SPUHLER 2010 Anaerobic Digester Smallscale 2

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					                Anaerobic Digestion (Small-acale)

                                    Dorothee Spuhler, seecon gmbh




Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                   1
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      The contents of the SSWM Toolbox reflect the opinions of the respective authors and not necessarily the official opinion of the funding or
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Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)
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      Contents

      1. Concept
      2. How can it optimise SSWM
      3. Design principals
      4. Treatment efficiency
      5. Operation and maintenance
      6. Applicability
      7. Advantages and disadvantages
      8. References




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  1. Concept
      Background

      Small-scale anaerobic biogas reactors are very common in agricultural
      regions in industrialised as well as developing countries.
      Because this plants not only allow the treatment of wastes (manure, green
      waste, toilet products) but also result in the on-site production of a
      renewable energy source, such plants have been widely disseminated by
      many rural developing programmes in the past 30 years.
      In Nepal for instance more than 200’000 such plants have been constructed
      in the past 20 years.
      The main features of small-scale anaerobic biogas reactors are:
        • Requires animal dung (rich in organic matter and high productions
          yields) to produced sufficient energy for the household
        • Can co-treat toilet products and kitchen or garden waste (green waste)
        • Depend on relatively high daily mean temperature as anaerobic
          digestion, the process which produces biogas slows down drastically
          with decreasing temperatures.
Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                  4
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  1. Concept
      Background                                     On-site recycling of nutrients and energy




                                                            Toilet, Kitchen and Garden
                                                                        Waste
                                                                      + Manure




                                                               Adapted from: http://www.seco.cpa.state.tx.us/energy-sources/biomass/images/manure-
                                                               biogas.gif [Accessed: 30.05.2010]
Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                                                                                5
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  1. Concept
      What are Small-Scale Anaerobic Digesters?
      … Airtight reactors, typically designed to produce biogas at the household or
      community level.
      Biogas gas is produced by the conversion of green waste by a process called
      anaerobic digestion.
      During anaerobic digestion, microorganism transform organic matter contained
      in the wastes into biogas
      The produced biogas can be used either directly for coocking, heating
       or lightening    or be transformed into combined heat and power (CHP) in
      small cogeneration plants.
      With time the reactors fill up and digested sludge (sludge which organic
      fraction was already converted to biogas) accumulates in the bottom.
      Nutrients remain in the sludge, which is a well-balanced soil amendment.
      Toilets can be linked to the reactors and co-digested with the animal dung, but
      biogas production from human manure is only low and therefore animal dung
      and green wastes are required to cover a familiy’s needs.
Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                       6
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  1. Concept
                                              “The Ecocylce of biogas”
      What are Small-Scale Anaerobic Digesters?
                                                                                                            Coocking
       Cattle Dung /
         Manure

                                                                                                                                     Lightning
    Toilet Products
       (Excreta,                                                               Biogas
        Faeces)

                                                                                                                                         Heating
     Kitchen / Garden
      Organic Waste
      (Green Waste)
                                                                                                                                       Electricit
                                                                                                                                           y

                                                                                                                           Fuel
                             Fertiliser              D. Spuhler (2010), Adapted from: www.kristianstad.se/; http://www.newseedadvisors.com/2009/09/10/invest/;
                                                         http://www.hydroharrys.com/hydroharrys_about_fertilizer.php and www.clker.com [Accessed: 02.06.2010]
Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                                                                                                7
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  1. Concept
      Possible Benefits for Users:
      Under the right conditions a biogas plant yields several benefits to end-users
        • Social:
           ◦ Improved sanitation: reduction of pathogens, worm eggs and flies
           ◦ Reduction of workload: less firewood collection, better cooking
             performance
           ◦ Improved indoor air quality: less smoke and harmful particle emission
             of biogas stove compared to wood or dung fuels;
        • Environmental
           ◦ Production of green energy
           ◦ Reduction of greenhouse gas emission
           ◦ Organic fertilizer production
        • Economical:
           ◦ Better Health more work capacity
           ◦ Fertilizer, better crop yields, better Health
           ◦ Fuel substitution

Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                      8
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  1. Concept
      Possible Benefits for Users: Reduced indoor pollution




                                                     Source: M. WAFLER                  Source: M. WAFLER




           Coocking with fuelwood                                        Biogas stove


Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                                           9
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  1. Concept
      What is Anaerobic Digeastion ? (1/3)
      Degradation of organic material by bacteria. In the absence of air
      (anaerobic). Four stages:
      •Hydrolisis
           ◦ Cleavage of a chemical compound through the reaction with water.
           ◦ Insoluble complex molecules are bracken down to short sugars, fatty
             acids and amino acids.
      •Fermentation (Acidogenesis)
           ◦ Products from hydrolysis are transformed into organic acids, alcohols,
             carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen (H) and ammonia (NH3).
      •Acetogenesis
           ◦ Organic acids and alcohols are converted into hydrogen (H2), carbon
             dioxide (CO2) and acetic acid (CH3COOH). Therefore, oxygen is
             consumed and anaerobic conditions are created
      •Methanogenesis
           ◦ Methanogenic bacteria (methanogenesis), transform the acetic acid,
             carbon dioxide and hydrogen into biogas.
Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                     10
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  1. Concept
      What is Anaerobic Digestion ? (2/3)




                                                     D. SPUHLER (2010)




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  1. Concept
       What is Anaerobic Digestion ? (3/3)




Source:
http://water.me.vccs.edu/courses/ENV149/changes/Feat11_pi
cII-1.jpg [Accessed: 02.06.2010]




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  1. Concept
      What is Biogas ?

      Biogas is a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide.
      The properties of biogas are similar to the ones of natural gas.
      Biogas is the common name for the mixture of gases released from
      anaerobic digestion.
      Typically biogas is composed of:
         Methane (CH4)                                         50 to 75 %
         Carbon Dioxide (CO2)                                  25 to 50 %
         Hydrogen (H)                                          5 to 10 %
         Nitrogen (N2)                                         1 to 2 %
         Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)                               Traces
            Sources: YADAV & HESSE (1981); FAO (1996); PIPOLI (2005); GTZ (2009
                                                                                  Source: MUENCH (2008)


      Methane is the valuable part of the biogas. Biogas that contains about
      60 to 70 % of CH4 has a calorific value of about 6 kWh/m3 what
      corresponds to about half an L of diesel oil. (ISAT/GTZ 1999, Vol. I)
Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                                         13
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  1. Concept
      Examples:
      Small-scale Biogas plants




                                                         Source: M. WRIGHT, Ashden Awards




                      Source: M. WRIGHT, Ashden Awards



          Biogas plant for cow dung,
              Padli village (India)                      Source: M. WRIGHT, Ashden Awards



Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                           14
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  1. Concept
      Examples: Small-scale Biogas Plants

   Biogas
    lamp




                                                                                     Source: M. WRIGHT, Ashden Awards


                                                                             Adding greywater to the
                                         Source: M. WRIGHT, Ashden Awards   biogas reactor to optimise
                                                                               moisture conditionss
Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                                                       15
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  1. Concept
      Examples Small-scale Biogas Plants




                                                         The
                                                     “Mudbooster”
                                                        Plant
          Source: UNKNOWN




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  1. Concept
      Examples Small-scale Biogas Plants




                                                                                             Source: C. RIECK (2009)

                                                                      Wet clay is used to fit the concrete lid
                                                                            of the manhole gas-tight.




                                                     Source: SuSanA


         Biogas outlet and manhole with
      remouvable cover from a underground                                                     Source: C. RIECK (2009)

      biogas plant Installed by the NGO TED                           The manhole is filled with water to keep
          in Maseru, Lesotho (Susana)                                  the clay sealing wet and gas tight. Gas
                                                                      leackage would be indicated by bubbles.

Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                                                       17
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  2. How it can optimize SSWM
       Biogas plants can contribute to                                                  Biogas substitutes
           sustainable sanitation                                                     conventional energy
                                                                                        sources, reducing
                                                                                     reliance on fossil fuel
                                                                                       and firewood (CO2)




                                                                                                                         Digested sludge
                                                                                                                          can substitute
                                                                                                                            chemical
                                                                                                                            fertiliser
     Biogas plants transform
traditional manure management;                       D. SPUHLER (2010), adapted from: http://www.terranet.or.id/mitra/dewats/photo/masukan1256.jpg;

 reducing CH4 and CO2 emission                       http://www.borda-sea.org/modules/cjaycontent/index.php?id=6; http://whrefresh.com/wp-
                                                     content/uploads/2010/01/potato_field.jpg;
                                                     http://www.greenspec.co.uk/images/energy/CHP/chp2.gif]; http://peda.gov.in/eng/images/rural-

Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)
                                                     biogas-plant_179.jpg; [Accessed: 30.05.2010], BPO (2006) and BUNNY (n.y.)                        18
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  1. Concept
      Examples: Biogas Appliances

                                    Biogas lamps
                                                                            Biogas
                                                     K.P. Pravinjith       cooking
                                                                            stoves
                                                                                                     Krämer (TBW)




                                                        PBO (2006)

                                                                                                            M. Wafler




                                    Chang Mai
                                                        Biogas generator    Biogas rice           Biogas boiler
                                                                              cooker
                                                                                          Source: UNKNOWN
Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                                                       19
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  3. Design Principals
      Basics: Process Parameters

      Anaerobic digestion = Biological system of bacteria
      Optimal conditions required that bacteria feel wealthy…
      •Temperature
           ◦ Performance
           ◦ Retention time
      •pH: Wide range,but methanogenesis requires neutrality (6.5-7.5). (MES et al.
      2003)


      •Total solid (TS)
           ◦ Solids for digestion (organics) - Liquid for fluidity of slurry.
           ◦ Optimal TScontent: 5 to 10%. (SASSE 1988; NIJAGUNA 2002)
      •COD: Chemical oxygen demand: Methane production potential




Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                     20
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  3. Design Principals
      Basics: Daily manure yield for different cattle




                                                        Sources: OEKOTOP; WERNER et al. (1998)




Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                                21
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  3. Design Principals
      Basics: Gas yields for different feedstocks




                                                     Sources: OEKOTOP; WERNER et al. (1998)




Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                             22
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  3. Design Principals
      Basics: Biogas Guideline data

          Suitable digesting temperature             20 to 35 °C

          Retention time                             40 to 100 days

          Biogas energy                              6kWh/m3 = 0.61 L diesel fuel

          Biogas generation                          0.3 – 0.5 m3 gas/m3 digester volume
                                                     per day

          Human yields                               0.02 m3/person per day

          Cow yields                                 0.4 m3/Kg dung

          Gas requirement for cooking                0.3 to 0.9 m3/person per day

          Gas requirement for one lamp               0.1 to 0.15m3/h

                                                         Adapted from WERNER et al. (1998); ISAT/GTZ (1999), Vol. I; MANG (2005)




Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                                                                  23
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  3. Design Principals
      Types of Digester: Bag or Rubber Balloon Biogas Plants (1/2)
      Huge common plastic bag (e.g. PVC): sludge settles on the bottom and biogas
      is collected in the top. Gas is transported by the pressure from the elasticity of
      the balloon (can be enhanced by placing weights on the balloon).
         • Most simple design, easy and low-cost ( if material locally available)
         • Temperature enhanced when exposed to sun
         • Simple to clean but lifespan generally limited

                    Plastic bag                                        Gas pipe               To reuse or
                                                                                                 further
                                                                                               treatment
                                                                                              (e.g. drying
                             Biogas accumulates in the top of the bag                             bed)

 Leveled
 surface                                                                                Batch mode: emptying
       Inlet                                                                            once every few years
                                                                                        Plug-flow reactor: the
                                                                                        slurry moves through
            Layer of                                                                    continuously much like
            compacted backfill                        Source: adapted from FAO (1996)
                                                                                        a train a tunnel
Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                                            24
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  3. Design Principals
      Types of Digester: Bag or Rubber Balloon Biogas Plants (2/2)


                                                                                                                  Underground plug-
                                                                                                                    flow reactor bag
                                                                                                                 biogas plant () and
                                                                                                                     balloon biogas
                                                                                                                  collection chamber
                                                                                                                   (). (Philippines,
                                                                                                                      Garry Baron)




                                                     Source: http://www.habmigern2003.info/biogas/Baron-digester/Baron-digester.htm [Accessed: 02.06.2010]




Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                                                                                            25
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  3. Design Principals
      Types of Digester: Fixed-dome Biogas Plants (1/3)
      Airtight underground reactor out of concrete or brick work (most often round),
      with a fixed (also airtight) dome in which gas is collected. Gas pressure is
      absorbed by the slurry which is displaced into a compensation tank.
         • Most widely disseminated
         • Long life-spam
         • Underground: safes space and protect from temperature changes
         • Construction must be supervised




Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                      26
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  3. Design Principals
      Types of Digester: Fixed-dome Biogas Plants (2/3)

                                           Biogas                                                           Fixed-
                                           collection                                                       dome
             Inlet                                                            Seal                                 Removable cover


                                                     Biogas accumulates in
                                                           the dome


                                                                                                                        Overflow tank /
                                                                  Slurry
                                                                                                                         compensation
                                                                                                                           chamber


                                                     Source: adapted from http://peda.gov.in/eng/images/rural-biogas-plant_179.jpg [Accessed: 02.06.2010]



Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                                                                                           27
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  3. Design Principals
      Types of Digester: Fixed-dome Biogas Plants (3/4)




                                          Source: K.P. PRAVVIJITH    Source: K.P. PRAVVIJITH




                                           Source: K.P. PRAVVIJITH    Source: K.P. PRAVVIJITH

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  3. Design Principals
      Plastic dome




     Any pit can be filled with
    organic waste and covered
    airtight with a plastic sheet
     in order to collect biogas




                                                     Source: ISAT/GTZ (1999, Vol. I)



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  3. Design Principals                               Floating-drum
      Floating-drum Biogas Plants
      Floating-drum plants consist of an
                                                          Inlet
      underground digester and a moving
      gasholder (mostly of made out of                                        Outle
      steel).                                                        Biogas
                                                                              t
      The gasholder floats either directly
      on the fermentation slurry or in a
      water jacket of its own. The gas is
      collected in the gas drum, which
      rises or moves down, according to
      the amount of gas stored. The gas
      drum is prevented from tilting by a
      guiding frame.                                                 Slurry
         • Easy to and to control operation
         • Material costs are high
         • High risk of corrosion and
           rusting (short lifespam).


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  3. Design Principals
      Floating-drum Biogas Plants                                                     Different design of
                                                                                   floating drum plants 
                                                      Open
                                                     gasholder




                                                                                                    MUELLER (2007)




                                                                           Floating drum plant
                                                                          with inlet from the the
                                                         MUELLER (2007)
                                                                          NGO BIOTECH (India)
Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                                                    31
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  3. Design Principals
      Toilet linked Biogas Reactors

      Co-digestion of toilet products (nightsoil or blackwater) is a sustainable
      solutions for

           • Hygienically safe on-site treatment of toilet excreta

           • Production of fertiliser

           • Production of renewable energy

      The mixing of animal dung with blackwater increases its fluidity and
      results in optimal moisture conditions for the anaerobic digestion.

      Human manure has a lower content in organic matter and thus a
      limited biogas yield.


Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                  32
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  3. Design Principals
      Toilet linked Biogas Reactors




                                                     Source: ???




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  3. Design Principals
      Toilet linked Biogas Reactors


                                                     Inlet for               Source: adapted from WELL (n.a.)

      Pour-                                           animal
      flush                                           waste
                                                                                              Removable
      toilet                                                     Gas outlet pipe             cover annual
                                                                                              desludging



      Link of toilet
                                                                                                    Collection and
                                                                    Biogas                           expansions
                                                                   reactor                            chamber
                            Baffle to mix
                         influent with tank
                              contents
Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                                                    34
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  3. Design Principals
      Toilet linked Biogas Reactors



                                       Manure and green
                                         waste mixing
                                           chamber                 http://www.ashdenawards.org/files/imagecache/large/fi
                                                                   les/images/biogasnepal05a.jpg [Accessed: 02.06.2010]




                             Source: M. WAFLER



   Pour-flush
     toilet                                                                 Sludge drying bed
                                                           Expansions chamber



                                          Biogas reactor


Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                                                          35
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  4. Treatment Efficiency
      Health aspects
      Anaerobic digested sludge are generally pathogen free. Pathogen removal
      depends temperature and retention time. Generally , at more than 55°C
      pathogens are killed after a few days. At normal temperatures (mesophilic
      digestion), longer time is required.


                                                              Source: SASSE (1988)




        In reality, fresh sludge
        is always mixed with
        new sludge and it is
        very difficult to control
        retention times.
        Therefore, caution
        needs to be taken when
        emptying and handling
        sludge manually.
                                                                                     Source: WERNER et al. (1998)


Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                                               36
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  4. Treatment Efficiency
      Nutrients
      Anaerobic digestion only removes organics, and the main mineral material and
      almost all nutrients remain in the bottom sludge.
        • Phosphorus: almost 100 %                                   Biogas slurry
                                                                          =
        • Nitrogen (ammonium): and 50 to 70 % (JOENSSEN et al. 2004)  Fertilisers

                                                     Biogas Slurry = Fertiliser




      Further treaments to increase the safety (pathogen removal)
        • Composting
        • Drying beds / Humification
Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                    37
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  5. Operation and Maintenance (O&M)
      Start-up

      Seeding with living sludge form other anaerobic reactor required. The
      establishment of the complex biological conditions for anaerobic
      digestion and biogas production may takes some weeks to months.


      Operation

      No skilled operator is required but households should be trained to
      understand the system.
      Regular maintenance includes

           • Checking for foaming or scum formation

           • Checking for air/gas- tightness

           • Checking for rusting (e.g. floating-drum reactor)

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  6. Applicability


      Small-scale biogas digesters can transform almost any biodegradable
      waste into biogas.

      Household or community scale.

      Most often used for biogas production in rural areas from animal dung.

      Green wastes (kitchen, garden, etc.) can be added.

      If toilets are linked: safe and sustainable sanitation solution.

      Underground construction provided: can also be constructed in urban
      areas.

      As anaerobic digestion is limited to moderate to high temperature, only
      in areas where temperature does not fall short of for any substantial
      length of time.

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  7. Pros’ and Cons’
                                                     Disvantages:
      Advantages:                                    • Experts are required for the
      • Low-cost                                       design of the reactor and skilled
      • Generation of biogas and                       labour is required for the
        fertilizer                                     construction of a gastight tank
      • Combined treatment of animal,
                                                     • Substrates need to contain high
        human and solid organic waste
                                                       amounts of organic matter for
      • Low operation and maintenance
                                                       biogas production
      • Underground construction (low
        space requirement and high                   • Slurry may has to be further
        acceptance)                                    treated before reuse (e.g.
      • Low risk of odours                             composting)
      • Resistance against shock loads   • Below temperatures of 15°C,
      • Long life span if maintained and   biogas production is economically
        operated correctly                 not interesting (heating required)
      • Reduces the amount of wood fuel • Requires seeding (start-up can be
        and improves indoor air quality    long due to the low growth yield
                                           of anaerobic bacteria)
Anaerobic Digestion (Small-scale)                                                          40
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  Thank you for your attention!




                                                     Source: ???




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  8. References
      BPO (2006): Support Project to the Biogas Programme for the Animal Husbandry Sector in some Provinces of Vietnam. BP I Final report. Hanoi: Biogas Project
      Office (BPO) Hanoi
      BUNNY, H., BESSELINK, I. (n.y.): The National Biodigester Programme in Cambodia. In Relation to the Clean Development Mechanism. National Biogidgester
      PRobramme and NV Netherlands Development Organisation
      FAO (1996): Biogas Technology - A Training Manual for Extension. Consolidated Management Services Nepal (P) Ltd. and Food and Agriculture Organization of
      the United Nations (FAO) Available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/ae897e/ae897e00.HTM [Accessed: 19.04.2010]
      GTZ (2009): Biogas sanitation for black water or brown water, or excreta treatment and reuse in developing countries. Draft Version.(=Technology review).
      Eschborn: German Agency for Technical Cooperation GmbH (GTZ) and Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) Available at:
      http://www.gtz.de/en/themen/umwelt-infrastruktur/wasser/9397.htm [Accessed: 11.03.2010]
      ISAT/GTZ (1999): Biogas Basics. (=Biogas Digest, Volume I). Information and Advisory Services on Appropriate Technology (ISAT) and German Agency for
      Technical Cooperation GmbH (GTZ). Available at: http://www2.gtz.de/dokumente/bib/04-5364.pdf [Accessed: 19.04.2010]
      JOENSSON, H., RICHERT A., VINNERAAS, B., SALOMON, E. (2004): Guidelines on the Use of Urine and Faeces in Crop Production. (= EcoSanRes Publication
      Series, Report No. 2004-2). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI)
      MANG, H.-P., (2005): Biogas Sanitation Systems. (=Ecological sanitation course, Norway, 15.-20. August 2005). Beijing: Chinese Academy of Agricultural
      Engineering
      MES, T.Z.D. de, STAMS, A.J.M, REITH, J.H., ZEEMAN, G. (2003): Chapter 4. Methane production by anaerobic digestion of wastewater and solid wastes. In:
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