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                      CHAPTER IV



Submitted by:                      Submitted to:
Group IV                           Prof. Sajeet Lakra
Personnel Management-II

                                                   Page 1

Members                     Roll No.

 1.   Premlata Tuti          04
 2.   Namrata Makhija        13
 2.   Vijaya Chatterjee      26
 3.   Rose Manisha Hemrom    36
 3.   Chetna Kumari          50
 4.   Namrata Sharon Rao     64
 7    Priyanka Priya         S5

                                       Page 2

Success of a project depends on the endeavor put behind it.
Encouragement and patronization perfect an endeavor.

We take this opportunity to express our heartfelt gratitude to our
faculty    Prof. Sajeet Lakra, for providing us with the opportunity
of preparing the study material for the fourth chapter “Organizing
Training Programs” of the HRD curriculum and give presentation in
the class. The group’s involvement and team work helped us
understand the chapter in a lucid manner. The group’s
cohesiveness and team work helped us to make this task a success.
We thank all the team members and also all our colleagues for their
unconditional support.

Thank You

Group IV

                                                               Page 3
S.No.   Topics                                             Pg. No.
  1.    Introduction to Training…………………...                   05
  2.    Important items that the      organizer   should     06
 3.     Steps in Organizing Training ……….........            07
 4.     Assumptions for attaining Training Objectives...     08
 5.     Management Trainee Scheme…………………..                  09-15
 6.     Management Development Program…………....              16-20
 7.     Supervisory Training Program….………………                20-22
 8.     Workers Education and Training……………….               22-25
 9.     Conclusion…………………………………….                            26
 10.    Bibliography…………………………………….                          27

                                                              Page 4
The term training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and
competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and
knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies.

Definition: Organized activity aimed at imparting information and/or
instructions to improve the recipients performance or to help him or her
attain a required level of knowledge or skill.

Some of the objectives of training are:

   1. To impart to new entrants the basic knowledge and skill they need for
      an intelligent performance of definite tasks.
   2. To assist employees to function more effectively in their present
      position by exposing them to the latest concepts, information and
      techniques and developing the skills they will need in their particular
   3. To build up a second line of competent officers and prepare them to
      occupy more responsible positions.

The main areas in which training operate are knowledge, skills, attitudes,
techniques and experience.

Principles of Organizing Training                  Programs       (National
Industrial Conference Board)
    Purpose: to meet Organizational objectives, by providing opportunities
     for employees at all organizational levels to acquire the requisite
     knowledge, skills and attitude

    The first step in training is to determine needs and objectives

    The objectives and scope of a training program should be defined
     before its development is begun in order to provide a basis for
     common agreement and co-operation

    The techniques and processes of a training program should be related
     directly to the needs and objectives of the organizations

                                                                        Page 5
   The function of training personnel is to assist line management in
    determination of training needs and in the development,
    administration, conduct and follow up of training plans

   To be effective, training must use the tested principles of learning to
    make it most effective to the trainees.

Important items that the organizer should consider
  •   Provision of information to participants and resource persons (before,
      during, and following the training session)

  •   Logistical aspects of course preparation and implementation:

          Travel arrangements and transportation

          Accommodation

          Meals and breaks

          Social events

          Training rooms and infrastructure available

          Per diem (Daily Subsistence Allowance)

          Equipment, materials and supplies

          Name badges

          Certificates (Template provided upon request)

                                                                      Page 6
              Steps in Organizing Training

               Identifies needed functions and activities

                 Structure of the Training Department
                        (grouping of activities)

                    Duties, Functions & Authority
                       (of each sub element)

        Job Descriptions & Organizations and Functions Manual
                              (of all jobs)

                        Organizational Survey

1. Training and development programs must be analyzed and identify
   the functions and activities that must be performed if the programs
   are to be operated and the objectives attained. Therefore requirements
   for managing and supervising requirements , forecasting them,
   developing and operating training systems, evaluating them, support
   to instruction and marketing training packages and services must be
2. In the next step required functions are placed in logical groupings
   under a manager or supervisor.
3. Duties and authorities are then assigned to each functional grouping.
4. The succeeding steps involve the development of a written job
   description of every position and also the functions manual. The
   purpose basically here is to clarify the relationship between and
   among training and training support elements.
5. The final step that closes the loop is the periodic organizational
   surveys that are made to keep the structure consistent with the
   changing requirements.

                                                                   Page 7
   Assumptions for attaining Training Objectives.

1. The first assumption is that the training department must be able to
   deal effectively with the environment in which it operates. To do so it
   must have:
      (i)    The capacity to identify, evaluate and interpret both internal
             and external environmental conditions.
      (ii)   The flexibility to adjust to changing conditions and
      (iii)  The capability to perform the tasks required by training and
             development operations.
             In    order    to   achieve    these    conditions,    efficient
             communication, receptivity to change, innovative ability, top-
             notch leadership and built in feedback mechanisms should
             be present.
2. The second assumption is that changes in the structure of training
   and development must aim at improved performance. In other words,
   it must be designed in terms of successful accomplishments of the
   purposes and the objectives of training. Decisions considering endless
   number of possibilities and the alternatives must be based on the
   prospect for improved performance.
3. The last assumption is that a sound organization structure is no
   guarantee that the training organization will function properly.
   Therefore, elements of training organization may develop values and
   standards not necessarily related to training department affiliation.

                                                                       Page 8
                 Management Trainee Scheme

In every industry there is a need for managerial staff. From first-line
supervisors to top executives, managers plan and direct the work of the
organization, set policy, establish channels of communication, and evaluate the
work that is done. These functions require knowledge, skills, and judgment
that are most effectively developed on the job.

To prepare individuals for management responsibilities, many companies
use MANAGEMENT TRAINEE positions. These positions are most often
found in finance, trade, manufacturing, and in government agencies.
Depending on the business, the position may also be referred to as
marketing trainee, purchasing trainee, accounting trainee, or management
intern. Whatever the title, the purpose of the position is the same: to qualify
individuals for management functions within the organization.

Specific duties of a Management Trainee vary widely according to the nature
of the industry and the individual firm employing the trainee. Very often, a
trainee's assignments are rotated among the various departments in order to
develop familiarity with the whole organization and its functions. Trainees
may also get classroom instruction in subjects related to their rotational
experience. Instruction may include lectures, guest speakers, projects, oral
presentations, and tests.

A Management Trainee hired by a department store may spend several
months working as a clerk in one or more of the sales departments, followed
by additional time working in customer services, purchasing,
merchandising, and personnel departments, for example. In a bank, the
trainee may work briefly as a teller, handle new accounts, and then work at
one of the loan desks before moving on to other assignments.

Many firms have formal written training programs which lay out the
instruction and types of assignments the trainee will receive. They also
specify times for periodic evaluation of the trainee's performance.
Management traineeships may range in length from six months to five years.

                                                                         Page 9
Working Conditions

A Management Trainee should be prepared to work in a variety of situations.
Depending on the industry, the setting may be a large office with many
people, a workshop, or a department in a retail store. Trainees may at times
work as members of a team and at other times may work alone on an
assignment. They are under close supervision and constant monitoring of
their performance. Management Trainees employed in a restaurant or
department store are on their feet for most of their shift. Many of them have
to perform some of the same duties of their subordinates, such as lifting
objects that weigh up to 50 pounds, cleaning, shelving, and serving food.
They must deal with all types of customers. Their work schedules may vary
each week.
They are under pressure to perform well to qualify for advancement. Travel
and time away from home be part of the job. Management Trainees may
also be required to relocate once they complete their training.

Definition : Management Trainee

    According to The Apprentices Act 1961 Section 8 (3A) “management
     trainee” means a person who is engaged by an employer for
     undergoing a course of training in the establishment of the employer
     (not being apprenticeship training under this Act) subject to the
     condition that on successful completion of such training, such person
     shall be employed by the employer on a regular basis.

    Management trainees are low ranking managers who are in the
     process of learning management methods. They undergo formal
     training to carry management operations.

    Management trainee works under the supervision of an experienced
     manager while learning. They receive formal training in a variety of
     management areas.

    The Management Trainee position is designed to prepare trainees to
     work as administrators or managers.

                                                                      Page 10
     First step of Management Trainee Scheme: Induction
     Induction is the process of a formal introduction to a new job or position so
     that he can be made aware of each and every facets of the job.

February 16,2011
S.No. Program                     Time         Facilitator*               Point             Signature
April 6,2011
1       Safety Practices          10:30:00AM   Mr. ABC, Head- Safety      VTC
April 6,2011
        Overview of Financial                  Mr.     DEF,       Head-   Administration
3                                 2:00PM
        Services                               Finance                    Block
4      IT                         3:10 PM      Mr. GHI, Head IT

6      HR                         4:00 PM      Mr. JKL Head- HVSC         HVSC
April 7,2011
8       Time Office               8:00 AM      Mr.MNO
                                                                          Mining Block
       Interaction with     the
                                  10:00 AM     Mr.PQR
9      UNIT HEAD
                                               Mr.  STU,      Associate
14     Feed Back                  10:30 PM                                Department,
                                  11:00 PM
7      Commercial                              Mr.VWX                     Block
Orientation at respective department.

Note= * HoDs may depute other executives for the program

                                                                          Manager- HR

                                                                                         Page 11


Name of the Trainee:                                               Date :
Name of HR Co-ordinator:

Rating scale:1-Very Satisfied, 2-Satisfied, 3-Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, 4.Dissatisfied ,5-Very

Kindly rate the sessions on a scale of 1 to 5.
Session               Conducted Name of Facilitator                Rating
                      (Yes or No )
                                                                   Facilitator      Content
Technical Session
Mine visit
Technical Session
Plant Visit

                                                                                            Page 12

1   Was the induction process well managed ?

    Overall, what was the most useful part , and why?


3   What was the least useful part, and why?

4   Suggestions for improvement:

5   How would you rate your experience of Induction on a scale of 1 to 5 ?

                                                                             Page 13
Components of a Management Trainee Scheme
  I.   Job Rotation
       During the period of training a management trainee is rotated in
       different jobs in his specific department. This is done to give him a
       practical exposure of all the jobs that he may need to do in future.

 II.   Training Program
       During the period of training the Management trainee is not only
       exposed to the various jobs but is also given training is these jobs by
       the facilitators under whom he works. This training helps the trainee
       to know about the nuances of the job.

III.   Self study
       The management trainee scheme also provides the incumbent an
       opportunity of self assessment where he becomes aware of his own
       strengths and areas of improvement related to his job. He becomes
       aware of the areas where he can perform his best and add value to the
       organization and of all those areas where he needs to work hard to
       add to the productivity of the organization.

IV.    Live projects
       During the period of training the management trainee is asked to
       handle live projects under the supervision of his mentor to assess
       whether he has the ability to handle real life situation at workplace or

 V.    Buddy system
       During the entire management trainee scheme the incumbent works
       under the supervision of a mentor who can instruct and guide him if
       he faces any kind of dilemma at his place of work. Buddy system
       basically promotes camaraderie between the mentor and the
       incumbent, so that the incumbent get accustomed in the organization.

VI.    Periodical review and career counselling
       This is the feedback phase of the training scheme. Where periodical
       review is given by the facilitators under whom the incumbent gets
       training so that he can keeps on improving throughout the training

                                                                        Page 14
Steps followed in organizing a Management Trainee Scheme
In order to organize a Management Trainee Scheme the following steps need
to be followed:-

1.   Defining Objectives
     The first step in organizing a Management Trainee Scheme is to define
     objectives which are specific, attainable and measurable. These
     objectives once defined needs to be well communicated to the
     incumbents so that they have a clear picture in their minds as to what
     needs to be done to achieve those objectives.

2.   Formulating policies
     Policies are the broad guidelines that provide the framework within
     which the incumbent is expected to work in order to achieve the
     defined objectives. So the next step in the process of organizing a
     Management Trainee Scheme is to formulate the policies.

3.   Duration
     The next step of organizing a Management Trainee Scheme is deciding
     on the duration of the training .Generally the Management Trainee
     Scheme continues for a period of one year but it can extend up to a
     period of five years depending on the criticality of the job to be

4.   Compensation
     Once the duration of the training program is decided the
     compensation of the incumbent undergoing the organizing a
     Management Trainee Scheme should be decided which should be a
     proper mix of cash and facilities as it an integral part of the training
     scheme which should be at par with the current trends of the market.

5.   Training Module

     The training module should be a fine blend of different types of
     training methods i.e. combination of on-the-job training and off-the-
     job-training to suit the needs of the incumbents. The training module
     for all trainees shall consist of cross-functional training, specialty
     training in related function, on-the-job-training, IT Training, Exposure
     to training programs/seminars etc.

6.   Review Mechanism
      This is the feedback phase of the training scheme. Where periodical
     review is given by the facilitators under whom the incumbent gets

                                                                      Page 15
      training so that he can keeps on improving throughout the training
      period. Review mechanism include feedback from the mentor,
      supervisor or facilitator etc.

                Management Development Program

Management Development has become very important in today’s competitive
environment.According to a survey, those companies that align their
management development with tactical planning are more competitive than
the companies who are not. It has also been indicated that 80% of the
companies report MDP, compared with 90% that provide executive
leadership training.

For most of the companies 37% of the training budgets go to management
development and learning programs. Therefore, it is important to consider
management development as an important part of organizational

(MDP) is a program designed to provide students and graduates with the
training and experience they need to become future business leaders. The
system is based on over 27 years of entrepreneurial knowledge and success.
The program gives students opportunities to gain practical management
experience and learn valuable skills through different franchise options.
Our simple business models and mentorship make successful business
results possible!

The Management Development Program (MDP) is a program designed for
managers at all organizational levels who want to develop and enhance their
understanding and practice of fundamental management principles in the
context of today's challenging environment.

This program attracts an audience from a wide diversity of backgrounds,
experience, and managerial levels who come together to discuss
fundamental issues facing managers in today's complex organizations. The
program is highly interactive and participant-centered. Instructors utilize a
variety of teaching methods to actively involve participants and facilitate the
learning process. The program focus is on the practical application of the
management principles discussed.

Graduates of the program return to their workplace with a written action
plan to transform their learning into increased managerial effectiveness in
the workplace

                                                                        Page 16
What does MDP systems training include?
Customer service

Accounting, planning and budgeting

Time management

Sales and marketing systems and techniques

Personnel management

Interpersonal skills development (negotiation techniques, conflict and stress

Business administration procedures

Equipment, tools, products and supplies

Production methods and techniques

Production management

What methods and techniques are used to facilitate training?
Instructional DVDs

Operational Training manuals (hard copies and electronic versions)

On-line testing

In-class seminars

Field training

Product seminars (conducted by suppliers)

Consultation Services provided by Senior Management including Regional
and District Managers

How can an MDP option benefit me now and for the future?
Financial rewards

Practical business knowledge

Interpersonal development

                                                                      Page 17
A résumé builder that is second to none

Community networking

Credibility and credit building

Access to corporate networks

Achievements of which you can be proud

Many of our students have gone on to adapt their skills and experience with
MDP in a multitude of professional capacities including careers as doctors,
lawyers, pharmacists, engineers, teachers, accountants and other types of
management positions

Some of the reasons behind the management development

programs are:
      It is managements’ responsibility of ensuring the success of the
      It is the management who deal with people of different background,
       culture, language, etc
      Mergers and acquisitions, downsizing, etc are all under management’s
      It is managements’ responsibility to ensure that the employees obtain
       the required KSAs to perform the tasks
      It is managements’ responsibility to ensure that right people is hired
       for the right job, at the right time for the right place
      Manager’s job is complex i.e. for the managers understanding the
       training need is not easy because his training need is determined by
       how well his department is meeting its objective and goal.
      It is the management who makes decisions on the basis of judgment
       and intuition
      It is the manager who performs several routine duties as well as
       handling the exceptions in their own as well as subordinates’ routine
      Managers are engaged in varied, discontinues, and brief activities
      It is the management that understand the organization, its vision,
       mission, ethics, values, strategies, capabilities, and how his
       organization fits into the industry, and how his behavior will influence
       people outside the organization

Therefore, managers must be able to get the required knowledge, skills, and
attitudes (KSAs) to meet the challenges as soon as they arise.

                                                                        Page 18
What does MDP system training include?
  •   Management and Leadership Excellence

  Examines basic principles and practices of management as they apply to
  today's workforce and explores management behaviors that contribute to
  personal and interpersonal effectiveness.

  •   Personal Preferences and Leadership

  Provides participants an opportunity to discover personal preferences,
  relate them to their management styles, and maximize their advantages
  in the workplace.

  •   Communication in the Workplace

  Explores the art of effective communication in a diverse and ever
  changing workplace. Describes verbal language that promotes positive,
  supportive and inclusive communication.

  •   Working Together Effectively

  Identifies the fundamentals of team development and characteristics of
  effective team leaders. It also explores the sources and consequences of
  conflict and identifies methods to approach it constructively.

  •   Managing Performance

  Introduces coaching as a management tool and identifies strategies
  managers can use to improve employee performance.

  •   Managing Personal & Organizational Change

  Describes the human reaction to change and the impact of response to
  change. This session provides a toolbox for managing change and
  strategies for increasing resilience.

Management Development Program( Out House)
   Letter/ Invitation to Participants & reporting officers

   Time

   Venue ( of putting up & of the training)

   Number of Participants

   Topic of training

                                                                   Page 19
    Resource Personnel ( generally outside)

    Participation of the executives

    Food ( Special care due to age factor)

    Handouts

    Visual Aids and Films

   •   A supervisor is the lowest, or most-junior, management position. It is
       usually a step above lead (Accounting Supervisor is senior to Lead
       Accounting Specialist), but below Manager.
   •   A supervisor is responsible for the day-to-day performance of a small
       group. It may be a team, or a shift. The supervisor has experience in
       what the group does. The supervisor's job is to guide the group toward
       its goals, see that all members of the team are productive, and resolve
       problems as they arise.

Supervisor, being the manager in a direct contact with the operatives, has
got multifarious function to perform. The objective behind performance of
these functions is to bring stability and soundness in the organization which
can be secured through increase in profits which is an end result of higher
productivity. Therefore, a supervisor should be concerned with performing
the following functions -

   •   Planning and Organizing
   •   Provision of working conditions
   •   Leadership and Guidance
   •   Motivation
   •   Controlling
   •   Linking
   •   Grievance Handling
   •   Reporting
   •   Introducing new work Enforcing Discipline

                                                                       Page 20
Supervisor Training

  •   A new promotion means more challenges and more responsibilities.
      The Supervisor Training curriculum targets newly promoted foremen
      and supervisors or include training program in your organizational
      quality improvement plan and recommend it to experienced
      supervisors who need to brush up on fundamental skills.
  •   After an effective training program, the supervisors will be able to:
  •   Discuss the concepts and skills that a first-level supervisor uses in
      their daily responsibilities including: managerial concepts, how to
      plan, organize, and control; the process of motivation; employee
      relations; training, communication, and coordination; cost control and
      work simplification.
  •   Sharpen their verbal communication skills.
  •   Write effective letters, reports, and proposals.
  •   Be a contributing leader/member of an organizations quality
      improvement team, by understanding and communicating the
      accepted concepts and techniques.
  •   Learn and implement the principles of statistical process control
      within their organization.
  •   Learn and understand the use of quality measurement tools and
      measurement inspection methods.

Key Issues to Address

  •   How to integrate into the entrenched culture and survive resistance to
      you and your authority.
  •   How to handle the challenge of maintaining authority and building
      personal friendships with employees.
  •   How to motivate people to want to show up for work.
  •   How to motivate individual initiative and personal responsibility with
      respect for following procedures and regulations.
  •   How to develop the judgment to know when to follow written
      procedures and when to adapt.
  •   How to give clear instructions and verify recipient’s understanding.
  •   How to give performance feedback to employees that motivates them
      to want to improve.
  •   How to mediate and resolve most employee disputes.
  •   How to set goals, monitor behaviors and progress, and connect these
      things to performance feedback and organizational Success-o-Meters.
  •   How to manage your own stress while managing the stress of others.

                                                                     Page 21
Other Important Issues to be Addressed

   •   Contract Documents and other Legal Compliances
   •   Planning and Scheduling
   •   Cost Awareness and Production Control
   •    Accident Prevention and Loss Control
   •    Managing the Project: The Supervisor’s Role
   •    Productivity Improvement
   •   Company’s Statutes and Policies

Organizing a Supervisory Training Program

      Selection of the participants ( voluntary / nominated)
      Letter to the reporting officers of the participants
      Briefing Letter to Participants
      Topic of Training
      Timing ( so that it does not affect the production/service providing
      Number of Participants
      Staffing ( from within generally)
      Involvement of Participants ( with the resource person)
      Handouts
      Visual Aids and Films
      Venue

It is important to distinguish between education and training. Education is
a process whereby people learn about something in order to draw their own
conclusion. Training , by contrast, provides information and skill for a
particular purpose. Providing education and training is especially important
to ensure freedom of association.

 Worker’s education is a means of providing workers and their
representatives with the training, the need to play an effective role in the
economic and social life of their societies.

At the same time it can also make a significant contribution to the
dissemination of information on the various aspects of the work of
international labour organization which affects the interest of workers.

                                                                     Page 22
Why is it needed ?
  •   To keep new and young workers safe on the job.

  •   And prevent painful and costly work related injuries.

Why focus on young and new workers?
  •   Young workers, are at a much higher risk of injury than other
      workers. More than half of workplace accidents involving workers aged
      15 to 24 occur during their first 6 month on a job: nearly 20 percent
      occur during the first month.

  •   Young workers generally have less experience in recognizing
      hazardous situations than older workers. Many are also eager to
      please and afraid they will look dumb if they ask question, so they
      take risk that could be avoided.

  •   It’s not just only young workers are getting hurt. Starting a new job
      can be risky for workers of any age, including experienced workers.

The basic steps that will help employers and supervisors accomplish this

  1. Provide safety orientation, and train workers on the
      When one hire new and young worker, it’s essential to include safety
      issues as part of their orientation to the worksite on the first day of
      work, before they start working.
      The three topics which must be included in every orientation program

      a) Rights and responsibilities.
         Everyone has the right to a safe work environment. Employers,
         supervisors, and workers all have responsibilities to make sure
         work is performed safely.

      b) Workplace hazards.
         All workers and supervisors need to be alert to hazards so that
         they can correct any unsafe work conditions or report them to a
         supervisor or the employer.
         Never assume that new and young workers will be able to recognize
         hazards that could cause injury, disease or death. For each job,

                                                                      Page 23
     inform workers of all hazards, even if they seem obvious. Explain
     system that are in place to eliminate or minimize hazards, such as
     local exhaust ventilation, PPE etc.

  c) Safe work procedure.
     Some tasks require workers to follow a specific safe work procedure
     to eliminate or minimize risks. For example, in a workplace, one
     may have developed procedures for locking out machinery. (
     Lockout is the use of locks to prevent machinery from being started
     up accidently when maintenance work is being done).

2. Train workers for tasks specific to their jobs.
  All workers especially young workers need supervised, hands-on
  training in the tasks they will perform. For example, if a worker is
  required to operate a tool or machine, that worker has to be properly
  trained in using the equipment safely. Workers must be properly
  trained before they start a job.
  Specifically, you need to train workers in how to:
  • Perform tasks safely
  • Operate machines and equipment safely
  • Use and maintain any required PPE such as gloves or goggles
  • Follow safe work procedure

3. Provide supervision and ongoing training for all workers
   to ensure that they continue to work safely.
  The most important part of training is the follow-up supervision.
  Adequate supervision includes the following:
  • Ensure proper instruction and training of workers.
  • Follow up training with regularly scheduled observation to ensure
    that workers continue to follow safe work procedures. Document
    this observation.
  • Make information inspections on a daily basis to ensure that
    workers understand and are following safe work procedures,
    including proper lifting techniques and the use of protective
    equipment, devices, and clothing.
  • Enforce safety rules and work procedures.
  • Conduct informal discussions (crew talks) with workers to discuss
    specific safety issues as they arise.
  • Encourage worker feedback.

                                                                 Page 24
Innovative approaches and methods for flexible training delivery

  •   For workers to be able to adapt to the diverse skill needs of rapidly
      changing labour markets, they will need a greater capacity to learn
      and develop broader skills as a platform for continuous training,
      rather than acquiring fixed and narrow technical skills during a single
      period of training.
  •    To match these needs, a diversified supply of good quality training
      will have to be available, offering combinations of information and
      guidance services and interconnected paths of initial training.
  •   Emphasis needs to be placed on competency-based training and the
      development of competence standards and certification systems for
      the recognition of the experience and skills acquired in formal and
      informal training.
  •   In this context, training content and methodologies have to be flexible
      to increase labour mobility and the employability of new entrants to
      the labour market and displaced workers.
  •   However, to be in a position to respond to these needs, constituents
      require greater knowledge of the possible options, combined with
      assistance in analysing and identifying those that are most
      appropriate to their specific situation.

                                                                      Page 25

When you are organizing a training program for your employees,
you would primarily focus on designing a training program that
would impart the desired skills to your employees. Your primary
focus would be on the ‘what to teach’ aspect of it. And you may
overlook the other crucial aspect, i.e., ‘how to teach’. However,
you need to respect the fact that a single pedagogical strategy
cannot cater to the needs of all learners. You need to devise a
multi-pronged instructional strategy to suit your learners’
learning styles and preferences. In short, if you want your
training program to be effective, you need to recognize the
different types of learners.

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