VIEWS: 2 PAGES: 169 POSTED ON: 7/3/2012
Revolutions “Q” What is Revolution? • Revolution is a complete change. • This change does not have to be violent, although some Revolution’s are. • Not all change is positive, although some Revolutions were. • There have been many revolutions throughout the course of history, which have drastically altered the way in which society functions. • Revolutions can be political, economic and/or social. All revolutions have several things in common. • 1. the old system was not working. • 2. people found what they thought were “better” or “easier” ways to do things. • 3. • All of them began because the existing gov’t. could not meet the social or economic needs of the people. As a result the people demanded a change. • Successful revolutions do not need the support of a majority of the people. In fact, most succeeded with only a minority of the people calling for the change. • Most of the revolutions did not produce the outcomes that were promised; in fact only a minority have. The Neolithic (or "New" Stone Age) • This is considered the beginning of civilization throughout the world. During this revolution man created the tools and weapons which allowed him to finally settle down in one spot. It is as a result of this revolution that the Ancient Civilizations began “Q” What were the Achievements of the Neolithic Revolution? • A surplus of food was • Specialization of labor created; man no longer created a diversity of had to hunt and laborers gather; as a result permanent settlements • “Q” What were the were built. results of the • The ability to control fire Neolithic revolution? developed. • As surpluses increased so • Domestication of animals allowed their use did trade; a result was as laborers, food and increased contact with other protection. people • Tools and weapons • Population increased made work easier; the because people lived longer wheel and the plow were two examples. healthier lives. • Material possessions such • Epidemics such as malaria, as farms, tools, food, TB, and typhoid arose and clothes, and pottery were started to spread and kill all highly valued more people since groups of • Populations started to people were sedentary and grow. Women started to larger have more children since it • the lifespan, of both men was no longer a burden to and women, decreased carry them. • The biggest mortality factor • The general health of the in women was childbirth. In public seemed to decline men, the greatest cause of • humans started to have death was warfare cavities from the new introduction to carbohydrates • A new type of political structure had to be established. Society went from a small, informal society to a large, impersonal hierarchy • Military and religious leaders were given authority over the group • Distinctions in social class began to arise based on the value of material goods. Property was based on private wealth, not on the wealth of the group • Women stayed home with their children, while men went out and plowed the fields or did other tasks • Complex institutions developed such as governments and religions. These helped to impose rules and regulations to control urban society. The Rise of Civilization • A civilization is compiled of eight features. • 1. Cities • 2. Well-Organized Central Government • 3. Complex Religions • 4. Job Specialization • 5. Social Classes • 6. Arts and Architecture • 7. Public Works • 8. Writings The Commercial Revolution • The commercial revolution has a long history. It was born during the latter Middle Ages and continued well into the Age of Exploration. • In reality the “revolution” has yet to end. This revolution has been responsible for dramatic changes that have transformed society from an agricultural to an industrial society. • “Q” What are the causes of the Commercial Revolution? • 1. The growth of towns: there are several explanation for the growth of these towns • They were born as a result of merchants and traders gravitating toward the forts, which were favorable due to the large number of people there. (The word suburb means in the shelter of the walls) • The great Cathedrals and Monasteries drew large numbers of foreigners and as a result also drew merchants and traders who tried to cater to their needs. • The Crusades (Holy Wars started by Pope Urban II in 1095 Ad when he ordered the capture of the Holy Land for the Catholic Church) began a desire for the goods of the Middle East. This resulted in many people moving to coastal towns looking for economic opportunities as a result of trade • The Bubonic Plague (black death) killed 25%-40% of Europe’s population. The disease resulted from the horrible living conditions. This left greater opportunities than ever before for those that survived. New unions, Guilds, were formed to limit the competition, which afforded people and opportunity for a better living. • 4. The Growth of Capitalism: International trade was responsible for many changes within the economy. • Letters of Credit were used to prevent the shipment of large quantities of money across dangerous routes. • The Banking Industry grew as people looked to invest in new business opportunities. • Trade Leagues (associations of towns) were formed to compete with the large entrepreneurs. “Q” What were the results of the Commercial Revolution? • 1. Bourgeoisie: A new class of business people was born. They had a huge impact on the Monarchs of Europe. Many new cities now began to develop. As a result of these new cities the taxes that were collected helped to consolidate political power in the hands of a few wealthy families. (The Medici’s of Florence or the Fuggers of Germany) • 2. New Businesses: The birth of joint-stock companies, banks and insurance companies helped to transform society. • 3. Universities: Throughout Europe many new universities turned out trained leaders, which helped to transform society. • 4. The Age of Exploration: began as a way to end the monopoly the Italians had with the Middle East. Spain and Portugal set out to find the all water route to India so they could break the hold the Italians had on trade. Eventually the French, English and the Dutch also got involved • 5. Mercantilism: An economic theory that was developed during the Age of Exploration. This theory was based on: • Acquiring colonies (colonialism) to obtain cheap resources, market places, and laborers. • Developing a favorable balance of trade (exporting more than you import) to build up the supply of gold in your country. • Believing that the Monarch controlled all business activities for the good of the “state.” • 6. The Atlantic Slave Trade: As the Native Americans died, the Europeans needed to replace the workers to keep the plantations going. They began the importation of slaves from Africa to the Americas. The Scientific Revolution • Some say that the changes that took place in science during this period resulted in Western society becoming modern. • As a result of the scientific revolution, humans searched for answers to questions that previously had remained not only unanswered but also unasked. • “Q” What was science like before the Revolution? • Prior to 1500 the universe was still based upon the ideas of Aristotle. People believed that the motionless earth was the center of the universe. Around the planet circled 10 crystal spheres, which contained the sun, moon, the 5 planets and the stars. • Above that was heaven, with the souls of those saved and the angels. The angels were responsible for the movement of the universe in perfect circles. This theory was called the Geocentric theory. People accepted this theory for 2 reasons: • It explained in common sense terms what the eye saw • It placed God and Heaven where it belonged according to the Bible, up above • As a result of the Church during the Middle Ages, science had to offer explanations that fit into the interpretation of God’s plan. “Q” How did the Scientific Revolution begin? • Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543): Was a Polish clergyman and astronomer. He tried to fix the Church calendar. His new theory claimed that the Sun, not the Earth was the center of the universe. • When his work was published in 1543, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, it had enormous Religious and Scientific implications • “Q” What were the results of Copernicus’ theories? • It put the stars to rest; now their movement was due to the revolution of the earth. As a result, the size of the universe expanded. • The earth was just another planet. It no longer held center stage. • What happened to Heaven and God? Leading Scientists of this Time Period • Johannes Kepler (1571-1630): A German astronomer, assistant to Tycho Brahe, formulated the three laws of planetary motion. • The orbits of the planets are elliptical, not circular • The planets do not move at uniform speed around the sun • The time a planet takes to orbit the sun is related to the distance from the sun • Galileo Galilei (1564-1642): A Florentine mathematician, who is famous for conducting many experiments, which turned the world upside down. • Was responsible for elaborating and consolidating the modern scientific method of discovery (the Scientific Method) • Discovered the universal law for acceleration 32ft. per. Sec. Squared • Formulated the law of inertia (a body in motion will continue in motion until acted upon by an outside force) • Built his own telescope and did the unthinkable, pointed it to the Heavens He was tried for Heresy after publishing Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World in 1632. He was forced to recant and spent the last ten years of his life under house arrest • Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727): An English Mathematician/ Physicist. He is responsible for formulating the Universal Law of Gravitation. This law states that; • “Every body in the • 1. A body in motion will universe attracts every remain in motion until an other body in the outside force acts upon it universe in a (friction); a body at rest mathematical (equilibrium) relationship, the force of • 2. The force needed to attraction is proportional move an object is to the quantity of the proportional to the mass matter and inversely of the object. proportional to the square of the distance • 3. For every action between them.” there is an opposite but equal reaction • This was translated as the three laws of motion: “Q” What were the results of the Scientific Revolution? • 1. The belief that Natural Laws governed the Universe and that these laws could be described in mathematical terms. • 2. The use of the Scientific Method, which encouraged people to be skeptical and to question rather than accept what they saw. • 3. The belief that all knowledge could be obtained through the use of reason. • 4. New instruments like the barometer, thermometer, pendulum clock, telescope, microscope and the air pump. The Glorious Revolution • The Glorious Revolution began in England in the year 1688-89. This revolution had many significant impacts throughout the world. It is referred to as Glorious because it was a bloodless revolution. • “Q” What were the causes of the Glorious Revolution? • King James II was a firm believer in the theory of Divine Right (Absolute Monarchy). This presented a problem for the English, which had a history of Limited Monarchy. • In the year 1215 the English Nobles forced King John to agree to the Magna Carta, a document that limited the power of the English Kings. • This document created a Great Council (Parliament), which had the power to legislate laws and taxes. According to English tradition the King was not above the law. • Soon after he became King in 1685, King James II began ignoring Parliamentary Laws by appointing Catholics to government positions. • He had a son in 1688, his second wife was Catholic, and he baptized his son a Catholic not an Anglican. This act of arrogance cost James the throne of England. • His oldest daughter and her husband, William and Mary, were offered the Monarchy, and they accepted. • In 1689 they were officially coronated as the new King and Queen of England. “Q” What were the results of the Glorious Revolution? • The English Bill of Rights 1689: this placed even more restrictions upon the Monarchs of England. It granted citizens basic civil liberties and eventually the Monarchs were reduced to figureheads. • John Locke: In 1689 he wrote an Essay, which defended the Glorious Revolution. In this essay, Two Treatises of Government, • Locke claimed that the citizens of England had the right to depose the King due to the fact that he violated his contract with the citizens of England. • He went on to explain that the King had the responsibility to protect the Natural Rights of the citizens. • Locke claimed that all people were born with the rights of Life, Liberty and Property. He is known as the Father of the Enlightenment. • If he failed to do so, the citizens had the right to rebel (similar to the Chinese belief in the Mandate of Heaven. • Parliament, which at this time was dominated by the House of Lords, passed several Enclosure Acts, which “fenced” off common lands. These acts were responsible for an Agricultural Revolution, which is why England was the first nation to undergo an Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution • The Industrial Revolution began in England around the late 1700’s. This revolution transformed the way in which goods were made, where they were made and how quickly they were made. This way in which this revolution impacted society and the results are enormous. • “Q” Why did the Industrial revolution begin in England? • The English had an agricultural revolution, which produced a surplus of food. • The Enclosure Movement forced people off the land, pushed them to the new towns, and provided a ready labor force. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Efq-aNBkvc • The Island location allowed them to cheaply ship their goods. It also afforded them the opportunity to isolate themselves from mainland Europe and the problems within Europe. • England had a central bank, which made capital available for the purpose of investment. • Entrepreneurs encouraged the growth of new inventions and industry. • The government encouraged the people to invest in business. (Capitalism) • Natural Resources – coal, iron, climate, rivers, island – size able to unite • A Colonial Empire largest colonial empire – exports 4xs 1660-1760. The colonies were forced to buy products from the Mother Country. (Mercantilism) Changes that lead to Industrialization 1700 - 1800 • A. Better growing conditions (Climate change) • B. Immunities to diseases that previously devastated populations. • C. New foods and new food sources (Colombian Exchange – new rice from S.E. Asia into China) Land development – swamps drained, canals, Enclosure • D. New weapons developed for larger empires, less warfare? Agricultural Revolution • The English countryside was transformed between 1760 and 1830 as the open-field system gave way to enclosed fields. (Enclosure Movement) • The rotation of nitrogen producing crops and cereal crops ended the necessity of leaving a third or half the land fallow each planting. • Another feature of the revolution was the cultivation of turnips and potatoes. • Jethro Tull (1674-1741) and Lord Townshend popularized the importance of root crops. • Tull's most original contributions were the seed drill and horse hoe. • The seed drill allowed a much greater proportion of the seed to germinate by planting it below the surface of the ground out of reach of the birds and wind. • Important Inventions of the Industrial Age • 1. The Steam Engine: (James Watt improved on the Newcomen Engine) Factories no longer had to be built along rivers. • 2. Steam Locomotive: (George Stephenson) Trains provided a faster way to transport goods across land. 3. Steamboat: (Robert Fulton) They provided a faster way to transport goods on water. 4. The Dynamo: (Michael Faraday) The electrical generator provided a new source of power which affected manufacturing as well as everyday life. the spinning jenny The ‘water frame’ The Power Loom • The Industrial Revolution began with the textile industry. • The first machines invented were able to produce threads and materials much faster than in the past. • These machines created a demand for clothing like never before. • The first factories were built in the 1770’s- 1780’s. • “Q” What were the effects of the Industrial Revolution? • The Factory System: People now left the house to go to work. The Cottage Industries (Domestic System) of the 17th century ended. Results of the Factory System • Hours lengthen • Prices go down • Families are apart • Assembly line • Hours become • Child labor inconvenient increases • Workmanship goes down • *** The beauty of the Industrial Revolution was how it spiraled upward. • New inventions increased production, which increased profits, which reduced prices, which allowed for more re- investment, which started the process all over again. Cool!! • Impacts???? Impact on Population Child Labor • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IBE7QO1NU-I&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kKcFDUDlRCE&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7JPmVBxsTa8&feature=r elated • Six year old girl: "I have been down six weeks and make 10 to 14 rakes a day; I carry a full 56 lbs. of coal in a wooden bucket. I work with sister Jesse and mother. It is dark the time we go.“ • Both boys and girls who worked in factories were subject to beatings and other harsh forms of pain infliction. One common punishment for being late or not working up to quota would be to be "weighted." An overseer would tie a heavy weight to worker's neck, and have them walk up and down the factory aisles so the other children could see them and "take example." ‘I start work at 6.00 each day and sit here for 12 hours. It is pitch dark, although now and then a miner gives me a bit of a candle to see by. I have bread, dripping and a flask of water for lunch. Because I work for 12 hours I only see daylight at the weekends in winter.’ The child spent all day in pitch blackness. There was no toilet. The stench was awful. At once Mr Rose told the boy to go back to the mine shaft and wait to be hauled up in the cage to the surface. Jane was horrified at what she had just seen, heard and smelt. On they crawled towards the coal face. • Capitalism Spreads: The theory of Capitalism grows due to the new business class. The belief in Laissez Faire spreads not only within England, but also throughout Europe and America. • Impacts of the spread of Capitalism • a. Standard of living increases • b. Investment capital increases • c. Democracy develops d. Political power shifts from Landed Aristocracy to Bourgeoisie Working Conditions Change: the immediate results were not positive. Unsafe conditions, physical abuse, low wages, child labor and unsanitary conditions were prevalent. It was not until Unions were legalized or Governments finally passed laws that these conditions eventually improved • Urbanization: the rapid growth of cities. • In the beginning the cities were overcrowded, unsanitary, filled with crime, and short of housing. People flocked to the cities looking for employment, much as they are doing today in third world countries. • The problems don’t get better until salaries and skills improve. • Imperialism: One of the major effects is the spread of imperialism. • “Q” What is Imperialism? • It is when one nation takes over the people and resources of another nation. • Imperialism began so countries in Europe could get markets, raw materials and cheap labor. “Q” What were the causes of Imperialism? • a. Economic: materials, markets, workers and investments. • b. Social: educate the underdeveloped world; spread the European culture and Religions. c. Political: looking to increase national power, military bases and international respect. “Q” What were the results of Imperialism? 1. Rivalries developed that led to many wars between the countries in Europe. The worst of these were WWI and WWII. 2. The conquered countries lost their autonomy, and as a result of Imperialism they could no longer control their own destiny. Racism and Ethnocentrism spread throughout the world. (White Mans Burden) • 3. Industrialization and Capitalism were spread throughout the world. • 4. Christianity was spread worldwide as were the European languages. • 5. Improved transportation, medicine and communication spread throughout the world. • 6. Nationalist Movement developed in the countries that were conquered to rid themselves of foreign rule. • 7. Slavery is ended. Age of Enlightenment • Also referred to as the Age of Reason • The intellectual leaders of this movement regarded themselves as elite, and regarded their purpose as one of leading the world toward progress and out of a long period of doubtful tradition, full of irrationality, superstition, and tyranny • This movement also provided a framework for the American and French Revolutions • The Enlightenment is held to be the source of the ideas such as freedom, democracy and reason as being the primary values of a society John Locke • argued a government could only be legitimate if it received the consent of the governed and protected the natural rights of life, liberty, and estate. • If such consent was not given citizens had a right of rebellion. • Two Treatises of Government • purpose is to justify William of Orange's ascension to the throne of England after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 • An Essay Concerning Human Understanding • Locke's main thesis is that the mind of a newborn is a blank slate and that all ideas are developed from experience • The doctrine of empiricism was first explicitly formulated by John Locke in the 17th century • the term empiricism is used to describe a set of philosophical positions that emphasize the role of experience • Such empiricism denies that humans have innate ideas or that anything is knowable without reference to experience Voltaire • a French Enlightenment writer, essayist, deist and philosopher • Voltaire is known for his sharp wit, philosophical writings, and defense of civil liberties, including freedom of religion and the right to a fair trial. • Voltaire perceived the French bourgeoisie to be too small and ineffective • the aristocracy to be parasitic and corrupt • the commoners as ignorant and superstitious • Voltaire distrusted democracy, which he saw as propagating the idiocy of the masses • only an enlightened monarch advised by philosophers like himself, could bring about change (Plato) • Voltaire is quoted as saying that he "would rather obey one lion, than 200 rats of [his own] species." Voltaire essentially believed monarchy to be the key to progress and change. • "If God did not exist, it would be necessary • I disapprove of what you to invent him“ say, but I will defend to • "Think for yourselves the death your right to and let others enjoy say it, is commonly the privilege to do so misattributed to Voltaire too." Jean Jacques Rousseau • his most famous work was The Social Contract • "Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains." • the general will of the people as a whole guarantees individuals against being subordinated to the wills of others, and also ensures that they obey themselves because they are the authors of the law • The government is charged with implementing and enforcing the general will and is composed of a smaller group of citizens • the human race must adopt institutions of law or perish • Rousseau contended that man was good by nature, but is corrupted by society • He viewed society as artificial Diderot • was the editor-in-chief of the famous Encyclopédie. • In 1759 the Encyclopedia was formally suppressed • There was a belief that the work was of an organized band of conspirators against society, and that the ideas they held were now made truly dangerous by their open publication Montesquieu • The Spirit of the Laws • there were three main forms of government • governments run by a king or queen or emperor • governments run by elected leaders (republics) • governments run by dictators • He believed that the best form of government was a monarchy, and he upheld the British constitution as ideal. • He is famous for the theory of separation of powers • He even goes so far as to assert that certain climates are superior to others • people living in hot countries are "too hot-tempered," while those in northern countries are "icy" or "stiff." The French Revolution • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B4BIlE K94fI The French Revolution • The French Revolution began in 1789 and didn’t end until 1799. • The effects of this revolution were long lasting and far-reaching. • The French revolution and its after math formed one of the most influential periods in the history of the world. • Political Causes: • One of the greatest causes of the French Revolution was the fact that France was still ruled by an Absolute Monarch. • After the Glorious Revolution, the Enlightenment and the American Revolution many of the people in France demanded political reform. • They wanted Absolutism ended and Limited Monarchy imposed. • Social Causes: France was divided into the same three classes or Estates that existed during the Middle Ages. • First Estate: The Clergy, who had less than 1% of the population but owned 10% of the land. • Second Estate: The Nobility or the Land Lords, with: almost 2% of the population but owned 25% of the land. • They also received all the better political and religious positions. • In addition, they were exempt from paying taxes. • Third Estate: The remainder of the population. There were three distinct groups within the Third Estate. • a. Peasants (78-80%) • b. City workers (10%) • c. Bourgeoisie (8-9%) The Bourgeois resented having money without the social status that went with it. They wanted the same privileges that the 2nd Estate possessed. Economic Causes: France was on the verge of bankruptcy by 1785. • The many wars of Louis XIV (14), the loans to the Americans during their Revolution and the inability to collect taxes from the first two Estates left France on the verge of collapse. • Louis XVI (16) hired many finance ministers to try and solve the economic problems. • They all recommended the same solution, tax the Clergy and Nobility. • In order to do this the King needed their approval, but they obviously refused. • “Q” What was the Immediate cause of the French Revolution? • 1. When the representatives arrived at the Palace of Versailles they were ordered to meet and vote on the grievances as three separate bodies. This is exactly what the Third Estate did not want. • 2. They demanded a National Assembly so that all the members could vote as one group. The first two estates refused, as did the Louis XVI. 3.The Result was the Tennis Court Oath. In June 1789, they vowed not to disband until a constitution was written Achievements of Stage One 1789-1791 • The Bastille – (July 14, 1789): Looking for weapons and alarmed at the troops called into Versailles, Parisians stormed the King’s prison fortress. • The Bastille symbolized the spirit of the Revolution. • The destruction of the Bastille was seen as the destruction of the king’s power. • July 14th is regarded as France’s Independence Day. • The Great Fear: Peasant uprisings throughout the countryside brought the King and the Nobles to their feet at Versailles. • They were afraid of the rebellions and quickly gave in to the demands of the Third Estate calling for the creation of a National Assembly. • August Decrees: The National Assembly tried to end the peasant rebellions by giving into their demands. The decrees were responsible for: • a. Feudal dues collected by the Nobles were ended • b. Abolition of Tithes • c. End to serfdom. • d. the privileges of the Nobility were revoked, also Feudalism was ended. • The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen: This declaration declared that all “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights.” Man’s natural rights were “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.” • Freedom of thought and religion was guaranteed to all people. • Taxes could not be imposed without the common consent of the people. • The Constitution of 1791: This plan of gov’t attempted to change everything about the Old Regime. France officially became a limited Monarchy. Why doesn’t the Revolution end in 1791? The Civil Constitution of the Clergy: The lands of the Catholic Church were confiscated, and all priests now had to be elected in the same manner as every other official in France • All clergy received their salary from the gov’t. • No Papal decree (Law) could be enforced without permission from the gov’t, • Church abuses were ended. • In addition, all clergy had to swear loyalty to the new Constitution. • The Pope said that any Priest who did was excommunicated • Less than half of the clergy did this, which created two Churches within the country. • This rift created many problems for the new government Stage Two: 1792-1794 Regarded as the Radical Stage • This stage begins with the execution of Louis XVI, and ended with the execution of Robespierre, the leader of this stage. • It is during this period that the revolution became bloody and violent. • In January 1793, Louis XVI was publicly guillotined. • A Committee of Public Safety was created in 1793 and instituted a Reign of Terror to rid France of all counter revolutionaries. • It is estimated that 40,000 to 50,000 people lost their lives from 1793-1794 just in Paris. Stage Three: The Directory 1795-1799 • It was during this stage that Napoleon Bonaparte became famous for the battles he had won in Europe. By 1797 Napoleon had made peace with all nations except England. • The Coup d’Etat of 1799: Napoleon ended the reign of the Directory with his military overthrow of the gov’t. This is the end of the revolution in France and the beginning of strong dictatorship. The Napoleonic Era 1799-1815 • “Q” What reforms did Napoleon bring about in France? • 1. The Concordat 1801: Napoleon and Pope Pius VII finally ended the turmoil that began with the Civil Constitution of the Clergy in 1791 • a. The loyalty oath was removed • b. Napoleon paid Church salaries • c. Napoleon nominated the Bishops d. The land confiscated remained under gov’t control. The people of France were delighted that the religious rift was healed. • 2. Napoleonic Code 1804: He instituted Social, Legal and Economic reforms to try and satisfy all the people in France. • a. People were granted trial by jury and equal treatment under the law • b. People were granted the opportunity for social mobility • c. positions were appointed based upon merit not birth d. All people regardless of social rank paid taxes, e. a Bank of France was established f. Public Schools were created * Napoleon did not allow for political freedom. Speech and press were rigidly controlled. * In 1804 he crowned himself Emperor of France. What started out as a Revolution to bring about Limited Monarchy was eventually ended by a man who imposed a police state. Napoleon Bonaparte • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M6oV9 O7T2PI Napoleons Foreign Policy • Napoleon soon began to conquer lands surrounding France. • As he conquered these lands he instituted his new Civil Code. • The impact was the end of the Old Regime throughout Europe and the beginning of Liberal • he suffered huge Reforms. losses and left • In 1812 he invaded Russia with only Russia with an army 30,000 soldiers. of 600,000 men In 1814 the Quadruple Alliance defeated Napoleon and exiled him to Elba (an island off the coast of Italy). In 1815 he escaped and returned to France. He was eventually defeated and this time exiled to St. Helena (an island off the coast of Africa) “Q” How did Napoleon impact the development of Europe and France? • Although he was a Dictator, he did more to spread the Liberal ideas of Social, Legal and Economic equality than any other leader in the history of Europe. • After he was exiled the second time, the leaders of Europe tried to bring back the Conservative ways of the Old Regime. Wherever they tried Revolution broke out. • Although Napoleon’s reign didn’t last long his ideas did. The Russian Revolution’s Either death to capitalism, or death under the heel of capitalism (1919) The November Revolution • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mMGrIwLj7gU • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QdpEaPxNW0g • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mReH_vgrf-U • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CzHFzeWFgyY • Russia had undergone several revolutions throughout their history. • The basic causes of these revolutions have one common thread, the inability of the gov’t to correct the problems at hand. • At the turn of the 20th century Russia was still an agricultural society, it was still in the dark ages compared to the rest of Western Europe. • The citizens of Russia, although extremely loyal to the Czar, begged for changes. • The inability of the Czar to meet these demands ultimately led to his death in 1917. The Road to Revolution • Economic: • a. The inability to industrialize caused it to remain a Traditional society. • b. The peasants didn’t own their land; Russia was still a Feudal society. Peasants were barely surviving they depended upon the generosity of the Nobility. • c. The Little Industry they had was also a problem; the Capitalists had no say in any affairs. They wanted the same treatment the business classes had in the other countries in Europe. • Social: • a. The class structure was very rigid; the opportunity for mobility didn’t exist. The class structure was very similar to that of France prior to their revolution in 1789. • b. Clergy and Nobility (5% of the population) enjoyed all the privileges and were appointed to the important positions in the country. • c. The Middle Class (business owners) were not granted the same status of the Nobility. • d. The majority of the people were peasants, still stuck to the land. • Political: • The Political causes are divided into 3 areas • a. Nationality: By the 1800’s Russia was comprised of many nationalities due to the Imperialism that was practiced over the course of history. • The problem was further complicated due to the policy of “Russification” that they practiced. This meant that the people “added” to Russia were forced to think, act and believe like Russians. • b. Orthodoxy: the only accepted belief was the religion of the Czar. People were encouraged to be suspicious and fearful of Non-Orthodox religions. • Anti-Semitism was encouraged as way to channel anger for problems that existed in Russia (scapegoat). • c. Autocracy: Elements of Liberalism (Democracy) spread to Russia as a result of the Enlightenment and the revolutions in Europe after Napoleon. • Although the Czar tried to prevent this, many people felt that the only way to improve the conditions was to end Autocracy. • In addition to these problems, Russia also had a history of Military failure. • a. 1812 Napoleons Invasion • b. 1854 Crimean War • c. 1878 Russo-Turkish War • d. 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War e. 1914-1917 WWI The results of these losses were; loss of life, money, pride and confidence in the gov’t “Q” What was the immediate cause of the Russian Revolution? • The single greatest cause of the revolution was WWI. • Russia suffered terrible casualties; soldiers weren’t properly equipped, clothed or fed. • Civilians suffered even more than the soldiers. They had to sacrifice so that the soldiers could try and fight the war. • March 1917 the soldiers finally revolted and they forced Czar Nicholas to Abdicate. The November Revolution • Lenin, Stalin and Trotsky were the leaders of this stage of the Revolution. Lenin promised the people of Russia, Peace, Land, & Bread!!!!!!! • Peace – end the war • Land – peasants were promised that they could seize the land of the Nobility • Bread – end of the shortages, better working conditions for the urban factory workers and a greater percentage of the wealth they produced • Shortly after Lenin seized power he urged the Bolshevik Central Committee to sign a peace treaty with Germany so they could concentrate on the Revolution. • March of 1918, the Treaty of Brest- Litovsk is signed and the war is officially ended. Russia paid a steep price for the peace; they lost much of the empire that was built and 1/3 of their population. • The First Communist country was the USSR, 1917 (Soviet Union) The Lenin Years 1917-1924 • 1. War Communism: • This was a policy was designed to take the concept of Total War to the home front. They seized grain from the peasants, introduced rationing, and nationalized all banks. Although this upset the economy it maintained discipline. 2.Revolutionary Terror: This policy was designed to hunt down the enemies of the Revolution, real or imaginary. The Tsar’s secret police were reorganized as the CHEKA, it soon created a fear that the gov’t used to silence any opposition. 3. Nationalism: Lenin quickly took over all foreign factories and refused to honor Russia’s war debt. This brought the West into civil war on the side of the Whites. 4. The New Economic Policy (NEP): By 1921 the civil war was over but the Bolsheviks destroyed the economy as well as their enemies. Lenin announced a new policy to help rebuild society, this policy drastically altered Marxism. (Communism) Instead of simply seizing the grain, Lenin imposed a grain tax. To raise the money to pay the tax peasants were encouraged to sell their grain on the open market. This stimulated production for the first time in decades. Peasants were also encouraged to buy as much as they could from the small traders and merchants as they could. Small businesses were allowed, (under 20 workers) although the banks, railroads and major factories remained under gov’t control. • By 1926 the • Lenin died in 1924 economy of Russia and did not name had significantly a successor. Form improved. People 1924 to 1927 were actually Stalin and Trotsky living better than fought for power, ever before. and by 1927 Stalin Working won. conditions finally improved. The Stalin Years: 1927-1953 • The NEP was • To ensure the officially ended success of his plan and replaced with he instituted a the Five Year policy of Plans. Stalin was a Collectivization. hard line • All peasants were Communist; he forced to give up was opposed to their private lands the Capitalist and animals and elements of the join the collective. NEP. • All land was now owned by the gov’t. The forced collectivization led to a decrease in livestock and agricultural production. The Red Terror • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QF_fOH jWJMo • Revolution Documents • http://www.google.com/search?q=russian+r evolution+pictures&hl=en&gbv=2&tbm=is ch&ei=8cXLTpeCB8yztwfe8IFh&start=20 &sa=N • The gains made during Lenin’s NEP were soon reversed as a result of the collectivization by Stalin. • Many peasants burned their crops and slaughtered the animals as a sign of protest. • It is estimated that as many as 10 million people died as a result of the man made famine. • The industrial side to the Five Year Plans was more successful. The industrial output doubled the first five years, and doubled again the second five years • The Purges: Between the years 1935 and 1940 Stalin launched a Reign of Terror upon the people and Party Officials of the Soviet Union. Stalin was then responsible for sending 12-15 million people to these camps • He launched a propaganda campaign that led people to believe that the country was under attack from within. • The purges led people to temporarily forget their problems and redirect their attention to the persecution of the enemies of the State. • Newspapers, movies and the radio all were used to engineer the great charade • By the time WWII began 1939, the Soviet Union had been transformed into a power that would have to be dealt with for many years to come Mao Zedong and the Communist Revolution • In 1949 a communist revolution occurred which freed China from the shackles of Imperialism. • Mao Zedong led this revolution and became the leader of Communist China. “Q” Why did the people turn to Mao? • 1. He promised to end Imperialism • 2. He promised to introduce land reforms. • 3. Mao appealed to the poor by promising to set up a “dictatorship of the people (Proletariat)”. • 4. He pledged to modernize, and as a result won the support of the educated middle class. The Mao Years: 1949-1976 • 1949-1956: For the first few years Mao allowed the peasants to seize the lands of the nobles. • They quickly were encouraged to produce as much as possible to feed the new force of workers needed to develop China’s industries. • Farmers were required to turn over a percentage of the crops to the gov’t and the rest could be sold on the open market. • Production rose very quickly for the first time in years. • 1956-1958: Starting in 1956 the peasants were forced to give up their private property and from Collectives. • The peasants were no longer encouraged to think of themselves, the state became their first priority. • 1951-1961: The Great Leap Forward: • In 1958 Mao formed communes to replace the collectives. • The Great Leap was to launch China into a new age, instead it brought tremendous disaster. • The peasants lost all will to work, they lost pride and any incentives they once had. • Mao hoped that the Great Leap would bring China into the 20th century. • Instead of the program making positive change it led to the death of nearly 30 million people • 1961-1966: In 1961 Mao had to abandon the Great Leap and he resigned as the head of State. The people that took over the gov’t introduced policies to try and revive the economy. • a. They began to focus on the production of consumer goods rather than heavy industry • b. Farmers were allowed to keep the profits from the farms, and production once again rose c. Capitalism was encouraged to increase production in the cities as well These programs led to economic recovery of the country, yet in 1966 Mao launched the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution to put an end to these changes • 1966-1969: Mao formed a revolutionary group called the Red Guards, composed of college students, to rid the country of any traitors to the revolution. The traitors were any capitalists that did not fully support the Chairman. • The Cultural Revolution caused chaos in China. School closed and factory production fell due to the turmoil. • Eventually the army had to be called in to end the chaos because Mao couldn’t get the Red Guards to stop. • It is estimated that almost 20 million people died as a result of this Revolution. • *Mao Zedong died in 1976, after his death a power struggle took place. In 1978 Deng Xiaoping assumed power and he instituted the Four Modernizations The Cuban Revolution 1959 • In 1959 Fidel Castro led • “Q” Why did the the first communist Cubans support revolution in the Castro? Western Hemisphere. • 1. He promised to • Like many before him he nationalize all the promised many social industry and land in Cuba. and economic reforms if the people supported • 2. Castro pledged to end Imperialism as well him. as US involvement. • 3. He promised to improve education, health and housing for the poor in his country. “Q” What were the causes of the Cuban Revolution? • The United States had taken control of Cuba as a result of winning the Spanish American War in 1898. • A puppet government was established post WWII • Fulgencio Batista was the leader of Cuba; foreign investors controlled more of Cuba than did Cubans. • The economy of Cuba was in terrible shape, American investors were in control of most of Cuba’s resources. “Q” What were the results of the Cuban Revolution? • Castro introduced a socialist society in which all property was taken over by the state and run for benefit of all the people. • The United States imposed a strict Embargo upon Cuba. This led Castro to turn to the Soviet Union for aid, which they gladly offered. • In 1961 the US financed an attempt to overthrow Castro called the Bay of Pigs invasion. • The invasion proved to be a major embarrassment for President Kennedy because the invasion failed. • The Berlin Wall was built in response to the American backed invasion and the Cold War intensified. • The Cuban Missile Crisis Oct. 1962, spy planes took pictures of missile bases under construction in Cuba. The US ordered the missiles be removed and the bases be dismantled. • Kennedy also ordered a blockade of Cuba, threatening military action if any Soviet or Cuban ship attempted to run the blockade. • In the end the Soviet Union promised to remove the bases and missiles, averting a possible war • The failure of the Soviet Union ultimately led to the economic collapse of Cuba. They have been struggling since 1989 to repair the failed economy. • *The success of the Cuban Revolution in 1959 inspired other revolutions in Latin America • *1970’s El Salvador • * 1979 Nicaragua: • Sandinistas (Daniel Ortega) vs. the Contras (US backed). • In 1990 Violeta Chamorrow won the election as the new leader in Nicaragua. The Cuban Missile Crisis The Iranian Revolution: 1979 • In 1979 a revolution broke out in Iran, which represented a return to traditional Islamic values. The deposed ruler, Shah Reza Palavi, had instituted many sweeping changes in Iran but the Muslim clergy met them with resistance. • “Q” What were the causes of the Iranian Revolution? • 1. Many people felt that the policies of the Shah resembled the west rather than the traditional policies of Islamic culture. These people wanted Iran to return to their old ways, the Shah resisted. • 2. The Shah’s policies failed to improve the quality of life for many people and as a result the lower classes wanted him removed. • 3. Many people felt that the Shah was too friendly with the West, especially the USA, they asked for a change in foreign policy. • 4. The Shah used secret police to silence his critics; this led many to question his Islamic roots. • 5. In 1979 the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini returned from his exile in France and led an Islamic Revolution, which made Iran a Theocracy. (Ayatollah is Persian for “reflection of Allah”; it is the highest title Shiite Muslin can hold.) • “Q” What changes were imposed by the Ayatollah? • This new gov’t replaced civil law with that of the Koran (Qur’an). In addition, he replaced secular courts with religious courts • Women were now made to wear veils (Hijabs) in public, and western music and movies were banned. • The new gov’t wanted to break all ties to the west, especially the USA. The US embassy was captured and the hostages were held for over a year. • The rise of Islamic Fundamentalism did not appear in many other countries in the Middle East due to the different social and political views those countries held. • Shortly after the Ayatollah’s rise to power a war broke out between Iran and Iraq. This war lasted for 8 years (1980-1988); it slowed oil production, led to over 1 million casualties and the decay of economic growth. • *Recent elections in Iran have altered from the Fundamental policies of the Ayatollah. The election results seem to indicate that the people want to westernize their society and return to policies that will lead to modernization.
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