. I have always liked the old Mahogany is used for both theses side tables, with different fashioned surreal design of coats of finishes. tables , especially of those that look unstable. For example Here again a surreal design that these thin crooked legs look looks like it is made out of cast iron, like they are about to snap however it is actually mahogany with with the weight that would be a black varnish paint. put on. Plywood is used in a number of situations mainly of those that are less professional, for They plywood has been bended by a mould which has left it in example if a house window was broken plywood the curved bend useable to go over legs and to place a laptop would be used to prevent air coming in and used over it. It is a good design but not practice enough as you have as a substitute until the window is there to fit. So to be in one position which would cause strain to the user. it is pretty obvious how plywood is not seen as a attractive wood but more of a cheap DIY job. Practical and light would describe this as a whole as Now since I would like to make my laptop holder manufacture would be really easy and cheap by the use of a more of a unusual surreal design which is one single mould but would need time to settle. of a kind. I have decided to use plywood in my design I do not now what function the plywood I infer that two sheets of 6mm plywood have been joined by would have but that it would be used in the cascamite and put into a mould that bends. structure of the product. This lap stand costs £20 I would say it is over valued and many people would not buy this due to its functioning This design clearly shows how attractive I found this following table in my 6th form the plywood looks and also shows how library where we use it as a coffee table the stability of the stand. the light and a laptop table. Am happy with the material of plywood helps to bend into design as it is ergonomically situated and different shapes. finished with a natural varnish. The manufacture stages that occur in this product is three stages. These are that cutting of the material then bending and then the finish. The manufacturing system would be in a The whole structure comes as a piece this batch manufacture as it would be more worthwhile as means that the laptop stand has been there would be a high demand for this product, valued at bend in a couple of different stages where £35 it is worth the money however you would see these the plywood would be bent. in libraries rather then in your bedroom where you can only stand up to use or even sit down if you have a high This product fits in the client requirement, chair. however it would not help in the function of keeping the laptop cool. The design is funky and upto dat making it unique and modern, however I wouldn’t see many people buying it as it is valued at £50 The term "ergonomics" is derived from two Greek words: "ergon," meaning work, and "nomoi," meaning natural laws. Ergonomists study human capabilities in relationship to work demands To reduce the risk of injury we could follow the ergonomic principles: -All work activities should permit the worker to adopt several different, but equally healthy and safe postures. -Where muscular force has to be exerted it should be done by the largest appropriate muscle groups available. -Work activities should be performed with the joints at about mid-point of their range of movement. This applies particularly to the head, trunk, and upper limbs. When linking my design ergonomically I have found the average sizes of bed from floor to the top of the bed this would hep to keep the laptop level to the bed making it easier for the user. Keeping the user in upright position preventing any strain. The human measurements that I would take into account are those that link with the use of the laptop holder that would be the sizes of the hands and average body sizes so the adjustability can be how the user would like it best. The study of Anthropometrics (human measurement) is concerned with the physical sizes and shapes of humans. Of particular interest are the differences between and among different populations (men vs. women, Northern Europeans vs. Japanese). Anthropometrics literally means man (anthro) measurements (metric). It is the measurement of the size and proportions of the human body, as well as parameters such as reach and visual range capabilities. Accurate data on height, weight, limb, and body segment sizes are needed to design items ranging from clothing, furniture, automobiles, buses, and subway cars to space shuttles and space stations. Anthropometrics enables us to properly size items, including system interfaces, to "fit" the user. From looking through my research I realised that it would be best to use a combination of materials for my besides laptop holder. This is by Referring back to my questionnaire. So the two main materials to research on is pine, steel piping. Pine Originally pine comes from trees which has no needles or leaves, the softwood consists of growing preferences, where the tend to grow quick and tall unlike physical properties hardwoods which take a longer time. The best part of using these type of trees The yellow pine is heavier then the usual shelving pine, it is stronger and harder which are because when taking a tree out you would have to replace the tree with makes it a strong material for a laptop holding stand, properties inside the pine make it three other trees. When passed through the swami to be cut to size it is decay resistant however it has to be maintained with oils and waxes/varnishes. decided for which size it would be for purposes. Such as shelving, decking Pine is used for a number of things from huge buildings to small kitchen forks. appearances Working properties The grains are uneven along the timber piece making it original and attractive the feel The softwood is a easy material to work with and to mould into different shapes. I of the pine is strong, which doesn’t lead to splinters or any problems when running your would use pine for my project keeping in mind the knots that would be on the pine hand along it. which has to be avoided, preventing this would help to keep my product less chance of being damaged. I find pine as a easy going material which is fully functional in Uses most situations. There are so many uses that is mainly of different purposes as structural timber or wall sheets for homes, other uses such as boxes , crates and baskets. A main use Is pine environmentally friendly: for pine is on boats where a waterproof paint is applied to the boat. Where there is one tree taken three more are planted so it is pretty obvious that pine is always there to grow. It is easy for pine to be used over again depending on the quality of the pine. physical properties There are different types of steel as they do not all have the same properties. This Steel is due to their elements used in the manufacture. Alloys are made from the By extracting the needed raw materials from the earth. The three main mixture of steel and other elements. The way that alloying is done determines the materials that are used are iron ore , coal and limestone after placing physical properties such as hardness, flexibility , ductility. It is flexible as steel can these three ingredients into a furnace where the temperature is at be moulded into any desired shape. It also has the lowest strength to weight ratio 1600oc for a long time after is produced a molten pig iron from the iron compared to any other building material. ore. The quality of the pig iron is not good enough for commercial use so by adding a carbon structure you make steel. This is done by a basic oxygen furnace the steel then casts into a thick or thin slab to be sold. Working properties It usually depends on the thickness of steel , it is usually difficult to work with Appearance steel if you do not have the proper machinery to cut it. Joining the metal can only Steel usually ahs different types of surfaces and textures, depending on be done by welding or oxy-acetylene welding. Plasma and laser cutting are the purpose of the steel when manufactured. Alloys usually have a good another type of method that could be used to cut the steel. finish which is mainly shiny and attractive. Usually buffering is used to give a smooth and shiny finish to steel. Is steel environmentally friendly We no the way that steel is mined from the earths crust, it creates an eyestone environment where the material is mined, which will destroy the Uses natural landscape of the area. Apart from this steel is environmentally There are so many multipurpose functions that steel has friendly as 90% if not all the steel can be recycled without losing any in our everyday lifestyles ranging from cookware we use physical properties in the process. This reduces the amount of material to cook our food, to important scientific instruments such needed to be extracted from the earth therefore reducing its overall impact as scalpels and retort stands for instance. towards the environment. It is clear how all businesses aims and reason for sales is for profit, mainly based on the value of the product of sales. Profit is worked out from the amounts of money spent from making the product costs involving travel manufacture and materials, excluding wages for the workers. Before manufacture of a product, designs and plans have to be made , so there would be a guaranteed profit making from the manufacture of the product. If there is a small amount of profit or no profit there would be a loss to the organisation making all the time planning and machinery used a waste of money. So now we no the aim of the project, I need to decide what parts of the laptop holder I have to take into consideration to get the best outcome. I infer that the most investment/cost would start from the materials that have to be bought. I have made it clear that this project will officially only have one product for the outcome, but then again if there was a chance of manufacture I would have different calculations that would be different as the materials would be cheaper in bulk orders. Altogether there are some stages for the costs, as each part has its own costing values, for my laptop holder there would be two stages: 1) Material and components This consists of materials such as the plywood , steel piping , pine shelving, that is needed for my project. Other components needed like screws and other components that are needed to assemble the structure together, to solve the cost problem I would buy some cheap components and materials however they would be good enough condition and would look attractive, making the money worthwhile as the finished product would be reasonable. I have already decided that I will be using the schools resources such as screw and other small components , however I will purchase my own pine and hard materials. 2) Manufacturing costs Like all manufacturing sites the consuming cost's the machinery needed for the production and the appliances used such as the electricity and time, rent of the factory. I have diced to use the schools facilities costing me nothing, as I am not going to do a mass production just a plan for a mass production with a one off piece. The following table shows the costs that this project cost me and the supposed sale price which was evaluated at a classic furniture shop. Material/Component Purchase location Price Total RRP Profit Plywood for legs 100cm/100cm 3mm Sky Diy Halifax £4.00 £16.50 £45 £28.50 Shelving Pine 150cm/100cm B&Q £7.00 Aluminium pole +Fitting Sky Diy Halifax £2.00 Plywood for laptop stand 40cm/30cm 10 mm Sky Diy Halifax £1.00 Laptop cooler unit eBay £2.50 Research Where I obtained information How its helped Design brief I have always found the problem of using a laptop . I researched on the affects By having a design brief it helps me to base my whole design and mentality of of laptops that backs up the reason on having such laptop holders. the project on one goal that Is to make a bedside laptop holder that prevents By using strong past evidence of excessive laptop use. problems, and adapts to the user Brainstorms on By giving me a clear understanding and idea what contents my laptop holder An understanding of what types of things I have to research into which helps laptop holders would have, such as the colour and different qualities that my laptop holder me to go creative and think of different methods to obtain a good design. would have. Each point links to a idea or criteria that has to be investigated. Laptop mood the current market sales of laptop holders and what types of materials and This has helped me to get a feel and understanding of what is out in the market board colour contrasts are out there. All the pictures were searched from the internet, at the current moment, a clash of colours and funky designs helps me to look at covering the whole page with these pictures to give a idea of different designs. when designing my own product. Product analysis To view different types of design categories' and what ways are used for The product analysis helps me to analyse current products and pick different manufacture, giving me an idea of what the current market has to offer for the parts out of them that would help me design my own type of laptop holder. problem. Looking through catalogues and use of internet and booklets. Partially to make it look unique as a never made past product. Questionnaires Best way of finding what people like at the minute, and what they would like to A phenomenal helping part of research as I realised what people new about the have for materials, etc current market and that they didn’t no of the risked caused by using a laptop at Obtained by making questionnaires and handing out to the public. night. Materials After doing the questionnaire I researched on the materials that I would be I no for sure that the materials I have chosen through the use of research has using , such as plywood aluminium piping and pine. All researched from really helped me to design my product as i can see the strains and constraints of internet. the materials and how they would adapt to my target and client requirements. Testing To help with plans and ideas I had to test, which helped in many ways, mainly Testing helped me to realise what methods and what materials to use for my tested on the materials I would use and were thinking of using. project. And the limitation of some of the products to use. Anthropometrics & Best way for fitting of my laptop holder and other parts to make the laptop Helped in the sense of making my design more safer and adaptable to the ergonomics adaptable and usable by the right age group. Also with the use of the right average bed size and to make it more comfortable for the users. materials. Scales of I obtained various information to they types of productions that are done at This part of researched helped me to see what ways I could make my product a productions industries, by looking at the different methods of productions. Researching and step by step build process which can be done y anyone. various ways on contacting the organisations were done. Computer aid and These days there is a high chance that most products are manufactured through Latest technology and precision computer techniques gave me good drawing of manufacturing the use of cad/ cam . I looked around and even made some of my designs with my design and what it would look like when in manufacture process. the use of cad. Cost Researching the current expenses for similar products by researching through Helped me to look at the current price tags and to aim to make a target for the internet and other places such as a catalogue , I have also found the amounts myself, as I now the different types of costing that occur in manufacture of profit made by different ways of sales. Target Audience: My product will be targeted towards the people of ages 12+ years old both genders because my product can be made for either a boy or a girl as all laptop users are both sexes. By having a client I will find out if they like/dislike the designs and ideas, the information that I gain from my client would aid me in my ideas. Cost: after looking at the similar current products out in the market I can see that many of the products are in the same price range. The prices are ranged between £30+. The material that I have found for the product is shelving wood. And the use of third party product costing approximately the total amount of £18 and selling for the price of £40 making a good profit. This includes the finishes which are used for the final product. Size: by looking at the current products out there and taking into account the size of an average laptop I have decided to make limitations on the size of my product. So by taking into account the measurements of bed side tables and also laptop holders I would have to mould them together to make the perfect calculations for it not to be too big or too small. So the bedside table would not be no bigger then 500mm and 400mm wide. This would make my product adaptable to anyone with a bed. However the limitations are that it may not be able to adapt to those beds which are more then half a metre in height. Weight: altogether the weight may be an issue in many ways of the weight of a laptop that would be placed on the laptop holder . The way that I would go around this issue is to make my product compatible and stable enough to hold the laptop in different angles. In terms of the weight of the laptop holder I would use materials that are light to hold and easy to amend into place. So product would be bought as it is as apiece. So there is no need for construction when bought as a product. Due to the use of plywood and shelving pine the whole product would be light and able to move around. Aesthetics: my product is designed for comfort and easy use ability. It is obvious that all laptop users would use this product if you intend to use their laptop at night. Researching into the average sizes for laptops/ net books used by people I would, use this information for the sizes and designs of my product. The way that I would make my product best for the client is to make a way for the laptop to be used without the user having the laptop on their legs , so the laptop would be supported on a polyester stand which can change positions on a tilt. The use of briwax would give the pine and plywood a natural attractive finish. Environmental issues: the Environmental issues in relation to my product, are that firstly I am using plywood which is made from a lot of scrap wood put together to make a thin layer of wood used for less attractive products. Therefore me using this for my product shows how I am using reused wood for a purpose that will eventually look attractive. The other part that would make my product environmentally friendly is the use of a led light which stops the user having the light on so the keyboard can be seen. However the briwax that is used may effect the environment when recycling however the use of varnish would affect animals or humans if consumed. Function: with this product there is three major functions, each which help in their own type of way. The bed side table has its function in the way of being used as every bedside table would be used to store objects. The other function is the laptop holder part itself which helps the user to change positions to adapt to their comfort Safety: the safety issue taken into account in this product is the overall design of the laptop holder. I would even out the sizes of the corners making it as smooth as possible preventing any hard to a human in contact. The pole itself that would hold the laptop would be polished and rounded off at the top prevention of metal chippings harming the skin. I would also make sure the finish that is applied on the wood has soaked into the wood preventing any objects to slip off. All parts are nontoxic , which have been checked. Materials: The main material I will be using is plywood which can be difficult to use at times, due to its overall density and structe as it can give you splinters if mishandled. I am going to also use pine for the base of the side table. Durability: My product will have to be strong enough to withstand pressure when the is a laptop and excess weight ontop. Manufacture: the one off product would be made insuch a way that even if I decided to make it again I would be able to manufacture it in a quick and easy followed method. I would also make sure the parts that I use can be bought again, so I could remake if needed to be. Packaging: the type of packing that I would use for my product would be a box that would fit the whole product into, however I would take the pole of making it easy to fit into a carboard based box.. When looking at this design I , would value it at a price of £30 evaluating it at this price Solid oak table with privacy draw. is due to the use of materials which I wide with the use of both wood and Looking at the laptop holder below we can see how metal. As we know oak is a simpleness has taken it terms. I can see people with When looking at this design I get a feel of hard wood and is more a low budget on a laptop stand . However that is the modernism. I can see this product being in expensive due to the length reason why I have designed such product to aim at someone house that is new, with the latest of time needed for the those who would not be willing to spend a lot of technology's and gadgets. completion of the wood. money but to still get the advantage of safety but not the comfort fact unlike the rest. Cooling unit Steel legs joints the overall structure of the laptop stand which can be This product would sit on your knees whilst in bed with a low comfort shows how surreal and unique the design adjusted up and mode, but still has fans implanted at the bottom to keep your laptop cool actually is. We can see how I have actually down there is a jell wrist rest where you would prevent any strain to your body taken into mind about the type of material when using the stand. There are inbuilt speakers for loudness. that I would use that is plywood, where I would shape the bottom and laptop table attachment to be like a quaver. This gives a Overall this product would have many uses if it was out in natural and insufficient feel of the actual the market where the aim would be reached by the buyers. design. However I think this is a good thing Bent plywood I am thinking about adding some of the characteristics from as it has just came into fashion again, this design into my final design however I do no t no what I would choose to use as of yet. The valued price for this product would be £ 10-£15 hence the material/design The way that I would manufacture this product would Altogether evaluating this product be in 5 different stages : I would say it has a unique sense to it and I would like to make a •Making a mould for the plywood that would be bent product like this however the into shape. challenge I would face is the shaping and use of oak. •all materials would be cut into shape, and sizes at the same time I would mix cascimite to apply to the plywood. •I would then make the drawer where the laptop would sit on. •Assembling all the parts together next with glue and They type of material that would other bonding agents. be used for this product is acrylic and would be made in big •For the last part I would apply the finishes which is batches. Making it easier for the varnish and briwax for the oak/plywood. And to buffer manufacture this was if such the alloyed pole. design was in the market. Once again I have taken its obvious and main into consideration of design function of this design has g a product that is in a less met the client budget margin. But at the This design is featured on a strong lamppost requirements where it is same time has its important structure, where the base of the pole has most fully adjustable and use of the functions. of the weight and is structurally able to hold modern with safety any upheld weight that would be from the top components. This design came to my mind when Here I have designed a product I looked at crutches and how the that we would see in the market work for adjustability and comfort. already . What I mean by this is As we can see each hole on the that there are plenty of product pole is for different levels of height that sit on your knees preventing where the stand is connected to, any contact from the laptop heat the rubber soul at the bottom to you and most of the time they reaches health and safety hazards come with led lighting for book where there is prevention of any reading and other purposes. damage to any one or any think It would be very easy to make this laptop The stand is stand as there is not a lot of stages for its valued at £8 manufacture. Acrylic or thin pine would be which is worth The material that I would use for this the price product is steel piping with a chrome an option of materials, also going with finish. Pine shelving board for the different finishes . Here I have designed the laptop table stand function where the stand to be made out of thermo set acrylic laptop would sit on and a rubber mould where the stand would be made instantly for the bottom part of the pole to without any complications or mistakes. prevent any damage., Referring back to my primary research of acrylic testing we can see how acrylic acts to too much heat. This product would come as a self set up pack where the build would be easy and simple to understand. Personally I would not like to make this product but then again If this product was in take some features from it such as the led lights which reach a Altogether I like the design as it looks very attractive manufacture it would be easy part of the requirements, the intentions of these designs are to and strong. I infer that there would be a lot of buyers . done in three stages . I would actually design one that is meets a certain budget or to make I would even think that business would take some value this product at £25 one that is worth the money with the use of decent expensive interest in this product where banks may use it for which is reasonable hence the materials. their computers when dealing with customers when materials. And design . standing up. All three designs are made form the same material which is plywood pine and acrylic for where the laptop would sit on . All these ideas came from the same structural state. Where plywood would be used as legged. unique designs have started to come into the open market these days as The ways that these designs have we see the classical old developed is from the structural design look in fashion in some . Where the way that the laptop would areas of products. I must sit on the plate is still the same say that development is needed to help understand what I would change or what areas of the design I would mostly concentrate on. I have chosen this design as my final this is mainly due to the overall structure and functions of it. the material that are used for this product is *plywood *steel with chrome finish pipe *pine shelving *acrylic set laptop cooler pad. Overall I like the look of this design as so does the client we both have a n understanding from the research that we have seen how the structure would be able to hold the weight upright . By looking at the actual product we can see how close and realistic the laptop stand turned out to be. This product would have a good potential out in the market where there is no such design or made product out there . The feel and look of this design as a whole as a definition of unique. What I mean by this is that I like the way that the legs look crooked and unstable giving a surreal look. But also attractive at the same time The way that I would manufacture this product is in a number of stages 1) Firstly making the legs and doing the quality checks at the same time. Making the mould then making cascamite to join the plywood legs This design shows the front view of the together. This would be done where two sheets are applied together in the laptop stand where we can see how mould which is squeezed for 24 hours. unique and fragile the legs would look 2) The next procedure is to make the bedside table where I would join the I see this as a good look for a laptop pine together and glues using a band saw/ drill and other cutters to cut the stand. But then again it has a good wood joining methods by using clamps to hold into place for drying structure that keeps everything as a purposes. whole and upright. 3) Next I would make the chrome finished pipe where I would weld it to the metal screw joiner that is screwed to the laptop plate. At the top is where the laptop would be 4) Making the laptop plate from plywood and adding a thin pine structure cooled on with usb extension options . making t look flush when not being used. This is a great advantage for the user 5) The final and most important part would be joining the parts together. as he would have a lot to do for Using techniques that would keep the structure upright. components. 6) The last part would be to apply the finishes which is briwax giving a shiny finish, For my final cad design I have made it 100% identical to the final product. Identical to cam where the products are manufactured through the way of cad. So this is the reason why I would like to have my product professionally identical to the design. I have designed this model using a cad software which I entered the exact measurements that would be used for the real product. This is to make everything precise and accurate. In production of this design I decided to look around on the software to see what other features I could use to make my design look 100% real and identical to how it is as a product. production Cooling pad When I had designed the basic shape on Pro-Desktop, I decided to play around with some development of colours that are identical to the finished look that I would get. On the picture above right we can see how the legs are bent to give the elusion of the crooked structure. On the picture to the left I have used a number of techniques to draw the laptop cooling unit, it had taken a while and testing however it worked out to be ok at the end. I am amazed how good this software is to make a identical visual look of a product. The idea of actually using this software came from investigating how products are started off and then in their final ways of design where they are drawn on a computer to give a real look. It is really important to use this type of software to help with exact drawings that you cant picture in production. With the use of measurements you can make a visual product. Adjustable pole Modelling is the best way to test any ideas that you have in mind for a product, also to test and parts of structural curiosity. So I decided to model and test to different designs, and if they are good enough I may decide to use it as my final I am happy to say that after joining the pole to design. the laptop table it seemed to be a strong The final stage was joining the connection keeping the pole at a upright position The first step was to cut my bottom part of the stand to the when tightening. The whole weight of the MDF wood where the bedside base of the rectangular box which laptop+ table is held by a screw. structure would be. Measuring was done by screwing ands with 45cm by 35 cm I made a perfect the use of pva. It was important to rectangle. At the same time I The next step was to make a screw in the centre of the table decided to make a hole at the table for where the laptop would keeping the whole structure right side half way in-between sit on. This was basically a sheet upright. for alloy steel pipe to be fitted off plywood, with a sheet of clear through. acrylic placed on top. The second stage was to basically make a box, I had This was an important part to repeat the first stage where I had to make the bottom twice and measure out two part of the laptop holder which side panels at 15cm simply had to measured and joined done by joining the wood accurately as the whole support together with pva and system depended on this. screws. By fully testing the bedside laptop stand I had to place a This stage was a bit tricky and at the laptop at different angles. same time a really good experience as This would be to test the I have never done this procedure in stability and to see if the my life. By using different tools to laptop stand is capable of the make a thread inside the pipe weight at different adjustable holder/supporter. The aim was to angles as the user would use make a screw type pipe tighter which it in bed. would hold the pipe in a solid state. It is best to test this for my research I feel really strong about this design that I decided to base it on my final design. however to make this modal design complete I had to do some testing, this As we can see the laptop was with both laptop and new generation weight does not affect the technologies hardware such as the apple ipad which laptop holder so once again we can see on the right. We can clearly see how the this is a good model. laptop holder is in a good state at holding the ipad at different angles. Modelling is always done on every product that is out on the market. It is done for quality checks and to get a virtual view of a product that would be out for sale. A model can also be a idea or a design that you may want to see in a virtual view. Even though the models look itself isn't attractable but it was to see what a actually laptop stand would look like also to see what type of structure I would need for it to stand upright. The materials that I used to make this model was The purpose of this laptop side stand is that pine, acrylic, small steel piping. So looking back at the bottom part of the stand goes under the the client requirements and looking at the bed where it acts as a supporter keeping questionnaire I have followed it by using a the laptop upright. combination of materials. The limitations of this model is that it is not stylish and does not have a solid look to it, which would make it less This model that I made was made in 5 different stages, attractive and wouldn’t appeal to the aiming market, the adjustability is also limited. From this picture we can see the first part of this production where I drilled a hole into the base part In the last and final part of the model process I of the table where the laptop would stand on. This cut out a acrylic tray where the laptop would hole is made for the steel piping to be inserted into be placed on, at the same time I cut out a to join to the bottom structure. I found it easy using piece of MDF which was added to the main the power stand drill . structure to hold it upright. The laptop stand at this stage is capable of holding a lot of weight but did slightly bend to the right when testing with weight. After drilling I cut my steel pipes where one of the steel pipes fitted This picture shows the main into the other. After structure of the stand as we that I hammered can see it is stable without them into place any weight put on the top. I giving a tight fit . must say that the structure isn't that appealing and looks simple . Evaluating from the beginning and to the end of my production: The evaluation of my product asses how successful the product it is from the initial ides to the finished piece. Also to I believe that my laptop stand did follow thorough all the characteristics and stages that I conclude and faults and changes that were occurred if I was to wanted. Ever since the thought that I have of this design firstly came from the testing make it again in the future. parts and to see what I wanted to use in the design of my product. When I researched into plywood and figured out the main purposes of plywood and its functions, I decided to use it to make something horrible into a product that Is unique and attractable. Firstly Plywood bending inspired me into using the technique as I enjoyed how you can make shapes out of wood which was a challenge. The second part that inspired me to use in my design was when I did my model the functions method the criteria and user requirements, and at the same time was attractable. So evaluating this I can say that everything ran smoothly in that sense. However there was a stage where I had to decide on the consequences of the situation. This was when I had to weld the alloyed piping to the connected structure of the laptop table. By looking at the first model I realised how to prevent any way of the laptop table falling over. Testing the product: When testing the product the aim was to find out the limitations of the design and weaknesses, and mainly the positives. Testing of adjustability: What I decided to do was test the laptop stand my self the way I did that was by using the laptop for a week also seeking the adjustability limitations -Weakness – When placing a laptop on the cooling plate whilst sitting on a small chair it is hard to access the use the laptop keys as it is too high up. The quality of the laptop plate is cheap and may not last long To justify all this the I am pleased with the product I made if I was to make any changes I would prepare -Strengths- to make my own cooling unit made from my own Fully adjustable plastic on a laser cutter. very attractable More use of electronic components would also be Easy to carry around an interest in what I would like to change for this Classical looking and strong structured design. After making my product I need to make sure it works out in the open market. To do this I would have to trial the bedside laptop stand to members of the public and the client. So I have planned to give the client the stand to keep for a week this evidence shows what the client thought of the laptop stand and how helpful it was for him. Overall I as the client think that this product has met my requirments and I am really happy This picture shows the other potential with the use of the product for the week that I tried the stand I had no problems what so ever functions of the laptop stand as it can with the product, even though the natural design of the product looks aged it is very also be a classical small table for your attractive and fits well in any room of my home. When having guests over they looked at the living room. surreal laptop stand . I gathered a lot of feedback on how attractive and useful it is. I would From this angle we can sure see the surrealism defiantly consider buying one for myself. As you can see from the picture I had taken I of the design where the legs are bent and look converted the laptop stand into a normal classical ornament for display in my living room. At like they are about to collapse. this point I found another use of it as a book table or just as a surreal ornament. Then again when I had guests over they kept on asking me where I had bought this product from, I told them it is a project for an a level student. They were very interested in the functions and design as it looks very natural and attractive. I asked them to look carefully at the product and estimate a price that they would pay for it. I was given values between £40-£60. most of all I find the laptop stand really comfortable. And I am very happy with the product and I'm sure a lot of people are. We can see how stable the laptop stand is in this picture. The stand had been tested The bed that the stand was tested on was a The laptop holder is on a tilt at the same time cooling the teenagers high bed which is half a meter high from at different angles and on different laptop making it easier for the user to type and allow the the floor. So he could test the full functions we can surfaces to see where the constraints of laptops purpose. We can see how the laptop stand can be see the user using the laptop in bed comfortable. the holder was, however the user couldn’t used while sitting down on a couch /sofa find any. We can see how the structure of the legs is in place when weight is applied on it. This screw part is From looking at the responses I am very holding all the weight of the above load. There is no proud of the product I have made and signs of strain. privileged to go through all the process for this project and hope to do well in the future.
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