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					Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14




                      Chapter 14
                    Adolescence:
                 Physical Development
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14




 When does a child become an adult?
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14




                                Puberty

                    The Biological Explosion
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14


                         What Is Adolescence?

  • Transitional period between childhood and adulthood
  • G. Stanley Hall
       – Proposed adolescence as separate stage
       – Marked by “sturm and drang”
  • Sigmund Freud
       – Genital stage
  • Anna Freud
       – Turbulent period
  • Current theorists
       – Reorganization, not necessarily turbulent or stress
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14




                   Would you classify your
                  adolescence as turbulent?
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14


                             What Is Puberty?

  • Adolescence is psychosocial concept
  • Puberty is a biological concept
       – Characterized by attainment of sexual maturity
  • Puberty is controlled by feedback loop
       – Hypothalamus – Pituitary gland – Gonads (ovaries in females and
         testes in males) – Hormones
  • Sex hormones trigger development of
       – Primary sex characteristics (females - ovaries, vagina, uterus,
         fallopian tubes; males - penis, testes, prostate gland, seminal
         vesicles)
       – Secondary sex characteristics (breast development, deepening of
         voice, appearance of facial, public, and underarm hair)
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14


    What Happens During the Adolescent Growth Spurt?

  • Girls begin growth spurt earlier than boys
       – Reach peak growth in height about 2 years after spurt began
           • Continue to grow at a slower rate for another 2 years
       – Weight spurt begins about 18 months after height spurt
  • Boys catch up to girls and eventually are taller and heavier
  • Body shapes differ by sex
       – Boys have broader shoulders
       – Girls gain almost twice as much fatty tissue
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14


    What Happens During the Adolescent Growth Spurt?

  • Asynchronous Growth
       – Exception to proximodistal growth
           • Hands and feet mature before arms and legs
       – Reversal of cephalocaudal growth
           • Legs reach peak growth before shoulders and chest
  • Secular Trend
       – May have reached genetic potential
       – Nutrition and health care are factors
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14




    Figure 14.3 Are We Still Growing Taller than Our Parents?
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14


                       Pubertal Changes in Boys

  • Average age of 11 – first visible sign of puberty
       – Accelerated growth of testes
  • Hair growth
  • Voice deepens
  • Increase in penile erections
       – Nocturnal emissions
  • Gynecomastia – enlargement of breasts
  • About age 20 – 21 – puberty ends
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14


                        Pubertal Changes in Girls

  • Menarche
       – May begin as early as 9 or as late as 16
       – Body weight may trigger menarche
  • Hormonal Regulation of Menstrual Cycle
       – Ovulate 12 to 18 months after menarche
       – Average menstrual cycle is 28 days
           • May be irregular during first 2 years
  • Psychological Impact of Menarche
       – Rite of passage
       – Educated and prepared – more positive
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14

        What Are the Effects of Early or Late Maturation
                        on Adolescents
  • Boys
       – Early maturation – more positive effects
            • Popular, more poised, heightened self-worth
       – Early maturation – negative effects
            • Expectations and demands
  • Girls
       – Early maturation – more negative effects
            • Feel awkward and conspicuous
            • More problems in school and emotional issues
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14


        How Do Adolescents Feel About Their Bodies?

  • Girls have more negative body image
       – Preoccupied with body weight
  • By late adolescence body dissatisfaction declines
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14




      Emerging Sexuality and Risks of
      Sexually Transmitted Infections
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14


 What Kinds of Sexually Transmitted Infections Are There?

  • Bacterial infections
       – Chlamydia
           • Most common STI in adolescents
           • Major cause of pelvic inflammatory disease
       – Gonorrhea and syphilis
  • Viral infections
       – HIV/AIDS, genital herpes
       – Genital warts caused by HPV
           • Linked to cervical cancer
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14

           What Factors Place Adolescents at Risk for
                      Contracting STIs?
  •   Sexual activity
  •   Sex with multiple partners
  •   Failure to use condoms
  •   Substance abuse
  •   Sharing hypodermic needles with an infected person can
      transmit HIV
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14


                What Can Be Done to Prevent STIs?

  • Education Strategies
       – Increased knowledge about STIs
  • Prevention Strategies
       – Enhance teens sense of control
           • Effective decision making and social skills
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14




                        A Closer Look

             Preventing HIV/AIDS and Other
             STIs: It’s More Than Safe(r) Sex
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14




              Health in Adolescence
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14


            How Healthy Are American Adolescents?

  • Most American adolescents are healthy
  • May be less healthy than their parents
       – Lifestyle factors and risky behaviors
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14


     What Are the Causes of Death Among Adolescents?

  • Death rates for males is twice as great
  • Accidents, suicide and homicide – 75% of all teen deaths
  • Accidents
       – 60% of teen deaths
       – Most involve motor vehicles
  • Homicide
       – More frequent for poor and in urban areas
       – Greatest among African American adolescents
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14


        What Are the Nutritional Needs of Adolescents?

  • Rapid growth
       – Average girl – 2,200 calories
       – Average boy – 3,000 calories
  • Need for calcium – bone growth
  • Nutritional deficits
       – Irregular eating habits
       – Fast food or junk food
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14


                     What Are Eating Disorders?

  • Gross disturbances in eating patterns
  • Anorexia Nervosa
       – Characterized by fear of being overweight
       – Distorted body image and refusal to eat
       – 4 to 5% mortality rate
  • Bulimia
       – Characterized by recurrent cycles of binge eating and purging
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14


            What Are the Origins of Eating Disorders?

  • Psychoanalytic perspective
       – Anorexia is an effort to remain prepubescent
  • Family control issues
  • Child abuse, sexual abuse are risk factors
  • Social-cognitive perspective
       – Personal perfectibility
  • Genetic factors
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14


         Treatment and Prevention of Eating Disorders

  • Antidepressants
  • Family therapy
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14


What Is Substance Abuse? What is Substance Dependence?

  • Substance abuse
       – Ongoing use of a substance despite the problems it causes
  • Substance dependence
       – No control over substance
       – Tolerance – body becomes habituated to substance
       – Abstinence syndrome – withdrawal symptoms
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14


               What Are the Effects of Depressants?

  • Slows the activity of the nervous system
  • Alcohol
       – Lowers inhibitions
       – Intoxicant
       – Relaxes
  • Heroin
       – Provides an euphoric “rush”
  • Barbiturates
       – Legitimate medical uses
       – Used illegally to produce a mild euphoria
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14


                What Are the Effects of Stimulants?

  • Speed up heart beat and other bodily functions
  • Nicotine
       – Raises rate of burning calories, lowers appetite
       – Addictive stimulant in tobacco
  • Cocaine
       – Euphoria, boosts self-confidence, reduces appetite
  • Amphetamines
       – Used to stay awake or reduce appetite
       – High doses cause restlessness, insomnia, irritability
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14


            What Are the Effects of Hallucinogenics?

  • Bring on perceptual distortions or hallucinations
  • Marijuana
       – Used to relax and elevate mood
       – Impairs perceptual-motor coordination
       – Interferes with short-term memory and learning
  • Ecstasy (MDMA)
       – Feelings of elation and self-confidence
       – Lowers inhibitions and increase risky behaviors
  • LSD
       – Impairs coordination and judgment
       – Hallucinations and paranoid delusions
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14


              How Widespread Is Substance Abuse?

  • Over 50% of high school seniors have used illicit drugs
  • 30% high school seniors engage in binge drinking
       – Occasional death from alcohol overdose
       – Connected with reckless behaviors
  • 3% high school students use steroids
       – Used to build muscle mass
  • More adolescents disapprove of regular drug use than
    experimental drug use
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14


           What Factors Are Associated With Substance
                    Abuse and Dependence?
  •   Peer pressure, acceptance by peers
  •   Rebelling against moral or social constraints
  •   Curiosity
  •   Escape from boredom
  •   Imitating parents or adults
  •   Predictors of drug use and abuse
       –   Association with peers who use or tolerate drugs
       –   Parental communication discourages drug use
       –   School problems
       –   Biological factors
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14




               Developing in a World
                   of Diversity

        Sex, Education, and Substance Abuse
Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus
                                                                           Chapter 14



      How Can We Treat and Prevent Substance Abuse?

  •   Peer pressure, acceptance by peers
  •   Rebelling against moral or social constraints
  •   Curiosity
  •   Escape from boredom
  •   Imitating parents or adults
  •   Predictors of drug use and abuse
       –   Association with peers who use or tolerate drugs
       –   Parental communication discourages drug use
       –   School problems
       –   Biological factors

				
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