Question: Describe the various Causes of poverty.
Answers by: Carlos
1. Erosion - Intensive farming leads to a cycle of exhaustion of soil fertility.
2. Desertification – 40% of the world’s agricultural land is degraded.
3. Droughts – lack of water supply.
4. Unemployment – People with no jobs can’t make money to escape poverty.
5. Overpopulation – Too many people without enough resources to support them.
6. Lack of access to birth control – leads to overpopulation.
7. Natural disasters – hurricanes, floods, tsunamis, earthquakes.
8. Education – without access to good education, people can’t get high paying jobs.
9. Inflation – Prices rise and people can’t afford to buy things.
10. Health Care – Poor access to affordable health care makes individuals more
vulnerable to poverty.
11. Malnutrition – Without food during childhood, it undermines the ability of
individuals to develop their full human capabilities.
12. Addictions – People will use money to feed their addiction thus leading to poverty.
13. Gambling – People risk losing all their money for a chance to win money.
14. Governance - High levels of corruption undermine efforts to make a sustainable
impact on poverty.
15. War – leads to economic depression.
16. Diseases – AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria afflict developing nations.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 1
17. Depression – loss of confidence and interest in usual activities.
18. Famine – No food leads to starvation
19. Disabilities – Lack of the ability to work.
20. Lack of technology – inefficient crop production.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 2
Question: Describe Canada’s shift from being
under the British Sphere of Influence to being
under the American Sphere of Influence from
Answers by: Oleg
Canada Joining the WWI because of Britain – Canada under British Sphere of Influence
Canada had no choice whether or no join the war, it just had to do what ever Britain tell them to.
Canada’s seat in the Paris Peace Conference - Canada leaving British Sphere of Influence
Canada had its own seats in the Paris Peace Conference and wasn’t simply represented by Britain
The King-Byng Crisis – (1920s-30s) Canada leaving British Sphere of Influence
1925 election, Liberals were in power of minority government (King leader). Conservatives called a motion of
center to vote against King’s government. King asked governor general Viscount Byng to call another election.
Byng refused, but than was forced to do it. King was mad and said that it was not cool for someone appointed by
Britain to not follow the advice of Prime Minister elected by Canadians. King won. Since, no Governor General
acted against wishes of PM.
Balfour Report/ Statute of Westminster (1920s-30s) Canada leaving British Sphere of Influence
Signed by Britain and all its colonies that they are autonomic. Canada became equal to America.
Canada refused to invade Turkey (1920s-30s) Canada leaving British Sphere of Influence
Canada refused to help Britain to invade Turkey
Canadian art (1920s-30s) Canada leaving British Sphere of Influence
Canada has its own art, its own way of seeing thing different from Britain (Emily Carr).
Canada’s rules (1920s-30s) Canada leaving British Sphere of Influence
Canada has its own rule/beliefs about liquor.
US Radio Station in Canada (1920s-30s) – Canada entering American sphere of influence
Most of the radio station listened to in Canada are American.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 3
Canada’s liquor industry (1920s-30s) – Canada entering American sphere of influence
Much of Canada’s liquor industry depends on American criminals.
KKK comes to Canada (1920s-30s) – Canada entering American sphere of influence
Canada followed American ways of thinking and started its own KKK.
US Movies in Canada (1920s-30s) – Canada entering American sphere of influence
A lot of US movies and television are really popular in Canada and put Canadian film industry out of the
US Invests In Canada’s Economy (1920s-30s) – Canada entering American sphere of influence
During 1920s US investments in Canada’s economy raised it even became higher than investments of Britain. P.57
American car industries in Canada (1920s-30s) – Canada entering American sphere of influence
Since Canada didn’t have any kind of car industry most of the cars and machinery used in Canada were from US.
The Big Three: ford, general motors and Chrysler
Canada/US stock market (1920s-30s) – Canada entering American sphere of influence
Canada and US had the same stock market and when it collapsed both countries were affected.
American Investment A Continuing Issue (POST-WWII) – Canada entering American sphere of
US started to invest a lot of money into Canadian businesses. By 1956, 68% of Canada’s industry was owned by
America. US firms controlled more than half of all manufacturing in Canada.p.171.
Cold War (POST-WWII) – Canada entering American sphere of influence
During the cold war US build many stations in Canada to spy on Soviet attack.
North America Free Trade Agreement (POST-WWII) – Canada entering American sphere of influence
1992- Canada signed free trade agreement with US and Mexico. Meaning there would not be any tariffs or
taxes put on the goods imported/exported between these countries.
Canadian electricity (POST-WWII) – Canada entering American sphere of influence
Canada exports a lot of electricity to America.
Lots of major food companies are from US (POST-WWII) – Canada entering American sphere of
People in Canada depend on food companies to make cheaper food.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 4
Charter of Right and Freedoms (POST-WWII) – Canada ceases to be controlled by Britain
Canada has its own charter of rights and freedoms independent from Britain.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 5
Question: To what extent have aboriginal people
achieved their goals during the last half of the
Answers by: Frank
Pg25~26 during WWI aboriginals were initially not accepted as volunteered soldiers in the
Canadian army, but few groups of other ethnic soldiers rose to higher ranks and decreased
slight bit of discrimination (aboriginals were then accepted as soldiers). This shows two
evidence, 1) the aboriginals volunteered for the army and not conscripted into the army
having to show their interest of defending their own country. 2) Aboriginals weren’t accepted
at first as soldiers for WWI, allowing Aboriginals to be a soldier gave the Aboriginals a little
more rights then they had (being restricted of not allowed to participate the army when
During the Trench warfare, people fought along side together slowly accepting each other’s
ethnic background fighting aside each other as fellow soldiers showing the barrier of not only
Aboriginals becoming invisible. (Slowly forming early stages of equality)
Pg70 In the 1920’s, Aboriginals land reserves were taken by the government of British
Columbia, even though most of the land weren’t signed away by the government and belonged
to the Aboriginals. Joe Capilano Chief of the Squamish people went to London England to
present land claim to the kind trying to protect the little rights they had. The Indian act was
later changed allowing the Aboriginals the transfer land as they wished, as well as stopping
people from taking Aboriginal reserved lands (a lot of discrimination and restrictions were
also in the Indian Act for ex. No Potlatch…. etc)
Pg70 1927 some Hoc and senate members suggested negotiating with Aboriginals and making
a treaty. This proves some people were regarding Aboriginals rights and wished to give
Aboriginals more respect and rights to talk over their own businesses. (Even thought the
government didn’t try, but its showed the people are starting to try to protect minority
Pg69 When the government found oil on reserved lands for Aboriginals, the government paid
the villagers to use the land instead of just taking it away. Again, showing more respect to
the natives then before.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 6
Pg104 In WWII the high % of Aboriginals that volunteered were taken in by the Canadian
army, but this time there weren’t as much regulations as of stopping the Aboriginals from
enlisting into the military compared to WWI.
Pg174 Diefenbaker was the first Pm to appoint Aboriginals as senator 2) gave status Indians
living on reserves the right to vote on federal elections 3) also introduced bill of rights trying
to break the barrier of different ethnic backgrounds, but also providing rights for every
Canadian. (Wished to un-hyphenate canadianism)
Pg180 young people joined Aboriginals movements. These point showings Aboriginals have the
right to protest and have supporters from younger generations. (Were as before the
Aboriginals probably would get beaten and not allowed to protest.)
Pg202 During the passing of constitution, Elijah Harper ( NDP of Manitoba legislative)
opposed the Meech Lake accord. Elijah Harper pointed out the constitution has failed to show
the Aboriginals interests and to recognize Aboriginal Nations being distinct society. The
point also shows Aboriginals have the right to influence politics now.
Pg208 Natives began to take over their own to take over their own affairs slowly such as
abolishing residential schools and setting up their own “band schools” teaching the kids their
language and culture. (Though lacked secondary schools) 1) having language rights 2) having
Federal government issued an apology to Aboriginals who were abused while attended
residential schools and announced a 350$ million healing fund. (Government realizes their
mistakes and wishing to improve and respect the Aboriginals.)
1970 Yukon Territory (Mackenzie Valley) pipelines constructions were being suspended due to
the request of Aboriginal organizations, government also issued commissions to investigate
the pipelines and problems before constructing on the request of the organizations. (Original
plan was to suspend 10 years but was held even longer.) 1) The government is showing their
care about the Aboriginal peoples voices and concerns.
Pg 210 Aboriginal groups have formed the assembly of first nations to represent them in
their dealings with the federal government; Aboriginals rights were also listen in the Charter
of rights and freedom. In 1985 Parliament passed BillC-31 giving the Aboriginal band councils
the power it decide who had the right to live on Aboriginal reserves. (More autonomy and
given the right to self-govern)
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 7
Pg 211 Oka confirmation showed the federal government’s decision was justice, having the
provincial governments to pay for the Mohawk sacred land instead of just taking it as they
please. (More respect and displaying the rights Aboriginals have now)
Pg 215 After the Nisga’s winning the court case for Aboriginal title the right to land
encouraged other neighboring aboriginal nations to take their land claim to court. (Again
showing Aboriginals have more rights for Land claim, as well as given more respect.)
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 8
Question: Evaluate Canada’s contributions to the
success of the United Nations.
Answers by: Gitti
1. The Making of the United Nations. ( pg.137)
- World leaders began making plans for an international agency that would prevent another global
- April 1945 delegates(deputy or an agent) from 51 countries, also including Canada, drew up a charter
for the United Nations.
--Canada played a key role in the drafting of the Charter
- the U.N was based on the idea of collective security( like the League of Nations) except this time
nations of the world were ready to support this idea
- In 1945, during the war, Canada became one of the first countries to join the United Nations.
-Individual Canadians have played important roles within the United Nations, and many of the
Organization's great accomplishments
have had a Canadian dimension.
2. Funding/ donations
- The United Nations is funded through member states’ dues and voluntary contributions, & through
donations from the private sector, and other national agencies, and individuals.
- Canada continues to rank as the 7th largest contributor to the UN regular budget
- Under current UN scale of Assessments, Canada pays 2.813% of the Un regular budget and the UN
- For 2006, Canada's estimate contribution to the UN regular budget is US$48 million (approx.
- July 2006 to June 2007, Canada's estimated financial contribution to UN peacekeeping operations
totalled US$133.6 million (about CDN$148.4 million)
- Canada is among the top ten donors with programs such as: UN System of funds, programs and
agencies, UN Development Program, UNICEF
and the World Health Organization, providing over US$600 million dollars a year.
- Canada has always stood out in calling for all Member States to honour their financial obligations in full
and on time, as Canada has consistently done
3. The Suez Crisis (pg.139)
- 1956, a crisis over the Suez canal gave Canada a chance to take a leading role as part of the UN
- 1956, Egypt took over the canal. Israel frightened by Egyptian aggression
- Britain, France supported Israeli invasion, and UN supported Israel
- Canadians were confused as to which side to take, ,many had British pride, but Canada was also part
of the United Nations
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 9
- PM Laurent refused to support British and French
- Lester Pearson went to the United Nations to work towards a solution
- Pearson proposed that a UN Emergency force be sent to the Suez Canal to separate and medicate
between rival armies
- UN agreed, the force, under the command of a Canadian general was chosen from countries not
directly involved in the Conflict.
- For His efforts in defusing the Crisis, Lester Pearson was awarded the Nobel peace prize, and was
the only Canadian to ever receive one.
4. Lester B Pearson(pg.139) ( Canadian )
- Pearson in generally consider one of the most influential Canadians of the 20 th Century
- 1948, PM Laurent appointed Pearson Minister of External affairs in the liberal gov’t
- 1957, he was the only Canadian to win the Nobel peace prize, for defusing the Suez Canal through
- The United Nations Emergency Force was Pearson’s creation
5. The Korean Conflict (pg.138)
- 1950 war broke out as North Korea tried to invade South Korea
- UN force (mostly Americans) tried to force invaders to retreat
- Encouraged by the USA Canada sent thousands of troops and 3 naval destroyers to Korea
- At the UN, Leaster Pearson urged all sides to agree to ceasefire
- 1953 ceasefire reached, but was increased tensions between the west and the communist nations.
6. Somalia (pg.153)
- 1992, United Nations launched “ Operation Restore Hope” in Somalia, an east African nation that
had been damaged by years of civil war, & starvation.
- Mission directed by USA, but Canadian forces joined other countries in distributing food and
essential supplies for survival to desperate locations
7. Rwanda (pg.156)
- Small Nation was torn apart by ethnic rivalries.
- UN peacekeepers sent under the control of Canadian Major General Romeo Dallaire.
- When Dallaire realized extent of the planned killings he sent a series of urgent appeals to the UN
headquarters in NY
- He outlined a military plan to stop the killings, the UN needed to send a huge force to disarm the
warring factions, 2 things were required for the plan to work: speed, and support of the USA> the
only country that could provide enough troops at short notice
- In April 1994, in a matter of weeks, close to 1 million people were killed
- This was important because it shows that without the help of Canadian Romeo Dallaire, the killings
would have kept going on endlessly
8. Universal Declaration of Human Rights
- The universal Declaration of human rights was proclaimed at the United Nations General Assembly I
- Declaration is based on the idea that “all humans beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 10
- 1948 John Peters Humphrey (Canadian) was the principal author of the Universal Declaration of
- Madame Justice Louise Arbour became UN High Commissioner for Human Rights.
- The Canadian federal government and all the provinces have signed and ratified the declaration, and
it is now binding upon Canada in international law
- This means that individuals in Canada can complain to the Human Rights Committee of the UN if they
believe the Canadian government isn’t meeting UN standards
9. John Peters Humphrey
- In 1946, he was appointed as the first Director of the Human Rights Division in the United Nations
- He was a principal drafter of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. After talking with the
executive group of the Commission,
chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt, Humphrey prepared the first preliminary draft of what was to become
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
- remained with the UN for 20 years.
- worked in areas including freedom of the press, status of women,
and racism. In 1988, on the 40th anniversary of the Declaration, the UN Human Rights award was
given to Professor Humphrey.
- He took part in a number of international commissions of inquiry, including a mission
to the Philippines investigating human rights violations under Ferdinand Marcos. In Japan he
represented Korean women
forced to act as sex slaves.
10. Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
- On June 29, 2006, Canada voted against adoption of the Draft Declaration on the Rights of
Indigenous Peoples at session of the United Nations Human Rights Council.
- Canada has a strong record of supporting and advancing Aboriginal treaty rights domestically and is
committed to continuing
to work internationally on such issues
- Since 1980s, successful Canadian gov’ts have worked for a Declaration promoting and protecting the
human rights and freedoms of every indigenous* person without discrimination and
recognize the collective rights of indigenous peoples around the world
- Sadly, parts of the current Declaration don’t help in providing practical guidance to States,
indigenous peoples and multilateral (having many sides) organizations as parts of the declaration are
vague and have several meanings, leaving it open to different, & many possible interpretations
- Canada wanted further negotiations, mostly on new text proposed by the Chairman-Rapporteur to
achieve a more effective document
- Canada hoped to help make a declaration that clearly sets out the rights of indigenous peoples and
the commitments of the States in relation to such rights.
11. Omar Khadr
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 11
- Omar Khadr is a Candian Citizen who was born in Toronto, and at the age of 15 was taken in by
American forces to Guantanamo Bay for 6 years after being charged with war crimes after throwing
a grenade at an American soldier
- Youngest prisoner held in Guantanamo Bay detention camp by the USA
- Frequently referred to as a child soldier
- February 2006 video revealed Omar was present during the firefight, but no proof of him throwing
- 2007, the Federal Court of Appeal ordered the Canadian gov’t to hand over records related to
Khadr's time in captivity, as judge Richard Mosley stated it was now apparent that Canada had
violated international law
- Gov’t appealed to Supreme in 2008, argued Khadr was "fishing" for information and that disclosing
- which include an initial account of the firefight differs from all previously reports, could jeopardise
- Supreme Court of Canada ruled that gov’t had acted illegally, violating Charter of Rights and
Freedoms, ordered videotapes of interrogation
12. Global Compact
- The United Nations Global compact(UNGC) made to encourage businesses worldwide to adopt
sustainable and socially responsible policies, and to report on their implementation
- companies are brought together with UN agencies & labour groups &civil society
- worlds largest corporate citizenship
- 2 objectives: Mainstream 10 principles in business activities around world
- And Catalyse actions in support of Broader UN goals
- These Canadian companies are with the global compact:
Global Tox International Consultants Inc.
Golder Associates Inc
Hudson’s Bay Company
International Centre for Aviation and the Environment
Line Entertainment Holding Inc.
Placer Dome Inc.
Schneider Power Corporation
U.S.E. Hickson Products Ltd.
13. Polio Relief
- Canada recently gave $42 million to fill a critical funding gap faced by the Global Polio Eradication
Initiative, putting it back on track towards eliminating polio by the end of 2005
- Canada’s contributions to remove disease are one of the highest of all donor countries.
- recognized by United Nations Foundation
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 12
- presented Canada with the "UN Foundation Award for Outstanding Leadership in Global Polio
Eradication" last week.
14. Cheaper Medicine
- Canada is the first country to implement the World Trade Organization’s decision in 2003 to make
cheaper versions of patented medicines available to developing countries facing public health crises.
This initiative will make it easier for developing countries to access generic drugs, including anti-
15. Canada’s Contributions to Africa
- Canada is working towards ambitious outcome for World Trade Organization’s Doha Development
- 2003 Canada announced duty-free and quota-free access to virtually all imports from the
48 countries that the UN has termed "least developed countries," 34 in Africa. Canada invested $74
million since 2001 for trade in Africa.
- Private sector development being supported through Canada Fund for Africa. Investments to
$35 million being made to promote development of information and communication
- . The Canada Investment Fund for Africa, with $100 million in public funds to be matched by the
- Aims> stimulate African and foreign investment in the continent.
- Canada’s longest peacekeeping mission
- 1959 Cyprus gained independence from Britain
- Greek and Turkish communities could not co-exist together
- 1963 war broke out between the 2
- Greece & Turkey threaten to intervene ( became international crisis)
- UN troops including Canada, stationed in Cyprus to keep peace
- Canada was neutral
- On 15 July 1974, Greek army officers serving in the Greek Cypriot National Guard staged a coup
d'état against the president of Cyprus, Archbishop Makarios.
- Aim was to unite Cyprus with Greece (the goal that was original cause of war)
- Canadian Airborne Regiment, Canada's UNFICYP (United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus) were
deployed to the airport, defined as a UN protected zone
- when word of impending second assault reached Canadian contingent, reminded both sides they had
agreed to ceasefire
- Canadian Soldiers won that day. Loss of Canadian peacekeeper, 2 dead, 30 wounded
17.Better Health in Africa
- The health challenges facing Africa are huge.
- Yet African countries and donors are responding to this challenge with much-needed health reforms.
- 1999 ,country-owned Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers introduced
- helps individual countries devise their own integrated plan, and provides a focus for donor countries
organizing and prioritizing their aid programs.
- a number of global health initiatives that provided greater focus to address main diseases.
- The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is one of the most important in Africa, an
innovative public-private partnership that considers the recipients’ own needs and processes.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 13
- Canada played major role in establishment of this, and is represented on its Executive Board.
- Canadians faced the most difficulty in Yugoslavia> horrible conditions.
- The main reason for conflict in Bosnia/Yugoslavia was from religious and ethnic divisions.
- The people of Bosnia consist of Croats, Muslims, and Serbs, who have divided themselves into three
camps. these three groups not united because many Croats don't share same religion, neither do
- During war Serbians who opposed Bosnia's independence from Yugoslavia in 1991 began killing Croats
- The Serbs especially targeted Muslims and "ethnically cleansed" 1000's of non-Christians.
- Croats and Muslims formed an alliance and gained support of NATO.
- 1991, Bosnia declared itself independent from Yugoslavia.
- Serbs living in Bosnia rejected declaration>began killing Croats and Muslims.
- Fierce three way fighting between Croats, Muslims and Serbs
- Muslims were "ethnically cleansed" and thousands died.
- 1995 NATO began air strikes on Serbian targets.
- This lifted the siege of Sarajevo, led to signed of a peace accord (Dayton) divided country in Serb,
Croat and Muslim districts. (Croats-Muslims formed a confederacy).
- UN force in Bosnia, was to escort humanitarian relief convoys, quickly became involved in trying to
mitigate the impact of civil war
- Cost to Canadian peacemakers was a heavy one
- Injuries from hostile fire and mines
- Canadian contingent able to protect the Serb in the Krajina region of eastern Croatia
Serbian: 40% Orthodox: 31%
Muslim: 38% Muslim: 40%
Croatian: 22% Catholic: 15%
- 1995 major Croatian offensive succeeded in expelling the entire Serb population
- Croatian forces attacked the Canadian soldiers over a period of four days
- 2 PPCLI launched a full-scale assault, the first by the Canadian army since Korea, to reoccupy the
- The Canadian peacekeepers were left with scars
19. Canadian Peace keeping Capacity
- Canada’s peacekeeping capacity is decreasing
- Canada now ranks 34st in terms of personnel contribution among UN peacekeeping nations
- behind Bangladesh, Zambia, Nigeria and Uruguay.
- Only 206 Canadians are currently serving under the UN.
- Canada also contributes to NATO and other missions, our rank would be much higher if those
troops—(over 1,000 now in Afghanistan) were also counted.
- according to Defence Department, 8,000 Canadian troops are being deployed to, returning from or
serving on missions around the world—and many of these are peacekeepers.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 14
- CSR means Coperate Social Responsibility
Our work in the area of CSR includes:
- facilitating dialogue and information sharing - with companies, civil society and across government
- supporting the development of international voluntary standards and norms
- working with likeminded countries to create support for the principles; and developing and
disseminating CSR best practices and tools.
FOR MORE INFO>> OR LINKS
The following are quoted from http://www.fin.gc.ca/news05/05-008e.html
Canada recently contributed $42 million to fill a critical funding gap faced by the Global Polio Eradication
Initiative, putting it back on track towards eliminating polio by the end of 2005. Canada’s contributions to
eradicating this disease are among the highest of all donor countries. This was recognized by the United Nations
Foundation, which presented Canada with the "UN Foundation Award for Outstanding Leadership in Global Polio
Eradication" last week.
Canada is the first country to implement the World Trade Organization’s decision in 2003 to make cheaper
versions of patented medicines available to developing countries facing public health crises. This initiative will
make it easier for developing countries to access generic drugs, including anti-retrovirals.
In May 2004, Prime Minister Paul Martin announced an additional $170 million for the global fight against
HIV/AIDS. This includes support for the African AIDS Vaccine Programme and the International AIDS Vaccine
Initiative in their efforts to develop a preventive vaccine for HIV/AIDS. Canada is also the largest donor to the
World Health Organization’s "3 by 5" initiative, with a $100-million contribution. The total Canadian commitment
to HIV/AIDS is $600 million so far.
- Canada has an ambassador to the United Nations. This person is chosen by the Prime Minister.
- List ALL PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS: http://www.lermuseum.org/ler/mh/1945topresent/canadasrole.html
- Canada’s peacekeeping capacity is increasingly diminished. Canada now ranks 34st in terms of personnel
contribution among UN peacekeeping nations, well behind Bangladesh, Zambia, Nigeria and Uruguay. Only 206
Canadians are currently serving under the UN. It’s important to note, though, that Canada also contributes to
NATO and other missions and I understand that our rank would be much higher if those troops—particularly the
over 1,000 now in Afghanistan-- were also counted. On any given day, according to the Defence Department,
8,000 Canadian troops are being deployed to, returning from or serving on missions around the world—and many
of these are peacekeepers.
CANADA SUPPORTING THE UNITED NATIONS:
- Look at Lester B. Pearson
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 15
- Canada's role in the U.N. Security Council
- Peacekeeping missions (Rwanda etc... in your textbook)
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Peters_Humphrey ---> A Canadian who helped write the first draft of the
UN Human Rights Declaration (sort of an international version of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms)
- Examine how the UN Human Rights Declaration has been used throughout history
CANADA'S RECENT HISTORY OF GOING AGAINST THE UNITED NATIONS:
- Canada voted against the United Nations Aboriginal Human Rights Declaration (explain WHY)
- Canada Accused of breaking international United Nations' Law:
who is Omar Khadr? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omar_Khadr
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 16
Question: Analyze the global threat to humans
caused by population growth.
Answers by: James
1. Food deficiency.
→There would be an issue of possible food deficiency because the more population increases demand of
food resources, and may run out quickly.
2. Environmental problems.
→The more population increases demand for industrial factories to accommodate work force for the
rising population, and which creates lots of pollution in the water and the air. (ex. Acid rain, oil dumping
3. Draining of Natural Resources.
→More people = more use of natural resources. This will eventually become a problem when all of the
Earth’s natural resources will be used up for housing, transportation, and food.
4. Fresh water deficiency.
→Shortage of water will be a definite problem. The increased population will demand more fresh water.
The International Water Management Institute predicts that by 2025, a billion people will be living in
countries with absolute scarcity of water.
5. Not enough land for crops and agriculture.
→Increased population will result in the loss of crops and agriculture as industries and commercial work
force build more buildings and factories in agricultural land to maintain the industrial and commercial
6. Pressure on government social institutions.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 17
→As population grows, most governments of under developed and some developed countries will have a
harder time sustaining the people of their country. More population = more demand for civil services, and
7. People will go against the government’s methods of preventing over population.
→As population increases, governments will start creating regulations and rules to keep child birth at a
minimum (ex. One Child Policy). People will consider these regulations as against their rights and
freedoms. Thus they will retaliate.
8. Government’s regulations to control child birth will affect the demography of the country.
→Government’s regulations to childbirth will become a problem later on in the future of the country as
the dominant older generation will become elders. Consequently, the younger generation of children will
become adults, but due to the government regulation, there will be fewer adults in the future to become
the work force of a country. This will slow down the economy of the future country as well.
9. International and Internal migration from rural to urban areas.
→ This will become a problem in the growing population because if more and more people are moving to
urban areas to work in commerce or industries, there will be less of the rural population which provides
agricultural support to the economy, and food for many people.
10. More outbreaks of disease.
→ In underdeveloped countries and some developed countries where the population live in close quarters
amongst each other, disease outbreak would be a more common occurrence. There will be lots of sickness
going around and it may spread quickly as the population increases.
11. Over-population will cause violence because of dominant male ratio in certain areas of the world.
→ In countries such as China and India, there is a much larger male ratio than females. When population
booms, there will be more males that cannot find brides for themselves. The leftover single men that
cannot find a female will be influenced into violence, crime, and war.
12. Wars could start because of competition of food supplies and natural resources.
→ Because of the population growth, more countries will be dependent on natural resources to support
their growing population. When these essential resources come close to expiration, countries will start
to fight for their own survival. This will be a major problem until an alternative source is available.
13. Countries could get involved into wars for oil and energy.
→ Developed and some under developed countries will depend on more oil resources to sustain
their growing economy. The more people there are, the faster oil will become scarce. Countries
will eventually come to the state where oil resource becomes a major competition, which may
result in war.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 18
14. More people living in poverty.
→People who come from families that lived in poverty for generations will become a threat. Families
whom live in poverty tend to have a larger family size because women in poor societies have not been
taught methods of birth control. When living in poverty, there is no money to buy houses or cars.
Instead, couples use their many children as a symbol of status, and their children help their families
with farm work, or other essential jobs. The children of poverty societies do not have access to proper
education, and thus, the poverty cycle continues and grows.
15. Extinction of wildlife.
→ As population grows, people will start to consume more plants and animals as food. People will start to
alter the food chain by consuming certain animals and plants that are shared among with several other
species on the planet. As more humans consume plants and animals, other species that we live with will
have scarce food, and may become extinct.
16. An Interdependent World.
→ Global warming causes the climate of the Earth to rise, and this will result in more people using fossil
fuel energy to keep themselves cool. Air conditioners, fans, and other means of regulating hot climates
will be more commonly used, which will consume more energy sources such as oil, and natural gas, and
hydro power. As population grows, more people will construct factories and large facilities that emit
large amounts of air pollution. This will build up into the atmosphere causing thickening of the
atmosphere, which is the cause of global warming. As the climate gets hotter, the growing population will
depend on climate cooling systems that consume sources of energy from fossil fuels. This cycle continues
as population grows.
← (General Circulation Model)
17. The world will become crowded.
→ As population grows, people will take up more area to live on. This will eventually become a problem in
society when the Earth reaches its population capacity. There will be social problems among several
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 19
countries because they are in competition for land. There will be major conflicts because of living space,
and society will have an imperialistic view to expand their own country for more living space to
accommodate the growing population of their country.
18. Cause another Great Depression of the 21st Century.
→ Population growth causes major drainage in the resources that run our daily lives. If more people
start to use up the resources that boost our economy, the quicker it will run out. When the essential
resources that run the economy fail to fuel our everyday lives, we will be struck in depression and
poverty until an alternate source is found. (ex. 1930’s Great Depression)
19. Increased crime rate.
→ As population grows, crime rates also increase. People will be more vulnerable to crime and violence. In
other’s perception, the government’s methods of controlling population boom may be against their morals
and beliefs. This will also increase problematic situations globally, which may result in violent conflicts
20. Emergence of Shanty Towns.
→When population grows, more and more people will move into urban areas, and as a result, shanty towns
are formed. Shanty towns are a negative influence to a healthy economy because those areas have high
rates of crime, suicide, drug use, and disease. These shanty towns will also grow and, consequently, so
does the crime.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 20
Question: To What Extent Between 1939 and 1970
did Canada evolve from being an insignificant
nation to being a Middle Power?
Answers by: Joclyn
1. They became an autonomous nation, and on September 10 1939, they declared war on Germany,
as a single nation. In WW1, if Britain declared war on Germany, Canada would automatically join
as well, but after the creation of the Commonwealth, they were able to fight as a single nation.
2. Canadians were responsible for the liberation of the Netherlands on D-Day. They were also
responsible for the attack on Juno Beach. While the rest of the Allies attacked Italy, Canada
had its own mission. This showed the trust that the Allies had with Canada.
3. Canada provided major military and economic support to the Allies. The value of goods rose
form $5.6 billion in 1939 to $11.8 billion in 1945. During the war, Canada gave the Allies $3.4
billion in financial aid.
4. Many people volunteered and signed up for the war effort. In September alone, over 58000
people volunteered for service. Many Canadians were attracted to the pay of $1.30/day, yet
many still felt strong ties with Britain and volunteered out of sense of duty. Others had a
sense of new national pride.
5. Canadians were an important part of the Manhattan project. Since Uranium was abundant in
Eldorado mine, and it was an important component in the bomb, the Canadian gov’t secretly
bough the mine.
6. With increased production and employment, people had more money to spend, but there were
fewer goods to buy. Ilsley encouraged Canadians to buy Victory Bonds. In 1941, all wages and
prices froze to stop inflation.
7. Canadian cities and industrial areas became important contributors to the economy. This
attracted a massive wave of post-war immigration that eventually led to the multicultural
8. Canada’s huge contribution to the war gave it a new role in the world. They had built the third-
largest navy and the fourth-largest air force.
9. In 1949, Canada joined the U.S, Britain and other Western European nations in a military
alliance, The North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Canada made a serious commitment. They
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 21
agreed to keep a full army brigade in Europe. Canada had to adapt its defense policy to those
of its allies.
10. In April 1945, delegates from fifty one countries, including Canada, drew up a charter for the
UN. The UN was based on collective security, as the LoN had been. Canada was a strong
supporter of the UN. They aided refugees and worked on development projects.
11. Encouraged by the U.S, Canada sent thousands of troops and three naval desroyers to Korea.
At the UN, Lester Pearson, Minister of External Affairs, urged a ceasefire.
12. The 1956 Suez Crisis gave Canada a leading role in the UN. Liberal PM, Louis St. Laurent
refused to support the attack. Pearson proposed that a UN Emergency Force be sent to
separate and mediate between rival armies. Pearson awarded Nobel Peace Prize.
13. During the Cuban Missile Crisis, the US, expected Canada to provide support. However, PM
Diefenbaker preferred that UN send a fact finding mission to Cuba. He was reluctant to draw
Canada into a major conflict. Diefenbaker believed he was defending Canada’s independence.
14. During the 1963 election, the liberals proposed that Canadian forces accept nuclear weapons
under conditions. PM Diefenbaker and the Conservatives appealed to Canadian nationalism.
People feared that Diefenbaker’s anti-Americanism would injure trade and investment from the
15. Canadian firms sold goods and explosives to the US Defense Department. PM Pearson had
doubts about the war. He criticized Operation Rolling Thunder
16. In 1968, Trudeau was elected PM. He aimed to bridge gaps between east and west. Canada
became a middle power building links between east, west, north and south.
17. In 1968, a new gov’t body was formed. It was called the Canadian International Development
Agency. CIDA’s responsibility was to boost foreign aid to less industrialized countries.
18. Trudeau wanted to scale back Canada’s participation in the nuclear arms race with the Soviet
Union. Form 1970-72; nuclear missiles were removed from Canada’s NATO forces in Europe.
19. In 1949, the federal gov’t established the Massey Commission to investigate Canadian culture.
They suggested that Canadian culture needed to be protected from US influences.
20. When the US ran short of raw materials, it looked to Canada as a storehouse of minerals and
natural resources. By 1956, 68 percent o the oil industry in Canada was US owned. US firms
controlled more than half of all manufacturing in Canada.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 22
Question: Describe ways that Canada has
attempted to maintain separate culture from the
Answers by: Jordan
1) During the Cuban Missile Crisis, PM Diefenbaker was unsupportive of America’s policies on the
conflict, infuriating America because they counted on Canada’s support as their ally in NORAD.
This created tensions and damage between Canada and American relations. (pg. 142)
2) The establishment of the Avro Arrow didn’t last long, but it gave Canada a sense that they
were technologically more advanced then America for a short while. (pg. 141)
3) Canada heavily disagreed with allowing America to store some of its nuclear weapons in Canada,
because unlike America who were pro-nuclear warfare, Canada was very against the idea of
“global suicide”. (pg. 142-43)
4) When America began the Vietnam War, Canada decided to not take place at all in the war,
sending no troops at all because they did not believe in the American saying of “better dead
than Red” (communist). (pg. 145)
5) One of Pierre Trudeau’s main goals when he was first elected was to create a foreign policy
that was less dependant on US approval. This was clearly signaled when Canada officially
recognized the communist government of China in 1970. (pg. 146)
6) Unlike America who was more or less at war with the communist half of the world during the
Cold War, Trudeau’s Canada made an effort to bridge gaps among nations by reducing nuclear
arms and establishing trade and sporting links with communist states. (pg. 147)
7) Canada said no to involvement in the expensive “Star Wars” project that America began in
1985, mostly because it would most likely provoke other nations to develop similar dangerous
weapons. (pg. 150)
8) While Americans had strict laws during the prohibition era, Canada’s laws were more lax, until
many Americans were smuggling liquor across the Canadian border back into America.
9) Canadian Hockey teams created a separate identity from the US, giving us a unique identity.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 23
10) In 1949, the Massey Commission was established to suggest that Canada needed to be
protected from American cultural influences. (pg. 166)
11) The Canada Council was established in 1957 to award tax funded grants to Canadian writers,
artists, and theatres. New institutions were soon winning national acclaim and making Canadian’s
proud. (pg. 166)
12) The CBC was put in charge of developing a Canadian influenced television network, to eliminate
the influence of American television in Canada. This soon became more powerful as the CRTC
was established. (pg. 167)
13) For much of the 50’s, America turned to Canada when it needed certain resources, and Canada
made a lot of money off of this. (pg. 171)
14) To loosen the grip of American corporations establishing in Canada, Canada proposed the Free
Trade Agreement, so that they wouldn’t be losing their economy to the US companies. (pg. 171)
15) In 1966, Pearson introduced Canada’s system of free healthcare, which has stayed to this day,
and is the opposite of America’s health insurance policies.
16) The Canadian environmentalist group Greenpeace was famous for its protests in stopping the
US from testing nuclear bombs on a few occasions. (pg. 181)
17) Since the 1960’s, Canada has always had a more lax and accepting immigration policy compared
to that of the US, which has greatly added to Canada’s economic growth. This also gave Canada
a much greater sense of multiculturalism. (pg. 204)
18) In the near present, Canada has made an effort to remain separate from the US in terms of
being a part of the UN. An example of this is the great amount of Canadian effort to stop the
civil feuds in Rwanda. (pg. 156)
19) Canada has always tried not to be an imperialist nation, but more of a peacekeeping nation,
which is different from the often imperialist ideals of our American neighbors.
20) Canada has always tried to create a unique image for itself in all different aspects of society,
while trying to create bonds with the US economically. While tensions with the US often rise
then fall, Canada is always trying to remain a separate identifiable nation from it’s American
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 24
Question: Evaluate the impact of global warming on
Answers by: Kenneth
Climate change due to global warming is reducing the amount of pack ice in the Arctic,
which polar bears depend on for survival.
In B.C and Alberta due to Global Warming Pine Beetles had outbreak in the forest
because in winter the weather wasn’t cold enough to decrease the number of beetles.
Mountains for skier and snowboarders, snow in the mountain are decreasing and the
snowboarding season is moving later in the year and shorter.
Due to Global warming some river and lake dried up.
Global Warming is due to the Ozone layer thinning so the UV rate can’t be blocked.
From cutting tree the soil from mountains falls off and goes into the river and pollutes
It’s harder to predict weather because of Global warming weather changes constantly.
Due to Global Warming the sea water temperature raises up and species in the ocean
Ice in the artic is shrinking due to Global warming so the overall sea level is rising.
Due to Global warming there may also be changes in the frequency and intensity of
extreme weather events .
Because of the polar shrinkage it changes the rainfall patterns, and turning some areas
One widely publicized report on potential economic impact is the Stern Review; it
suggests that extreme weather might reduce global gross domestic product by up to
one percent, and that in a worst-case scenario global per capita consumption could fall
Global warming is expected to increase the potential geographic range and virulence of
Climate change could cause a major increase in insect-borne diseases such as malaria
throughout Europe, North America and North Asia
Ecosystems will be stressed.
Increased carbon dioxide levels will affect biological systems.
Warming by the addition of long-lived greenhouse gases such as CO2 will cause more
water to evaporate into the atmosphere. Since water vapor itself acts as a greenhouse
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 25
gas, the atmosphere warms further; this warming causes more water vapor to
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 26
Question: In its treatment of minorities, have
Canadians become more tolerant during the period
of 1914 – 2000?
Answers by: Justin
Brain Storm Categories:
Charter of rights and freedoms - dictates the basic rights and freedoms of ALL Canadian
Head tax repercussions - money paid back to the children of the parents who were subjected
to the racist tax upon immigration into Canada.
The Wage improvement and equality of wage for women and ethnic groups – women, Chinese,
Indians, aboriginals getting equal pay for the same job.
1 – Women – roaring 20’s the jazz era sheet with the four boxes on front cover – Flappers
Conservative Canadian men frowned upon the new flapper movement. The idea of being a
flapper was to oppose all conservative values. This included not listening to parents, smoking,
doing drugs, non-marital traditions, suppressive clothing choices (ANKLES!!!!AHAHAH).
Eventually over time people just accepted Flappers as part of the 1920s culture. This meant
they accepted a women’s independence up to some point.
2 – Women WW2 – Women take up jobs left by soldiers fighting over sea. This shows society
that women can do the work of men all by themselves, without men.
3 – 1929 women – Ch quiz #3 roaring 20s – Persons Case - Murphy and the famous five. Their
win-declaring woman as persons under the law in Britain was a major step towards women’s
rights. Opened the door for women in politics.
4 – 1940s – Women in the Armed Forces – Women allowed into armed forces for the first
time. This helps break the stereotype that women are too weak mentally and physically to
participate in war. This was a stepping stone development of women’s equality in Canada.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 27
5 – Blacks – 1930s Canada’s a peoples history - Montreal has integration between black and
whites while most cities in Canada stayed segregated. Start of social views seeing blacks as
equals in society.
6 – Natives 1930s Social Studies 11 Ch 3 – The Jazz age – Natives finally receives some
composition for recourses found on Native Lands. Compensation is very small at 12% but is
still a step towards recognizing that the natives should have some rights and financial
compensation on their own reserve lands. (Because we stole all their land in BC anyways!)
7 – 1920s – Women - Timeline of the 1920s – Women to sit in the HOC, the first step of
women in politics.
8 – Draft Dodgers – 1960s S.G. Canada puts up with (Minority In Canada) Draft Dodgers
fleeing to Canada because of Vietnam War.
9 – 1960s S.G. – Diffenbaker - Appoints a Woman as a Cabinet minister and a Aboriginal
10 - Natives – Diffenbaker introduces voting rights for Native Indians.
11 – 1960s S.G. - Pearson’s Policies: -women’s rights to divorces - Medical care for all people
in 1966. (I think that is important and cool of him)
12 – 1950s – Massy commission - Gives grants to Canadians of all different Artists. Canada is
now open to all kinds of art types including Native art.
13 – 1987 - Natives - 1980s-1991s S.G. – Meech Lake - Treaty dies because of Elijah Harper
stands up for the fact that Natives are left out of the Meech Lake accord. This shows that
the power of one person standing up for Minority rights can make a big difference.
14 – 1980s – 1990s S.G. – French Canadians IN Quebec - In the Charlotte Town accord -
Conservatives compromise to French Canadians Demands. They give them Special Treatment
in the accord, showing they are willing to accept Quebec’s differences. This is different
from the perspective of just leaving Quebec out completely from Parliament Decisions like
the “Night of the Long Knives.”
15 – Natives - 1969 – PG 209 of textbook – Residential school systems are finally officially
ended. Natives win their right to education back. They open up schools that teach Native
traditions and customs.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 28
16 - 1998 – Text ph 209 - Inuit’s– Halted the construction of a pipeline in N.MT. Until natives
receive compensation for their land. (The pipeline was cutting thorough reserve land) This
was one of the first of many native battles over land disputes. (Comprehensive and Specific)
17 – 1998 – text PG 208 – Natives - Federal government appositives for their involvement in
residential schools and announces a $350 million dollar “ Healing Fund.” This shows that the
Canadian government realized their negative contribution to residential schools and is trying
to own up to the atrocity that they became.
18 – 1990 – PG 211 of text - Natives (Mohawks) - The Oak Confrontation - Native blockaded
a part of their reserve when the government tried to take it away from them to extend golf
coarse. In the end the Natives got to keep their Land. Showed that Natives were legally
prepared to defend any infringements on their legal rights. This is a major difference when
Natives were not allowed to have Lawyers on their sides for land claims.
19 – Land Claims in B.C. - PG 215 text - Natives _ 1996 – Nisag’a – They started their legal
fight in 1912 – 1996. They got 8% of their original claim to the government, which included
ownership of forest and partial profits from salmon fisheries on their land. They also got
compensated for a hydro development that was on their land. On top of this the Natives got
$190 million over 15 years in lost land compensation.
20 – Pg 215-text book - Natives get the right to police themselves. This shows that the
government is acknowledging that Natives are civilized enough to Police themselves.
21 – 1999 – pg 216 – Nunavut and the Inuit’s – Largest Native treaty ever signed - 1.6 million
square km on the eastern Artic. This deal illustrates the government’s attempts to
compensate towards Natives.
22 – pg 293 – In 1990 – Sikh’s – Contradictory to the RCMPS strict dress code RCMP officers
were allowed to wear their ethnic turbans, oppose to the traditional RCMP hat, when on patrol
and during graduation ceremonies.
23 - 1985 - Natives are allowed the right to keep the title of “Native” after marriage to a
non-native spouse. Shows Canadian government’s growing tolerance towards Natives keeping
their traditional traditions alive even after marriage. This law also finalizes that the
government is ok with Natives marrying Non-Natives.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 29
Question: Analyze the Threats to Canadians
Regarding Quality of Fresh Water
Answers by: Michael
1. Depletion of Water: Canadians are the second highest users of water in the world. A lot of
water is used on agriculture, industry and our own personal needs such as doing the laundry
and flushing the toilet. For example, water levels in the Great Lakes partially because we have
used much of it for agriculture.
2. Sewage: Lakes, rivers and costal rivers are often used as a place to dump untreated
sewage. Canadians dump 3 TRILLION liters of sewage into the oceans annually. These wastes
can contain dangerous chemicals such as detergents, solvents, heavy metals, pathogens and
feces which could poison the water and render it uninhabitable for aquatic life.
Page 426 of Textbook and this article: http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com
3. Pesticide: Pesticides includes all herbicides insecticides and herbicides. They are another
addition to the poisonous brew that enters the bodies of water that Canadians depend on for
their water. They are typically runoff from agricultural sites (farms) in order to kill off pests
that consume the thing they are growing. These chemicals are already dangerous to smaller
organisms but when they are consumed by larger organisms, the amount of toxins is magnified
and it becomes even more dangerous. These chemicals can even exceed 0.1 percent in some
bodies of water.
P. 426 of Textbook and article: http://www.fao.org/docrep/W2598E/w2598e07 .htm
4. Oil Spills: Oil can be a very dangerous substance when it comes into contact with living
animals. Millions of birds die each year because of the oil which affects throws their
buoyancy out of whack which makes them drown. Oil is another substance that is extremely
harmful when it gets into a body of water.
P.426 of Textbook and article: http://www.ibrrc.org/oil_affects.html
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 30
5. Valuable Resource = Water: People’s attitude about water is starting to change. As fresh
water becomes scarcer around the world because of our using habits, growing population and
global warming, water is starting to be seen as a valuable resource. Already there are people
who want to export water from Canada. It has even been said that water could become the
“gold” of the 21st century.
P. 423 of Textbook and article: http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/water/
6. Protection of Water: Canada has a considerable portion of the total world’s water.
Recently the United States have diverted fresh water from Canadian Lakes into some of the
lakes of the United States. Essentially, they are “stealing” our water. The federal
government has recently been given power to regulate water export thus giving it some power
to help stop this process.
See this Article: http://www.american.edu/ted/water.htm
7. Oil Drilling: Oil drilling is also a concern because it is likely that some oil will very like
escape into the surrounding waters and pollute them. Oil is very dangerous even in small
amounts when it comes into contact with wildlife and could heavily damage marine ecosystems.
See this Article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drilling_mud
8. Effects of Dams on Forests: Dams are capable of diverting and obstructing the flow of
rivers. These dams have created large bodies of water which has simply drowned hundreds of
thousands of hectares of forest land. The diversion of water from an area also affects the
flora and fauna that lives in the area.
See this Article: http://www.wrm.org.uy/bulletin/42/viewpoint.html
9. Effects of Dams on Salmon: It is believed that the damming of rivers have also
contributed to the decline of salmon stocks through Canada. The damming of rivers prevents
the salmon from returning to their “good” traditional spawning grounds or forced them to
find a way to go around them which is extremely tiring for the salmon.
See this Article: http://environment.about.com/od/biodiversityconservation/a/dams_
10. Acid Rain: Acid rain is rain that has been typically affected by man-made substances such
as sulfur dioxide which is incorporated into the rain clouds. The rain becomes acidic and can
be quite harmful. Acidic rain could raise the pH of bodies of water thus killing many of the
organisms that live them. The acidity can be so strong that it can even eat at the stone
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 31
See this Article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acid_rain
11. Population Growth: As the population of Canada and the rest of the world continues to
grow, they will require more and more water to satisfy the needs of more people. This will put
even more pressure on an already overburdened hydrosphere.
See this Article: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/114733.php
12. Use of Water: We Canadians use at least 2500 liters of water every day. As the world
becomes more “futuristic”, we will require ever more amounts of water. Similarly, as
developing countries such as China and India become more developed, they too will use much
more water. This could contribute even more to the issue of water scarcity.
Page 423 Diagram and http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/jan/23/china.india
13. Open NetCage Fish Farms: The fish in these massive fish farms leave their excretion and
uneaten food right into the environment. This pretty much transforms the area around the
fish farm into a uninhabitable dead zone which used to be a part of a ecosystem.
Article: http://www.davidsuzuki.org/Oceans/Aquaculture/Salmon/Pollution .asp
14. Groundwater: Groundwater is also being abused and overused. It is used by over 10 million
Canadians for their drinking water. The water is tapped via aquifers, water tables around the
world are falling as people dig deeper and deeper looking for more water. Water in aquifers is
slow to replenish itself which can also contribute to the problem of water scarcity.
Pages 423-425 Article at: http://www.parl.gc.ca/information/library/PRBpubs/prb 0554-
15. Arsenic and Dangerous Minerals: As aquifers are built deeper and deeper in order to find
more water, they could tap into dangerous pockets of minerals such as Arsenic which could
endanger human health should the water be drunk. This can cause a disease called fluorosis
where bones degenerate because of these dangerous minerals which can cripple people for
16. Droughts: Although droughts are rare, they do occur in Canada and they could affect our
lives and the ecosystem. Droughts can bring water shortages for agriculture, industry and
even domestic use if it is seriously enough. (Summer 2005)
It can also impact the ecosystems because they too lack water.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 32
See Article at: http://www.nwri.ca/threats2full/ch3-1-e.html
17. Melting Glaciers: As sea levels continue to rise because of global warming, the ice melts
and forms water which has a larger volume then ice. All this water goes into the oceans and
causes the sea level to rise. If this continues, countless millions of people well be displaced as
the water engulfs their homes.
See Article at: http://seagrant.uaf.edu/news/05ASJ/03.25.05canada-ice.html
18. Flooding: As the seasons get warmer because of global warming, ice and snow melt faster
during the spring and form massive swelling rivers. These swollen rivers could become large
enough to cause flooding.
19. Evaporation: Global warming has increased the rate of evaporation which has contribute to
the drying up of the Great Lakes. Irrigation for agriculture is also extremely wasteful and
better more efficient ways of irrigation must be introduced in order to conserve water.
See Article at: http://www.thedailygreen.com/environmental-news/latest/2560
20. Misconception: Canada does not even have that much “useful” water. Of the 20 percent of
water in Canada, 13.5 percent of it is locked up as ice. Only 6.5 percent of it is useful liquid
water. Of that liquid water, two thirds of it flows northward meaning that the majority of
that water is essentially unusable to us. This leaves us with only 2.6 percent of the world’s
See Article at http://www.timminspress.com/ArticleDisplay.aspx?e=1110425
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 33
Question: To what extent have Canada's
immigration policies become fairer during the
period of 1914-2000?
Answers by: Dlovan
Canada's immigration has gone through a lot of changes since the year 1914, it has become
much fairer and more welcoming then ever before. Here some things Canada's immigration
provides and offers.
1. Back in 1914 it was more based on race so it was pretty racist- In the year 2000
immigration is not based on race at all Official policy when did it change?
2. In 1923 the Chinese Immigration Act came into force, bringing about the almost total
prohibition of Chinese immigration to Canada- The Chinese Immigration Act is no longer in
4. In 1914 Indians challenged this restriction, arriving in Vancouver on board the Komagatu
Maru, they were forced to return to India- In 2000 and to this day Indians and all other
races are welcomed into Canada
5. Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982) prevents discrimination based on race, religion etc.
6. Between 1914 and 1920, Ukrainian immigrants were forced to register as "enemy aliens,"
report regularly to the police, and carry government-issued identity papers at all times. - This
doesn’t happen anymore
7. St. Louis – p. 98 boat of Jewish immigrants was rejected by the Canadian government
while they were trying to escape from World War II’s Holocaust. They were sent back to
Europe due to anti-Semitism and ended up being killed in the Holocaust. Today, Canada would
hopefully not do this as we have a refugee policy.
8. You can get immigrate to Canada as a Skilled workers and professionals which means you
have a education, work experience, knowledge of English or French, and other abilities that
will help you to establish yourself as successfull permanent residents in Canada.
9. You can immigrate to Canada as Investors, entrepreneurs and self-employed persons
which means your a experienced business person who will support the development of a
strong and prosperous Canadian economy. Business immigrants are expected to make a
$400,000 investment or to own and manage businesses in Canada.
Canada has three classes of business immigrants:
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 34
10. Others can also immigrate to Canada if their family sponsors them.
11. Immigration also lets people come to Canada for work as temporarily workers, you get a
work visa for this and you get to stay in Canada for about 2-3 years.
12. Some people can also come to Canada for studying over 130,000 students a year come to
Canada to study and what they need for this is a Study permit to be eligible to study in
You must have been accepted by a school, college, university or other educational
institution in Canada.
You must prove that you have enough money to pay for your:
living expenses for yourself and any family members who come with you to
return transportation for yourself and any family members who come with you to
You must be a law-abiding citizen with no criminal record and not be a risk to the
security of Canada. You may have to provide a police certificate.
You must be in good health and willing to complete a medical examination, if necessary.
You must satisfy an immigration officer that you will leave Canada when you have
completed your studies.
13. Some can also come to Canada as a Refugee which are for people needing protection in or
outside of Canada who fear returning to their country.
14. Kids can also come to Canada if there are adopted which is called International adoption
this is often for children in foreign countries.
15. The most common one used for immigrating to Canada is just Immigrating to Canada how
do this is you go to a Canadian visa office outside of Canada and you apply to become a
permanent resident after you arrive in Canada.
16. Canada's immigration does not deport anyone back with out a cause.
17. Others are also welcomed to Canada for health reason, for example certain surgeries that
you may need and your country may not be able to provide the care that you need- back then
if you were sick you were not aloud into the country.
18. People are allowed to become a permanent resident if they are married to a Canadian
19. Immigrants are recognized as having the ability to contribute to Canadian Society –
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 35
Official Multiculturalism policy (Trudeau Era, page 204 texbook… “support and encourage
various cultures and ethnic groups”)
20. Since Diefenbaker became first PM from non-English or French background, immigrants
are seen as able to make valuable contributions to Canadian society.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 36
Question: Describe Canada’s role in the Cold War
Answers by: Nancy
(p 133) - Conservative Part leader tried to spread communism.
said that the government were harbouring communists in the civil service
P.M. Louis St. laurent refused to outlaw communism
reminded Canadians that such tactics were the trademarks of dictatorships and not democracy
(p 133) - The Padlock Law
used to shut down suspected organizations and newpapers
(p 136) - Federal government developed civil defence plans
cities had nuclear shelters in deep basements or subway lines
sirens sound for warning if attacked
school ran drills to teach "duck and cover"
shelters did not work properly
(wikipedia) - North American Treaty Organization
Canada agreed to full army brigade and several air squadrons in Europe
built and supplied military bases oversea
(p 147) - Canada as a Middle Power
Trudeau government aimed to promote world peace and understanding among nations
Trudeau wanted to reduce nuclear weapons and establish trade and sporting links with communist states
more aid for poor countries(improve living conditions)
(p 149) - Canadian International Developement Agency
boost foreign aid to less industrialized countries
countries who received aid agree to use it to buy products manufactured in Canada
total amount(during Trudeau administration) of aid Canada extended to developing countries increased
from $277 million to $2 billion
(p149) - The Commonwealth and la Francophonie
could build bridges between North and South (memebership in two organizations)
Commonwealth countries established the Colombo plan to provide money and aid to less developed
countries in the organization
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 37
Canada invited oversea students to study in Canada
sent technical assistance oversea (Mainly India and Pakistan)
(p 146) - Trudeau's Foreign Policy
less dependent on U.S. approval
recognized communist government of China
(wikipedia) - Korean War
Princess Patricia's Light Infantry Contribution to the Battle of Kapyong
(wikipedia) - Suez Crisis
'Emergency Force' = intercede/divide combatant, form buzzer zone or 'human shield' between opposing
(wikipedia) - Peacekeeping
United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) = first peacekeeping force (deployed to seperate combatants
(wikipedia) - North American Aerospace Defence Command (NORAD)
DEW line established to give warning of Soviet bombers
(wikipedia) - Fruit Machine
used to test if a man was homosexual
(p 145) - Vietnamese War
sold goods such as berets, boots, airplane engines and explosives
thought communism was a threat to Western security
(p 140) - Cuban Missile Crisis
U.S. expected Canada for unconditional support
Diefenbaker refused to let U.S. planes with atomic weapons to land at Canadian bases but eventually did
(p 150) - Mulroney Era
Foreign Investment Review Agency (FIRA) = to block foreign investments not in Canada's interest
later dismantled and led to Free Trade Agreement (FTA) which removed tariffs and goods crossing
(notes) - Hippies
Start out as Beatnik movement, anti-war sympathetic to blacks and women right
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 38
(notes) - U.S. and Canada relations
U.S. builds three radar station lines in Canada = Pinetree line, Mid-Canada Line, DEW line
(p 131) - Post-War tensions
U.S. forced Canada to align itself closely with U.S. interests. At the same time Canada tried to remain
true to the goals and aspirations of Canadians (no easy task)
tried to keep U.S. influences from weakening its national identity
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 39
Question: Describe the Canadian election process.
Answers by: Renae
1.The right to vote for all adult citizens ia called citizenship.
2.Voting age is 18.
3.voter apathy: some voters may not care who will represent them and carelessly vote for someone, or do not
vote at all.
4.Government call an election before the end of its five-year term(citizens maybe unhappy about the current
situation in government, and dislikes the leader, so a new election is required.)
5.Politicians have volunteers to help them collect voters to vote the pilitician during election campaigns.
6.Controversy exists around the issues of campaigning.(each party has their own volunteers and group of
supporters that will help campaigning.)
7.Volunteers are very important to election campaigns.(During campaigns, volunteers put up signs, drives other
voters to pull station, and help collected supporters.)
8.The electroral system in Canada is the first-past the -post system.
9.The First Past the post system is where the votes are counted and candidate with the most votes in each
ridings is announced the winner. The candidate has to win more votes than any other.
10.Each party chooses a candidate to run in a riding election.
11.voters visit voting stations, they must pick the candidate they like the very best.
13.The votes are tabulated: the winner is the candidate with the most vote.
THE FIRST PAST THE POST SYSTEM
14.first-past-the-post system results in more stable 19. not always represent the wishes of the majority of
15.There is a relative simplicity to the election 20. favours regionalism.
21. Many people think that Canada should change to a
16.less coalitions, or alliances to form government. PR system so that votes are counted as a whole, and all
17.has local representation(have an MP all located to
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 40
18. Rarely forms minority governments.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 41
Question: Explain how Canada’s identity has been
shaped as a result of its involvement in
international affairs from 1914-2000
Answers by: Robin
1. WW1 start 1994
-when WW1 started, Canada was automatically at war with the Alliance when Britain declared war on them.
2. CEF- Canadian Expeditionary Force, all the volunteers of the war fought together, thus developed a sense of
national identity as Canadians rather than British.
The most memorable battle would the be The Battle of Vimy Ridge 1916 (P31)
Passchendaele 1917- lost heavy but won
Women fought too, as nurses etc.
* conscripted soldiers
3. Merchant Marine- none official army (P36)
Canada supported a lot of the products both for war and for domestic needs to Europe through the sea,
helped the economic bloom
4. Paris Peace Conference, Treaty of Versailles (the document become the agreement ) League of Nations
PM Borden fought hard. Canada had its own seat in these meeting after the war. Paris Peace Conference
indicated the shame of German, limited its army and required it to afford all war repayment. (Broke when
Hitler came in power in the 1930s)
League was made up of many nations throughout the world and was based on the principle of collective
security. So if one member came under attack, others would help to put the insulter in justice. (Turned out
to be a dream) (P45)
5. King refused to support Britain when it announced its plan to invade Turkey (P55)
6. King-Byng Crisis
1925, Liberal (King) was the minority government. 1926, King asked GG Byng to call another election but got
refused. He eventually got an election and won. Then he indicated that GG shouldn’t go against PM because
PM represented all Canadians. Since then, no GG ever said no the any PM.
7. The Balfour Report- Statue of Westminster 1926
It was all the British Commonwealth nations demanding their rights of autonomy under the leadership of
Lord Balfour (British Politician), nations such as Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and Australia.
8. Closer tie to US
U.S investors set up branch plants operated in Canada too. In the 1920s, Canada’s auto industry was
controlled by the “Big Three”, GM, Ford and Chrysler.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 42
20s, the US still banned alcohol while Canada didn’t anymore, so there was a lot smuggling around the border
to make money off illegal.
10. Person’s case (England- Privy Council)
It was fought 1929, bring women the right to vote. Leaded by the famous five, including Emily Murphy and
first woman cabinet minister was pointed. (King was the PM at the time) (P60)
11. WW2 1939
Canada entered WW2 against the Axis a week later than Britain, prove of its independent to the Britain. It
was very different than WW1 indeed.
12. Canada in the war- fount in Canadian divisions – again, sense of nationalism
Dieppe Raid- 1942 failed, but valuable experience learned to help build up the model of the D-day in
D-day, June 6, 1944, Canada held the section of Juno at that beach
Battle of Atlantic: 1939- 1945 Canada tried to exports its goods to Britain, but been under attack of
German U-boats, we built our own convoys with corvettes and warships escorting the merchant ships. (P111)
* conscripted soldiers near the end of the war
13. United Nations: (branches) -WHO -UNICEF (P137)
Canadian joined in 1945. It means the keep peace originally. Now it also concerned about human rights,
economic growing of developing countries etc.
14. NATO (P133) 1949
Canada joined the NATO which was a military alliance made of Western European nations and NA. To defeat
the possible attack from the Warsaw Pact made of Soviet Unions and other little communism countries.
US built 3 radar stations across Canada, The Pinetree Line, the Mid-Canada Line and the DEW Line
1950-1957 to detect possible nuclear attack
15. Peace Keeper- PM Lester Pearson- won Nobel Peace Prize (P139)
Korean Conflict-Canada helped US, (South Korea) 1950-1953
Suez Crisis-Canada did not join, instead, Pearson helped to work towards solution 1956
Vietnam War-Canada did not join at all. 1960s
*Canada as a middle power, having influence over global issues
16. Cuban Missile Crisis
It’s a step closer to independent defense policy. Canada was part of NORAD, but did not help US nor believe
US on the issue of Cuba tried to set up nuclear missile, instead, it request the UN to give the fact.
17. PM Trudeau 1970s
Less dependent on US- recognized the communist government of China as official
Removed missiles from NATO in Europe and detecting sites in Canada
18. NAFTA- North American Free Trade Agreement
Tariff free with US, Canada and Mexico, also creating problems in jobs as companies chose Mexico because
of its cheap labours.
19. Somalia 1992 (P153)
Canada played the part of distributing food and others essential supplies to the desperate local population.
It is an east African nation with many years of civil war.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 43
20. APEC-the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Group) 1993. PM Jean Chretien
Promote free trade between Canada and Pacific countries, as a form of globalization. *Canada is both of the
Commonwealth and la Francophonie- good at establish trade ties between North and South, where we provide
aids for poor countries and they have economic tie to us, which proves our own economy.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 44
Question: Assess the impact of the Charter of
Rights and Freedoms on the Canadian public since
Answers by: Tanzil
1. Patriating the Constitution, p 199-200
Pierre Trudeau wanted to bring the Constitution, which was under British Jurisdiction,
home to Canada where changes could be more easily made. In order to do so, Trudeau needed
to get all the premiers of the provinces to agree on an amending formula and to agree to
enact a Charter of Rights and Freedoms. A series of unsuccessful meetings led to the
Late on November 4, 1981, the federal Justice Minister and the provincial Justice
Ministers from Ontario and Saskatchewan met in the kitchen of the hotel they were staying
in to prepare a proposal of the Charter to give to the premiers. Nine of the ten premiers,
who were also staying in the same hotel, were called down to the kitchen to sign off on the
proposal. The premiers present, agreed to accept the Charter as is, if the Notwithstanding
Clause was added. Simultaneously, they came up with the amending formula, where the
Constitution could only be changed if 7 of the 10 provinces that made up half the population
agreed to the changes.
Rene Levesque, the Quebec Premier happened to be staying in a different hotel and did
not concur with the above agreements. Levesque argued against the deal, but Trudeau
accepted the compromise and on April 17, 1982, without the support of Quebec, Queen
Elizabeth II and the Prime Minister signed the new Constitution Act into law.
Quebec did not then, and still has not signed off on the present on the present
Constitution. The Quebecois felt betrayed, and believed that the English speaking premiers
“ganged up on them to deny Quebec of its recognition of distinct status”.
2. The Notwithstanding Clause, p 300-301, p 466, “Limits on the Constitution Notes”
from July 9
Notwithstanding Clause: The clause in the Canadian Constitution (Section 33) that allows
Parliament or the legislature of a province to allow an act to stand even if it
contravenes(violates) the Charter of Rights and Freedoms
It basically gives the Federal and Provincial governments the right to pass into law any
act even if it violates the Charter. The use of the clause will expire five years after it is
first passed, but it may be renewed. The Notwithstanding Clause was added to the Charter
of Rights and Freedoms to satisfy the premiers of Canada so they could maintain power
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 45
because politicians argued that it weakened their power as elected politicians. Critics, on the
other hand, said that the Notwithstanding Clause defeats the purpose of the Charter.
The first use of the Notwithstanding Clause was in 1976 by the Parti Quebecois was
Bill 101 that made French the only official language of Quebec. It ensured that members of
government in Quebec would have to speak French, immigrants’ children would have to enrol in
French-language schools and all outdoor, commercial signs had to be in French. Quebec also
used the Notwithstanding Clause to overrule a Supreme Court decision in 1989 that
pronounced Bill 101 unconstitutional.
3. R v. Morgentaler,
Dr. Henry Morgentaler, Dr. Leslie Smoling and Dr. Robert Scott, were practising
physicians who set up a clinic to provide abortions to women. At the time, under section
251(4) of the Criminal Code women wanting an abortion were require to get a certificate from
a therapeutic abortion committee of an approved hospital. The clinic run by Morgentaler,
Smoling and Scott served women who did not have these certificates and the abortions
provided were considered illegal.
When tried before a judge and jury, Morgentaler, Smoling and Scott were acquitted.
Then the Crown appealed the decision to the Court of Appeal. The Court ordered a new trial.
One of the main issues of the second trial was whether section 251 of the Criminal Code
violates the rights and freedoms guaranteed by sections 2(a), 7, 12, 15, 27 and 28 of the
Since this trial, there have been no laws regulating against abortion in Canada.
4. Native Rights, pg 304-305
In 1982, when the Charter of Rights and Freedoms was introduced, Aboriginal Rights
were finally guaranteed. Section 25 quotes, “The guarantee in this Charter of certain rights
and freedoms shall not be construed as to abrogate or derogate from and aboriginal, treaty
or other rights or freedoms that pertain to the aboriginal peoples of Canada including: a) any
rights or freedoms that have been recognized by the Royal Proclamation of October 7, 1763:
and b) any rights or freedoms that now exist by way of land claims agreements or may be so
This section basically maintains that any rights given to Aboriginal citizens prior to the
introduction of the Charter and protects them from being voided. It also ensures that
Aboriginal rights aren’t limited by the Charter and implies autonomy for Native self
government under the Indian Act.
5. Gay Rights,
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 46
Preceding the debut of the Charter, there was a time where gays could have been sent
to jail because of their sexual orientation, however, once the Charter came into play, section
15 could be interpreted as a prohibition of discrimination of a person because of their sexual
preferences. None the less, the Charter did not grant explicit equality rights, like the right
to marry one another. To add injury to insult, the Reform Party of Canada in Alberta defined
marriage as “the union of one man and one woman to the exclusion of all others”. Over the
next few years, governments continued to deny gay/lesbian couples the right to marry, and
claim the benefits a heterosexual couple would receive. Also, in 2000, the Liberal
government passed Bill C-23, which made changes to spousal and common-law benefits and
continued to leave out gay couples from full marriage rights. Then the Liberal point of view
began to change in 2003 when Hedy Halpern appealed to the Ontario Court that the exclusion
of same sex couples from allowing to be married is against the Constitution and also when a
committee on human rights began a study on same sex marriage. The committee would ened
up recommending to the Federal government to amend the definition of marriage to include
gay and lesbian couples. Following these events, the Liberals asked the Supreme Court to rule
on the issue, following the ruling, they announced they were going to move forward the
legislation and passed Bill C-38(The Civil Marriage Act) that finally included same sex couples
in definition of marriage. On July 20th, 2005 the bill received Royal Assent from the
6. Making Rights a part of the Constitution
When Pierre Trudeau made the Charter of Rights and Freedoms a part of the new
Canadian Constitution he also made it difficult for these rights and freedoms to be amended.
Since seven of the ten provinces that make up half the population of Canada need to agree on
the change for it to take place, making a change to the Constitution is nearly impossible. The
only ways that the Charter can be violated is if the government calls the War Measures Act
into play, and also if a government uses the Notwithstanding Clause to pass a law. Besides
these two points, the Charter must be upheld without question. Since the Charter is
entrenched in the Constitution, the judiciary branch of the government is given a huge,
amount of power to interpret the laws as they please. Cases that previously wouldn’t have
even been listened to were able to get tried in Supreme Court and win.
7. The Charter’s impact on Federalism,
Under the Charter, politics in Canada favour a federal system, at the expense of the
smaller constituencies. The Charter enhanced the influence of federal government. It gives a
policy veto to the Judicial Branch and allows it to interpret the Charter as they please. This
particularly annoys the French Canadians, because the Supreme Court nullified almost all of
the restrictive language policies that they want to pass. There have been some attempts to
compensate Quebec, like the Meech Lake Accord, but the attempt was thwarted by people
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 47
who think that constitutional amendments will weaken the Charter and the Judicial Court.
Instead, it weakens the power of the individual provinces, especially Quebec.
8. How the concept of rights have evolved, p 275- 276, 299
Wilfred Laurier once said, “We have no absolute rights among us. The rights of each
man, in our state of society, end precisely at the point where they encroach on the rights of
others.” In 1877, rights were limited to wealthy Caucasian men. After the introduction of
the Charter, Canadians looked at rights as something every single citizen of this country is
entitled to. Earlier in the century, legal rights were something unheard of, presently each
and every person has been bestowed them and similarly, with political and human rights. In
some countries women, children and minorities are treated with the same disdain that
coloured people or Aboriginal people faced in the early to mid 1900’s. Back then people
fought for rights, and thanks to the Charter of Rights and Freedoms millions of Canadians
enjoy these rights and maybe even take them for granted.
9. Multiculturalism, p 9-12, 71, 162, 204-205
Though multiculturalism became policy for Canada in 1971, there wasn’t any protection
for the minority groups residing in our country, the initiation of the Charter provided that
security to groups who had faced discrimination and prejudice in the past. The Charter,
besides from protecting the fundament freedoms that make up the foundation for our
present day multicultural country, also recognizes multiculturalism as a Canadian ideal.
Section 27 of the Charter states, “This Charter shall be interpreted in a manner consistent
with the preservation and enhancement of the multicultural heritage of Canadians”. Which
basically means, that Canadian laws need to be interpreted through comprehension of
10. Women’s Rights, http://www.chrc-ccdp.ca/en/timePortals/milestones/113mile.asp
The Charter being entrenched in the Constitution meant that any rights given to
women were also entrenched in it. The day the new Constitution was signed by the Governor
General and the Prime Minister was a milestone in the history of Canadian women. Finally all
the rallying and protesting had come to a collective and satisfying conclusion, the irrevocable,
permanent written document declaring that women were indeed equal to men and they
deserved all the rights men have. Presently, women are equal in status when it has to do with
politics, education, marriage, employment, basic rights and freedoms and much more.
11. Criticisms of the Charter,
Whilst 82% of Canadians believe that the Charter is beneficial, there is still that
lingering 18% of people who aren’t exactly sure. The Charter was subject to criticism from
both a left and right wing point of view. Michael Mandel, a left wing critic, thought that
“judges do not have to be as sensitive to the will of the electorate, nor do the have to make
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 48
sure their decisions are easily understandable to the average Canadian citizen.” Mandel also
said that the Charter made Canadians more the Americans, people who value corporate rights
over group rights and social rights, such as access to free healthcare and education. On the
other hand, the right had critics had their own opinions. Morton and Knopff accused the
federal government of using the Charter to limit provincial rights to please rights claimants
and special interest groups. They also alleged that the Judicial Courts purposefully lost cases
where the government was taken to court for violating rights, usually women’s and gay rights.
12. Employment Equality Programs,
"Some differences in treatment may not violate the section 15 equality right. Courts
have said that equality may require different groups of people to be treated differently. The
second part of section 15 protects what are called “affirmative action programs.” Section
15(2) says that laws or government programs designed to improve the conditions of
disadvantaged individuals or groups do not violate section 15. So governments can set up
programs to help people or groups who are disadvantaged because of race, national or ethnic
origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability." It’s basically saying that
some jobs need to have a certain type of person working in them. For example, at an
Immigration Office, it would be beneficial if the employee could speak foreign languages, and
if they can, they may receive preferential treatment over someone who can only speak
13. Impact of the Charter on Nationalism,
Pierre Trudeau intended for the Charter to be a unifying force in Canada, a document
that developed the “Canadian Identity”. Since the Charter’s main purpose was to entrench
mobility and language rights, it allowed Quebecois to travel all across the country and receive
education for their children in their primary language, this means that they are not confined
to Quebec, and can disperse among the English speaking population and still maintain their
14. People with Disabilities
Since 1982, people with disabilities made great strides towards being treated as equal.
In 1986, the federal government announced plans to implement a national strategy to
integrate people with disabilities into the social and economic mainstream. Then in 1994, the
Judicial Courts decided that discriminating against a person with HIV is considered against
the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. In 1996, the Federal Task Force on Disability Issues
commissions a report, “Equal Citizenship for Canadians with Disabilities: The Will to Act”.
Also, The Extradition Act was amended in 1999 to disallow extradition on the basis of race,
religion, language, mental or physical disability, ethnic origin, sexual orientation or age.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 49
15. Freedom of expression
Zylberberg v. Sudbury Board of Education led to the abolishment of the recitation of
the Lord’s Prayer in Sudbury, Ontario in 1988. Students were required to begin their morning
classes with by reciting the Lord’s Prayer and verses from the bible, this regime forced the
Ontario Court of Appeal to ask the question “Do these practises infringe the right of to
freedom of religion as guaranteed by the Charter”? The answer was yes, since forcing non
Christian children to recite a Christian prayer was imposing Christian beliefs on them. Then
in 1992, the case R. V Zundel came to the conclusion that it is not a criminal offense to
spread false new, because criminalizing it is against the Charter. As long as the statement is
not violent, it is accepted under Freedom of Expression.
16. Voting Rights,
In 1993, the Supreme Court decided that that they can not deny prisoners behind bars
the right to vote. Richard Sauve, was serving a life sentence in prison for first degree
murder, and he alleged that the law was prohibiting him from voting while he was in prison.
Section 3 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees Canadian citizens the right to
vote in elections and since Sauve was a Canadian citizen, why was he being denied his right?
He, along with other prisoners were deemed able to make an informed decision and were
granted the right to vote in elections.
17. Freedom of Religion,
Prior to the introduction of the Charter, Sunday was called the Lord’s Day, and opening
one’s business on a Sunday was against the law. The Supreme Court had ruled that closing
stores on Sunday did not infringe freedom of religion. Then less than a month after the new
Constitution was initiated into society, Big M Drug Mart decided to open its door to the public
on a Sunday. They were charged, went to court and won. The Charter of Right and Freedoms
deemed that it was an infringement of freedom of religion to force non Christians to comply
with tradition that didn’t have to do with their own religion.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 50
Question: Describe the evaluation of Canadian
autonomy from 1914-1982.
Answers by: Yi Wei
1. <P 26> 1914 when world war one started, Canada formed Canadian Expeditionary Force
(CEF). For much of the wars, CEF fought as a separate Canadian unit. (eg. CEF fought
successfully in Vimy Bridge, and General Arthur Currie became the first Canadian
appointed to be a commander in the battle of Passchendaele.)
2. <P 27>1914 after war was declared. Prime Minister Borden introduced the War
Measures Act, which granted the Canadian government the authority to do everything
necessary for Canada. The federal government has never been granted such power
3. <P 43> 1919 Prime Minister Borden fought successfully for Canada to have its own seat
at the Paris Peace Conference, and not simply be represented by Britain. He also signed
the Treaty of Versailles as a Canadian leader.
4. <P 45> Prime Minister Borden fought for Canada to become a member of the newly
formed League of Nations.
5. <P 55> 1922, King refused to support Britain when it announced plans to invade Turkey.
6. <P 55> 1923 King insisted that Canada be allowed to sign an international treaty without
the signature of a British representative.
7. <P 55> 1926 the King- Byng crisis (challenged Britain over its influence on Canada’s
internal policies). No governor general since has acted against the wises of an elected
8. <P 55> 1926 the Balfour Report (greatest progress towards autonomy) asked for the
freedom to govern themselves.
9. <P 56> 1931 the statue of Westminster. Canada became British Commonwealth.
10. < P 128> Canada had third largest navy and fourth largest air force. (became major
player in the global conflict)
11. <P 134> 1948 Canada joined NATO (joined as a independent)
12. <P 173> March 31, 1949, Newfoundland joined Canada.
13. <P 161> 1952 First CBC TV broadcast is made
14. <P 145> 1952. Canada didn’t send troops to Vietnam while the US did. Prime minister
Pearson criticized the US bombing campaign of Vietnam later in 1965.
15. <P 140> 1959(during Cold War) Cuban Missile Crisis. Canada refused to place NORAD
force on alert.>> more independent defence policy.
16. <P 191> 1965 Canada has her own flag. (Maple Leaf)
17. <P 146> 1968 Pierre Trudeau’s foreign policy: less dependent on the U.S.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 51
18. <P 146> 1970 Canada officially recognized the communist government of China. (Pierre
Trudeau defied US’s pressure to hold this decision)
19. <P 147> 1970-1972, Pierre Trudeau wanted to scale back Canada’s participation in the
nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union. (to ease the Cold War, be less dependent on
20. <P 201> April 17, 1982, Canada’s new Constitution Act signed.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 52
Question: To what extend did Canada participate
Answers by: Filip
1. Entered World War One as a dominion to England.
2.Canadian divisions were scattered among the British.
3.Canadian Corps won a great victory that made people resect them. These included: THE
BATTLE OF SOMME, BATTLE OF AMIENS (a.k.a. Canada’s 100 Days) AND ONE OF THE
MOST SUCCESSFUL, VIMY RIDGE.
4.Canadians send in many troops a lot of whom where volunteers. Within the first few months
32,000 troops volunteered for service. THEY WANTED SOME EXCITEMENT AND WANTED
TO IMPRESS THE GIRLS, THEY WERE PATRIOTIC, THEY WANTED TO PROTECT THE
5.They trained soldiers to send over to the British empire. HESE MAN TRAINED IN
TRAINING CAMPS SET UP IN PLACES IN CANADA LIKE VALCARTIER.
6. Canadians were focused on winning the war. CANADIANS WENT INTO TOTAL WAR AND
BORROWS A BUNCH OF MONEY FROM USA BEFORE USA ENTERED THE WAR. WHICH
WAS A BIG SACRAFICE. CANADA ENGAGED IN TOTAL MOBILIZATION OF ALL
7.They started making propagandas to encourage soldiers to join the army. THEY SAID
STUFF LIKE ''YOUR FRIENDS ARE FIGHTING WHY AREN’T YOU? AND MADE POSTERS
OF HOW THERE IS A HUGE MONSTER WHICH REPRESENTS THE GERMANS HOW THEY
WERE KILLING A WOMAN. THIS MADE THE GERMANS LOOK LIKE EVIL PEOPLE.
8.Their woman had to start working in factories to take over the jobs of the man.
9.A lot of casualties were made in the Canadian forces due to trench warfare but Canada kept
strong. TRENCH WARFARE IS WHEN SOLDIERS ARE IN A WHOLE THATS IN A LINE
AND OPPOSING FORCES ARE IN THE SAME POSITION AND THEY HAVE MACHINE
GUNS SET UP AND 1 OF THE FORCES GOES UP FROM THE TRENCH AND CHARGES
TRYING TO TAKE OVER THE ENEMY TRENCH BUT GETS MOWED DOWN USUALLY.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 53
10.Canada started developing stronger air forces and such to make their army stronger.
11. British pilots were trained in Canada during the war.
12. Canadian pilots became aces and the soldiers won metals for their hard work. For
example... Billy Bishop.
13.Canadians started increasing their economy by making a bunch of war items. SAM HUGHES
MINISTER OF MILITIA AND DEFENSE AND THESE PROGRAMS DID NOT WORK
BECAUSE THE ROSS RIFLE GOT JAMMED FROM THE MUD AND THE BRITISH AMO DID
NOT FIT IN THEM AND THE CARDBOARD BOOTS BROKE AND THE SHOVEL THAT WAS
SUPPOSED TO BLOCK BULLETS DID NOT.
14.They started making war tactics instead of doing the ''over the top boys' tactic and
getting mowed down. This new way of fighting was successfully utilized in the Battle of Vimy
15.Canadian cowards had to be shot to make the army see what happens if you run. 22 men
were killed this way before the end of the war.
16.The population started to decrease as there were not enough man back home.
17.Canadian forces after World War 1 were seen more independent which made it worth it
for them fighting for Britain so hard.
18.Canadians sent forces to the countries that were allies of Britain to help them out.
Canadians fought mostly in Belgium and France on the Western Front during World War One.
19.Canadian woman were for the first time not kitchen wives anymore. They participated in
the war effort by knitting socks, joining the nurses corps., buying war bonds, joining the
Salvation Army, working on farms while farmers were off fighting, and working in factories
when the men were off fighting.
20. When the war was over soldiers returned home and received little benefit. Soldiers had
to form the Royal Canadian Legion to fight for veteran's rights.
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 54
Question: To what extend did Canada participate
Answers by: Hajar
1) Canada's economy was based on agriculture, with manufacturing plants. Prior to WWII, the economy was
2) Canada was focused on the war effort in to winning the war. The government created crown corporations to
focus on winning the war and re-structured the economy to better the war effort.
3) Canadians were said to be give them an impossible mission and they will get it done. For example, Dieppe.
4) Canada was a mass producer for the allies. Goods were shipped over to England in the Battle of the Atlantic,
during which Merchant ships crossed in convoys carrying valuable supplies to England. This was the longest
battle in the war.
5) Women had their role in the Canadian army by been nurses, ambulances drivers etc. Women were also, for
the first time, able to enlist and join the Air Force, Army and Navy in special women's divisions.
6) British pilots were training in Canada for the war. This program was known as the British Commonwealth Air
Training Plan (BCATP)
7) Canadians had sent many troops to support the war. Over 1 million men were in the Canadian forces by the
end of 1945.
8) Canada build anti-air for shooting planes coming from Japan, especially on the west coast (eg. Vancouver).
Japanese-Canadians were prevented from living on the coast of BC, had their property taken away and were
forced into labour camps. The idea was to prevent them from joining a suspected Japanese attack of the west
9) Canada was a major participant because this was the first time Canada decided as country to go to war on its
own. Canada declared war a week after Britain.
10) Canadian troops were sent to Juno beach to make there chances for the allies of winning the war but had
huge casualties. The Juno beach landing was considered a victory and is now known as D-Day.
11) Canada was a big role with the allies.
12) Canadians sent troops to Hong Kong to help from Japanese invasion. These troops were barely trained and
when Hong Kong was invaded, they were mostly killed or taken as Prisoners of War. Hong Kong was lost.
13) Canada was known as an independent country following the war. They received their own seat in the United
14) Canada had pilots training for the war.
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15) Started manufacturing tanks and planes.
16) Canada's economy improved during World War 2.
17) More jobs were available for Canadians in the army or at home.
18) Canada's population decreased during the war because they lost a lot of man.
19) Canada a baby boom when they got home from the war.
20) Canada accepted more diverse people in the army. Besides women, there were black, aboriginal, Chinese and
Japanese divisions fighting for Canada in World War 2.
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Question: Describe the Canadian election process.
Answers by: Emir
The Canadian election process is based on freedom and democracy, where every
Canadian citizen 18 and over has the right to vote for a chosen political party at the
local, provincial or federal level.
After an election, the party with the largest number of votes is the winner and is the
party that goes on to form the government. Sometimes, political parties have to face a
partial victory and form a coalition government with opposing parties in order to get a
majority of votes and form the government. This is called a minority government.
The governing party can stay in federal government for a maximum of five years
before calling a new election. The PM can, however, call an election whenever she/he
wants. The PM usually calls one when she/he thinks that the party has the greatest
chance of winning the election. In a minority government, opponents may call a vote of
non-confidence and force the governing party to step down and call a new election.
During election campaigns, every political party is trying to form and create its own
political program to make necessary changes and innovations in order to attract as
many Canadians as possible to vote for them. This is called a party platform.
Every party is mainly based on how to stimulate the economy in the best way possible
for Canadian society. Some have leftist economic policies (NDP, Green, Liberal) and
others have Conservative ideologies (Conservative party).
Religion is not an element in Canadian politics because it is seen as a dangerous path
favouring one religion over others. Canada has a secular government.
The Canadian military is an important component to Canadian society and people who
serve in the military have had the right to vote since the 1917 Military Voters Act.
Elections in Canada are organized in such a way that everyone has access to vote
regardless of their social or economic status. Even poor homeless people are allowed to
vote, although it is often hard for them to register with no permanent address.
Elections must be organized in a peaceful manner.
During an election campaign, the main target for every party’s platform is usually the
middle class. This is because it is the class with the biggest population.
Elections also need to satisfy the interests of other social groups – the elderly, single
parents, children and people with disabilities.
Youth voting tends to be lower than other groups. Seniors are the most active voters
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because they usually own property and are concerned about health issues and social
House of Commons: Elected officials sit here and debate laws.
Senate: The house of Sober Second Thought that usually checks bills passed from the
HoC and can vote on laws. They are not elected, however, the Conservatives have
proposed to elect senators.
Riding or Constituency: The divided areas in which people run in order to become MPs
or MLAs. Within ridings live constituents and all ridings have different compositions
(some are richer, others poorer, some have heavier concentrations of young or ethnic
Electoral Boundaries Commission redraws the boundary ridings every 10 years. They
In Canada, elections are run by Elections Canada.
FPTP stands for First Past the Post System. The winner does not necessarily have to
win a majority of the votes cast, he/she needs to win more votes than any of the other
PR stands for Proportional Representation. Voters support candidates based on which
party he/she represents. The number of seats a party wins in the legislature is based
on the total number of votes they receive. Eg. 100 seat legislature, a party that wins
38% of the vote gets 38 seats. This usually leads to minority governments. The most
popular candidates in the party fill those seats.
Levels of Government:
a. Municipal government is the town council. The leader of the council is a mayor,
reeve, chairperson, overseer or warden. It is an elected position accountable to
local citizens. Other members of a town council are called councilors and they
are elected to represent the municipality as a whole, or a riding within the
municipality (depending on the city).
b. Provincial government is formed after a provincial election. In BC, our main
provincial parties are the NDP, Liberals and the Green party. Only the NDP and
Liberals currently hold seats in the legislature. Provincial parties are only
loosely tied to federal parties, however, in BC, the Liberal party is more similar
to the federal Conservatives in many ways than the federal Liberals.
c. The Federal government is formed after federal elections. Usually parties
choose candidates and the leader of the party. A candidate needs money and
volunteers to run an election campaign. Parties usually solicit donations from
individuals and businesses to run a campaign.
Political Parties are the main subjects in our electoral system. Each party is trying to
convince as many Canadians as they can to choose their platform. There are left, right
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and center parties in Canada. Our main parties are NDP, Green, Conservatives, Liberals
and Bloc Quebecois on the federal level.
Aboriginal Self-Government: are local governments in aboriginal communities that meet
in order to determine the needs of their communities. The groups of aboriginals are
called bands and their governments are called band councils. Elders lead them and the
leader is called a Chief.
Quebec and Ontario are the most important provinces in federal elections because
they have the largest populations and thus the largest number of potential voters.
Every party must consider this when running in an election.
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Question: Describe the Role of Western Canada in
influencing Canadian politics from 1920-2000.
Answers by: Harminder
1. Chinese exclusion act tried to stop Chinese immigration altogether. This was primarily done
to stop Chinese immigrating to western Canada, where most lived. This happened before
1920, but the act was amended many times afterwards.
2. OBU (One Big Union) was formed in Manitoba. It showed that western Canada could try to
get what they wanted like wages. In 1919, the Winnipeg General Strike occurred in Manitoba.
It caused the federal government to notice that there was displeasure over how the
government was running in the west. The strike was called when all the workers in the entire
city went off work and the city didn’t have anybody doing anything. They made the federal
government worry that communism might be spreading in Canada, so they sent in the Mounties
to stop the OBU’s strike. Although the strike was a failure at the time, it influenced Canada
to raise wages over the long term.
3. In the Winnipeg General Strike, the strikers were getting out of hand so the government
amended the immigration act to deport union leaders from foreign countries.
4. The Person’s Case influenced Canadian politics because Emily Murphy was a magistrate in
Alberta who fought for the right for women to be considered “persons” under the law. This
case went all the way to the Privy Council in England after getting denied by the Supreme
Court and they agreed with Mrs. Murphy and the Famous Five and women became persons
under the eyes of the law.
5. Farmers in the west were frustrated by the National Policy, which imposed tariffs on
imports from other countries (especially the United States). Farmers formed the United
Farmers Party (and later, the Progressive Party).
6. The United Farmers Party pressured Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King to make
the old age pension and he did.
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7. The depression and the collapse of the wheat market (and also the “dust bowls” left
families in the prairies starving. They started leaving the prairies, forcing the government to
pass the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act in 1935, which helped farmers build irrigation
systems and reservoirs.
8. In the On-To-Ottawa trek, starting on the west coast and continuing into the prairies, men
who were frustrated at making 20 cents/day in BC labour camps began hopping trains to
Ottawa but got stopped by in Regina along the way. Bennett ridiculed their efforts. They
formed the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation, now known as the NDP.
9. The CCF pushed for social programs and in Saskatchewan, the CCF premier Tommy Douglas
provided free medical care and in 1966 PM Lester B. Pearson passed the Universal Health
Care Act giving free Medicare to all Canadians.
10. Greenpeace started in BC and was an environmental group that was concerned about the
testing of nuclear weapons on the coast of Alaska and went their so the government couldn’t
release its nuclear bombs.
11. Prairies and Western Canada believed that Ottawa’s policies benefited Central Canada,
leading to Western Alimentation, which is the feeling that western Canada should have more
autonomy. This led to the rise of the Reform and Canadian Alliance parties in the 1990s.
Eventually, these parties merged with the Progressive Conservative party and currently hold
office in Ottawa. Prime Minister Stephen Harper has a riding in Calgary, Alberta.
12. The Oil Crisis of the 1970s was where OPEC was not selling oil to Canada, so prices went
up a lot. The federal government froze the prices of Canadian gas, and Albertans got angry
saying that they should be able to charge world prices because natural resources fall under
provincial jurisdiction. This program was called the National Energy Program (instituted by
Trudeau). Many Albertans vowed never to vote for the Liberal Party ever again.
13. Western Canada got mad over the oil crisis, and forced Trudeau to increase transfer
payments to the provinces to be used for social services. This led to more provincial
14. To help with regional disparity (the gap between the rich and the poor) the federal
government spend millions of dollars on regional projects to help with economic development,
especially in the west and in the Maritimes.
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15. When the official languages act was passed in 1969, western Canadians felt that the
government was forcing French on them. Some also believed that Ottawa was focusing all of
its attention on Quebec, while the west and their concerns were ignored. This created a
difference between how western Canadians and eastern Canadians view the role of
16. The federal government needed some company to repair its air force jets. They called on
the Bombardier Company of Montreal (the same company who build Vancouver’s Skytrain
cars), even though Bristol Aerospace of Winnipeg made a better proposal. Westerners were
outraged. They were convinced that the contract with Bombardier was done just to “bag”
Conservative votes in Quebec. In response, the Reform party was formed in 1987 to be the
voice of western Canadians.
17. Alberta and Newfoundland demanded reforms to the senate that would give their
provinces a stronger voice in Ottawa. Alberta even held senate elections.
19. The west played a role in influencing Canadian politics during the Charlottetown Accord
where BC voters felt that the Accord gave Quebec too much power and voted against it,
leading it to ultimately fail. (1992)
20. Elijah Harper, an MLA from Manitoba, cause the Meech Lake accord to fail. (1987)
21. In BC, the provincial government tried to cut down old growth forests in BC’s Clayquot
Sound. The people who disagreed with the government staged acts of civil disobedience by
not letting trees into where the loggers wanted to cut down forest. This activist form of
protest is strongest in western Canada, and shows that a law can be changed by not following
it in a peaceful manner. In the end, a compromise was made.
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Question: Describe the role of French Canada in
influencing Canadian politics from the 1914-
Answers by: Sunny
1. Meech Lake Accord (p.201-202): In 1987, PM Mulroney called premiers to a
conference at Meech Lake. Quebec was guaranteed “distinct-society” clause and the
power to veto constitutional changes, and Quebec supported this agreement. Other
provinces felt that Quebec was being too overpowered and they too felt they were
“distinct societies.” Only two provinces, Manitoba and Newfoundland, withheld their
support, disintegrating the Accord. As a result, Quebec felt humiliated and separatist
support rose to 64%.
2. Charlottetown Accord (p.202): PM Mulroney thought the debate on the Constitution
had to continue; later, the Charlottetown Accord wad made – similar to Meech Lake’s
proposals but more added. The Charlottetown Accord proposed the Senate reform,
making equal representations from all provinces, and it supported Aboriginal self-
government. The West thought Quebec was given to much power – guaranteed 25%
seats in House of Commons regardless of the population; Quebec thought it didn’t
given enough powers to them, because most Senate seats were given to the West. In
addition, Quebec feared Aboriginal self-government because of the large Aboriginal
population in north of Quebec. Failed.
3. Bill 101 (p.198, 300-301): Bill 101 was passed shortly after PQ became in power. The
bill made French as the only official language in Quebec; Quebec’s government
employees had to work in French, commercials and signs had to be in French, and
schools had to teach French rather than English. In 1989, Quebec used the
“notwithstanding clause” to keep the bill and override the Supreme Court’s decision
that the bill was unconstitutional.
4. Senate seats (Senate sheet and p.230): In 2001, Quebec had 24 seats in the Senate,
an equal number to Ontario or the total seats of the western provinces. Although BC
is considered the 3rd strongest economy and population-wise, but BC was given 3 seats.
5. Bloc Quebecois (p.202): After Meech Lake Accord failed, Lucien Bouchard, a
powerful Quebec member of Mulroney’s Cabinet, resigned in protest and formed the
Bloc Quebecois, a party with a goal to separate from Canada. For just one province,
Quebec is able to manage to have 48 seats out of 300 seats in the House of Commons,
which is almost 20%!
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6. Parti Quebecois (p.196): In 1976, PQ wins the provincial election; Rene Levesque was
elected leader. The PQ promised to hold referendums before Quebec makes any
moves on separation, and prioritized to strengthen French language (passed bill 101).
7. Union Nationale (p.87-88 & 191-192): In 1946, the Union Nationale party – nationalist
French party - formed by Maurice Duplessis, came in power in Quebec; most of its
voters were French-Canadian Catholics and rural citizens. The Depression in Quebec
was blamed on English Quebeckers, who controlled the majority of Quebec’s economy
at the time.
8. Conscription (p.40, 124-125): Quebec holds no loyal ties to Britain; French Canadians
were unwilling to participate in Boer War, WWI and II. Lowest levels of recruitment
were in Quebec – violent “A bas Borden” protest during WWI. On April 27, 1942,
voters were asked if conscription should be allowed – Quebec votes “no”, unlike other
provinces. In August 1942, King allows Conscription and Quebec felt betrayed. King
managed to avoid the overseas conscription because he let the soldiers train for 2
years (until 1944).
9. The Birth of Separatism (p.193): Many injustices to French-Canadians – majority of
English-speaking in Ottawa (the capital), few fed. Politicians from Quebec held key
Cabinet posts, limited access to French schools and hospitals outside of Quebec,
expectation to speak English in Quebec, etc. – set blaze the creation of separatists in
Quebec. Some extremists, the FLQ (Front de liberation du Quebec), became involved
in terrorism; they blew up mailboxes, and even kidnapped and murdered politicians.
Even some politicians were discontent with the mistreatment of Francophones. Rene
Levesque, a Liberal, quit the party in 1967 and formed the Parti Quebecois in 1968.
10.Opposition to temperance movement 1920 (p.58): Quebec apposed the ban on alcohol
and smuggled it into US, where the ban was still in effect. “81.1% of Quebec voted
against it” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prohibition_in_Canada )
11.Union Nationaliste’s opposition to communism (notes 1950s &
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Padlock_law): Maurice Duplessis, the leader of Union
Nationale in Quebec, bans communism in Quebec – Padlock Law. The Padlock Act was
passed in March 24, 1937. It prevented media (from news paper to propaganda) from
promoting communistic ideas or beliefs. It was often used against left-winged groups
and Jehovah’s Witenesses.
12.Boer War 1899 (p.8): French Canadians didn’t feel any relations to the British Empire
and believed that Canada should be more independent from Britain. As a result, they
were unwilling to fight a war in some country that had nothing to do with them. Henri
Bourassa resigned from Laurier’s cabinet when Laurier agreed to send volunteer
troops to South Africa.
13.Flag Debate (p.191, 193-194): Duplessis, the leader of the Union Nationale party in
Quebec, introduced fleur de lis, a flag bearing the French symbol, in Quebec to show
difference between English and French Canada. In 1964, Pearson felt that the Union
Jack was too British and decided to create a new flag, similar to the current flag, with
3 maple leafs and blue side bars; however, the flag did not last because it divided up
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French Canadians and English Canadians even further. Hundreds of other suggestions
for the flags were concerned – red and white maple leaf flag was chosen. On Feb. 15,
1965, the new flag was raised on Parliament Hill as the country’s official flag; French
Canadians continued to fly the fleur de lis.
14.Official Languages Act (p.194-195): In 1969, Trudeau’s government passed the
Official Languages Act on the advice of the Bi and Bi Commission, recognizing French
and English as the official language of Canada. As a result, all federal government
across the country had to provide services in both French and English; English
employees had to learn French and more French-speaking people were hired.
15.FLQ - October Crisis (p. 195-196): After the kidnappings of the British diplomat,
James Cross, and Quebec labour minister, Pierre Laporte, Trudeau’s government
imposed the War Measures Act (3rd use and 1st use in peaceful state). The War
Measures Act suspended all civil rights, allowing the police to arrest anyone without
having charging someone – scared civilians when Trudeau said, “Just watch me.” On
October 16, federal troops patrolled the streets of Montreal and Ottawa and
arrested hundreds of pro-separatists.
16.Separation Referendums (p.198, 203-204): In 1980, the Levesque government called
a referendum; 40% said “yes” to sovereignty-association and 60% said “no”. After the
failure of Meech Lake Accord, Parti Quebecois was reelected in 1994 provincial
election. On October 30, 1995, the referendum votes were counted – 50.6% ‘no” and
49.4% “yes”. Politicians believed that a change in Constitution would suffice Quebec.
Later, Lucien Bouchard became Quebec’s premier and promised another referendum.
PM Chretien sent the question on Quebec’s separation to Supreme Court of Canada;
“clarity bill” was set down, where a substantial “yes” in future referendums had to be
reached before Quebec’s exit from the confederation would be negotiated.
17.Night of Long Knives/Kitchen Compromise (p. 199-200): On November 4, 1981,
premiers, federal Justice Minister Jean Chretien, and the justice ministers from
Saskatchewan and Ontario met to discuss about the Charter. 9 premiers agreed to the
Charter if the “notwithstanding clause” was added; Rene Levesque, the remainder, was
not included in the Kitchen Compromise. When Trudeau had the Queen Elizabeth II
to sign the new Constitution on April 17, 1982 and brought it back to Canada, Quebec
refused to sign it. Quebec felt betrayed and believed that the government refused to
consider Quebec as a distinct status. In Quebec City, angry demonstration led by
Rene Levesque broke out.
18.Roman Catholic Church (pg.191): Duplessis (Duplessis Era 1936-1939 & 1944-59) let
the Catholic Church to defend Quebec’s diminishing culture, keeping all the old
tradition on farm, faith, and family. The churches ran hospitals and schools – religion
was integrated in all parts of the curriculum.
19.National Anthem (Canada: Chapter 1 THEN and NOW sheet): “God Save the Queen”
and “Maple Leaf Forever” (1867), and “O Canada” (1980 – same adoption year with
flag). Canada’s national anthem changed many times. The first two anthems were
abandoned because of Canada’s nationalist beliefs and equality between French and
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English; the first two anthems contained no allusions to France compared to England,
such as “In days of yore, from Britain’s shore,/Wolfe, the dauntless hero came,/And
planted firm Britannia’s flag…” and “The thistle, shamrock, rose entwine…”.
20.Quiet Revolution/Economic Autonomy – Strengthening French Culture (p192):
Quebec didn’t want to lose its culture especially with immigrants migrating into
Quebec. Duplessis dies and Jean Lesage and his Liberal party are in power in Quebec
in 1960. Quebec makes steps to modernize its economy, politics, education, and
culture. Wages and pension were raised, and restrictions on unionism were removed.
Consequently, the Catholic Church’s influence diminished. As to controlling the
economy, the government bought and monopolized hydro companies in Quebec (Hydro
20 ANSWERS PROJECT 66