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“Q” What is Revolution?
• Revolution is a complete change.
• This change does not have to be violent,
  although some Revolution’s are.
• Not all change is positive, although some
  Revolutions were.
• There have been many revolutions
  throughout the course of history, which
  have drastically altered the way in which
  society functions.
• Revolutions can be political, economic
  and/or social. All revolutions have
  several things in common.
• 1. the old system was not working.
• 2. people found what they thought were
  “better” or “easier” ways to do things.
• 3.
• All of them began because the existing gov’t.
  could not meet the social or economic needs of
  the people. As a result the people demanded a
• Successful revolutions do not need the support of
  a majority of the people. In fact, most succeeded
  with only a minority of the people calling for the
• Most of the revolutions did not produce the
  outcomes that were promised; in fact only a
  minority have.
        The Neolithic (or "New" Stone Age)

• This is considered the beginning of civilization
  throughout the world. During this revolution man
  created the tools and weapons which allowed him to
  finally settle down in one spot. It is as a result of this
  revolution that the Ancient Civilizations began
 “Q” What were the Achievements of
      the Neolithic Revolution?
• A surplus of food was         • Specialization of labor
  created; man no longer          created a diversity of
  had to hunt and                 laborers
  gather; as a result
  permanent settlements         • “Q” What were the
  were built.                     results of the
• The ability to control fire     Neolithic revolution?
                                • As surpluses increased so
• Domestication of
  animals allowed their use       did trade; a result was
  as laborers, food and           increased contact with other
  protection.                     people
• Tools and weapons             • Population increased
  made work easier; the           because people lived longer
  wheel and the plow were
  two examples.                   healthier lives.
• Material possessions such
                              •   Epidemics such as malaria,
  as farms, tools, food,
                                  TB, and typhoid arose and
  clothes, and pottery were
                                  started to spread and kill
  all highly valued
                                  more people since groups of
• Populations started to          people were sedentary and
  grow. Women started to          larger
  have more children since it
                              •   the lifespan, of both men
  was no longer a burden to
                                  and women, decreased
  carry them.
                              •   The biggest mortality factor
• The general health of the
                                  in women was childbirth. In
  public seemed to decline
                                  men, the greatest cause of
• humans started to have          death was warfare
  cavities from the new
  introduction to
•    A new type of political structure had to be established.
    Society went from a small, informal society to a large,
    impersonal hierarchy
•   Military and religious leaders were given authority over
    the group
•   Distinctions in social class began to arise based on the
    value of material goods. Property was based on private
    wealth, not on the wealth of the group
•   Women stayed home with their children, while men
    went out and plowed the fields or did other tasks
•   Complex institutions developed such as governments
    and religions. These helped to impose rules and
    regulations to control urban society.
             The Rise of Civilization
•   A civilization is compiled of eight features.
•   1. Cities
•   2. Well-Organized Central Government
•   3. Complex Religions
•   4. Job Specialization
•   5. Social Classes
•   6. Arts and Architecture
•   7. Public Works
•   8. Writings
    The Commercial Revolution
• The commercial revolution has a long history. It was
  born during the latter Middle Ages and continued well
  into the Age of Exploration.
• In reality the “revolution” has yet to end. This
  revolution has been responsible for dramatic changes
  that have transformed society from an agricultural to
  an industrial society.
    • “Q” What are the causes of the Commercial
• 1. The growth of towns: there are several
  explanation for the growth of these towns
• They were born as a result of merchants and traders
  gravitating toward the forts, which were favorable due
  to the large number of people there. (The word suburb
  means in the shelter of the walls)
• The great Cathedrals and Monasteries drew large
  numbers of foreigners and as a result also drew
  merchants and traders who tried to cater to their needs.
• The Crusades (Holy Wars started by Pope Urban II in
  1095 Ad when he ordered the capture of the Holy Land
  for the Catholic Church) began a desire for the goods of
  the Middle East. This resulted in many people moving
  to coastal towns looking for economic opportunities as a
  result of trade
• The Bubonic Plague (black death) killed 25%-40% of
  Europe’s population. The disease resulted from the
  horrible living conditions. This left greater opportunities
  than ever before for those that survived. New unions,
  Guilds, were formed to limit the competition, which
  afforded people and opportunity for a better living.
• 4. The Growth of Capitalism: International trade was
  responsible for many changes within the economy.
• Letters of Credit were used to prevent the shipment of
  large quantities of money across dangerous routes.
• The Banking Industry grew as people looked to invest in
  new business opportunities.
• Trade Leagues (associations of towns) were formed to
  compete with the large entrepreneurs.
   “Q” What were the results of the
       Commercial Revolution?
• 1. Bourgeoisie: A new class of business people was
  born. They had a huge impact on the Monarchs of
  Europe. Many new cities now began to develop. As a
  result of these new cities the taxes that were collected
  helped to consolidate political power in the hands of a
  few wealthy families. (The Medici’s of Florence or the
  Fuggers of Germany)
• 2. New Businesses: The birth of joint-stock
  companies, banks and insurance companies helped to
  transform society.
• 3. Universities: Throughout Europe many new
  universities turned out trained leaders, which helped to
  transform society.
• 4. The Age of Exploration: began as a way to end the
  monopoly the Italians had with the Middle East. Spain
  and Portugal set out to find the all water route to India
  so they could break the hold the Italians had on trade.
  Eventually the French, English and the Dutch also got
• 5. Mercantilism: An economic theory that was
  developed during the Age of Exploration. This theory
  was based on:
• Acquiring colonies (colonialism) to obtain cheap
  resources, market places, and laborers.
• Developing a favorable balance of trade (exporting
  more than you import) to build up the supply of gold in
  your country.
• Believing that the Monarch controlled all business
  activities for the good of the “state.”
• 6. The Atlantic Slave
  Trade: As the Native
  Americans died, the
  Europeans needed to
  replace the workers to
  keep the plantations
  going. They began the
  importation of slaves
  from Africa to the
          The Scientific Revolution
• Some say that the changes that took place in science
   during this period resulted in Western society becoming
• As a result of the scientific revolution, humans searched
   for answers to questions that previously had remained
   not only unanswered but also unasked.
 • “Q” What was science like before the Revolution?
• Prior to 1500 the universe was still based upon the
   ideas of Aristotle. People believed that the motionless
   earth was the center of the universe. Around the planet
   circled 10 crystal spheres, which contained the sun,
   moon, the 5 planets and the stars.
• Above that was heaven, with the souls of those saved
  and the angels. The angels were responsible for the
  movement of the universe in perfect circles. This
  theory was called the Geocentric theory. People
  accepted this theory for 2 reasons:
• It explained in common sense terms what the eye saw
• It placed God and Heaven where it belonged according
  to the Bible, up above
• As a result of the Church during the Middle Ages,
  science had to offer explanations that fit into the
  interpretation of God’s plan.
     “Q” How did the Scientific
         Revolution begin?
• Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543): Was a
   Polish clergyman and astronomer. He tried to
   fix the Church calendar. His new theory
   claimed that the Sun, not the Earth was the
   center of the universe.
• When his work was published in 1543, On the
   Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, it had
   enormous Religious and Scientific implications
 • “Q” What were the results of Copernicus’
• It put the stars to rest; now their movement
   was due to the revolution of the earth. As a
   result, the size of the universe expanded.
• The earth was just another planet. It no longer held
  center stage.
• What happened to Heaven and God?
  Leading Scientists of this Time
• Johannes Kepler (1571-1630): A German astronomer,
  assistant to Tycho Brahe, formulated the three laws of
  planetary motion.
• The orbits of the planets are elliptical, not circular
• The planets do not move at uniform speed around the
• The time a planet takes to orbit the sun is related to the
  distance from the sun
• Galileo Galilei (1564-1642): A Florentine
  mathematician, who is famous for conducting many
  experiments, which turned the world upside down.
• Was responsible for elaborating and consolidating the
  modern scientific method of discovery (the Scientific
• Discovered the universal law for acceleration 32ft. per.
  Sec. Squared
• Formulated the law of inertia (a body in motion will
  continue in motion until acted upon by an outside force)
• Built his own telescope and did the unthinkable, pointed
  it to the Heavens
  He was tried for Heresy after publishing Dialogue on
  the Two Chief Systems of the World in 1632. He was
  forced to recant and spent the last ten years of his life
  under house arrest
• Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727): An English
  Mathematician/ Physicist. He is responsible for
  formulating the Universal Law of Gravitation. This law
  states that;
• “Every body in the           • 1. A body in motion will
  universe attracts every        remain in motion until an
  other body in the              outside force acts upon it
  universe in a                  (friction); a body at rest
  mathematical                   (equilibrium)
  relationship, the force of
                               • 2. The force needed to
  attraction is proportional
                                 move an object is
  to the quantity of the
                                 proportional to the mass
  matter and inversely
                                 of the object.
  proportional to the
  square of the distance       • 3. For every action
  between them.”                 there is an opposite but
                                 equal reaction
• This was translated as
  the three laws of
   “Q” What were the results of the
        Scientific Revolution?
• 1. The belief that Natural Laws governed the Universe
  and that these laws could be described in
  mathematical terms.
• 2. The use of the Scientific Method, which encouraged
  people to be skeptical and to question rather than
  accept what they saw.
• 3. The belief that all knowledge could be obtained
  through the use of reason.
• 4. New instruments like the barometer, thermometer,
  pendulum clock, telescope, microscope and the air
          The Glorious Revolution
• The Glorious Revolution began in England in the year
  1688-89. This revolution had many significant impacts
  throughout the world. It is referred to as Glorious
  because it was a bloodless revolution.
    • “Q” What were the causes of the Glorious
• King James II was a firm believer in the theory of
  Divine Right (Absolute Monarchy). This presented a
  problem for the English, which had a history of Limited
• In the year 1215 the English Nobles forced King John to
  agree to the Magna Carta, a document that limited the
  power of the English Kings.
• This document created a Great Council (Parliament),
  which had the power to legislate laws and taxes.
  According to English tradition the King was not above
  the law.
• Soon after he became King in 1685, King James II
  began ignoring Parliamentary Laws by appointing
  Catholics to government positions.
• He had a son in 1688, his second wife was Catholic, and
  he baptized his son a Catholic not an Anglican. This act
  of arrogance cost James the throne of England.
• His oldest daughter and her husband, William and
  Mary, were offered the Monarchy, and they accepted.
• In 1689 they were officially coronated as the new King
  and Queen of England.
   “Q” What were the results of the
        Glorious Revolution?
• The English Bill of Rights 1689: this placed
  even more restrictions upon the Monarchs of
  England. It granted citizens basic civil
  liberties and eventually the Monarchs were
  reduced to figureheads.
• John Locke: In 1689 he wrote an Essay,
  which defended the Glorious Revolution. In
  this essay, Two Treatises of Government,
• Locke claimed that the citizens of England had
  the right to depose the King due to the fact
  that he violated his contract with the citizens
  of England.
• He went on to explain that the King had the
  responsibility to protect the Natural Rights of the
• Locke claimed that all people were born with the rights
  of Life, Liberty and Property. He is known as the Father
  of the Enlightenment.
• If he failed to do so, the citizens had the right to rebel
  (similar to the Chinese belief in the Mandate of
• Parliament, which at this time was dominated by the
  House of Lords, passed several Enclosure Acts, which
  “fenced” off common lands. These acts were
  responsible for an Agricultural Revolution, which is why
  England was the first nation to undergo an Industrial
        The Industrial Revolution
• The Industrial Revolution began in England around the
  late 1700’s. This revolution transformed the way in
  which goods were made, where they were made and
  how quickly they were made. This way in which this
  revolution impacted society and the results are
  • “Q” Why did the Industrial revolution begin in
• The English had an agricultural revolution, which
  produced a surplus of food.
• The Enclosure Movement forced people off the land,
  pushed them to the new towns, and provided a ready
  labor force.
• The Island location allowed them to
  cheaply ship their goods. It also
  afforded them the opportunity to
  isolate themselves from mainland
  Europe and the problems within
• England had a central bank, which
  made capital available for the
  purpose of investment.
• Entrepreneurs encouraged the
  growth of new inventions and
• The government encouraged the
  people to invest in business.
• Natural Resources – coal, iron, climate,
  rivers, island – size able to unite
• A Colonial Empire largest colonial
  empire – exports 4xs 1660-1760. The
  colonies were forced to buy products from
  the Mother Country. (Mercantilism)
  Changes that lead to Industrialization
                  1700 - 1800
• A. Better growing conditions (Climate change)
• B. Immunities to diseases that previously
  devastated populations.
• C. New foods and new food sources (Colombian
  Exchange – new rice from S.E. Asia into China)
  Land development – swamps drained, canals,
• D. New weapons developed for larger empires,
  less warfare?
     Agricultural Revolution
• The English countryside was transformed between
  1760 and 1830 as the open-field system gave way
  to enclosed fields. (Enclosure Movement)
• The rotation of nitrogen producing crops and
  cereal crops ended the necessity of leaving a third
  or half the land fallow each planting.
• Another feature of the revolution was the
  cultivation of turnips and potatoes.
• Jethro Tull (1674-1741) and Lord
  Townshend popularized the importance of
  root crops.
• Tull's most original contributions were the
  seed drill and horse hoe.
• The seed drill allowed a much greater
  proportion of the seed to germinate by
  planting it below the surface of the ground
  out of reach of the birds and wind.
  • Important Inventions of the Industrial Age
• 1. The Steam Engine: (James Watt
  improved on the Newcomen Engine)
  Factories no longer had to be built
  along rivers.
• 2. Steam Locomotive: (George
  Stephenson) Trains provided a faster
  way to transport goods across land.
     3. Steamboat: (Robert Fulton) They
  provided a faster way to transport
  goods on water.
   4. The Dynamo: (Michael Faraday) The
  electrical generator provided a new
  source of power which affected
  manufacturing as well as everyday life.
the spinning jenny
The ‘water frame’
The Power Loom
• The Industrial Revolution began with the
  textile industry.
• The first machines invented were able to
  produce threads and materials much faster
  than in the past.
• These machines created a demand for clothing
  like never before.
• The first factories were built in the 1770’s-
      • “Q” What were the effects of the
              Industrial Revolution?
• The Factory System: People now left the
  house to go to work. The Cottage Industries
  (Domestic System) of the 17th century ended.
  Results of the Factory System
• Hours lengthen       • Prices go down
• Families are apart   • Assembly line
• Hours become         • Child labor
  inconvenient           increases
• Workmanship
  goes down
• *** The beauty of the Industrial Revolution
  was how it spiraled upward.
• New inventions increased production,
  which increased profits, which reduced
  prices, which allowed for more re-
  investment, which started the process all
  over again. Cool!!
• Impacts????
Impact on Population
                    Child Labor
• Six year old girl:
  "I have been down six weeks and make 10 to 14
  rakes a day; I carry a full 56 lbs. of coal in a
  wooden bucket. I work with sister Jesse and
  mother. It is dark the time we go.“
• Both boys and girls who worked in factories were subject to
  beatings and other harsh forms of pain infliction. One
  common punishment for being late or not working up to
  quota would be to be "weighted." An overseer would tie a
  heavy weight to worker's neck, and have them walk up and
  down the factory aisles so the other children could see
  them and "take example."
‘I start work at 6.00 each day and sit here
for 12 hours. It is pitch dark, although now
and then a miner gives me a bit of a candle
to see by. I have bread, dripping and a flask
of water for lunch. Because I work for 12
hours I only see daylight at the weekends in
The child spent all day in pitch blackness.
There was no toilet. The stench was awful.
At once Mr Rose told the boy to go back to
the mine shaft and wait to be hauled up in
the cage to the surface. Jane was horrified at
what she had just seen, heard and smelt. On
they crawled towards the coal face.
• Capitalism Spreads: The theory of Capitalism grows
  due to the new business class. The belief in Laissez
  Faire spreads not only within England, but also
  throughout Europe and America.
     • Impacts of the spread of Capitalism
• a. Standard of living increases
• b. Investment capital increases
• c. Democracy develops
   d. Political power shifts from Landed Aristocracy to
Working Conditions Change: the immediate results
   were not positive.
Unsafe conditions, physical abuse, low wages, child labor
   and unsanitary conditions were prevalent.
It was not until Unions were legalized or Governments
   finally passed laws that these conditions eventually
• Urbanization: the rapid growth of cities.
• In the beginning the cities were overcrowded,
  unsanitary, filled with crime, and short of
  housing. People flocked to the cities looking
  for employment, much as they are doing
  today in third world countries.
• The problems don’t get better until salaries
  and skills improve.
• Imperialism: One of the major effects is the
  spread of imperialism.
          • “Q” What is Imperialism?
• It is when one nation takes over the people
  and resources of another nation.
• Imperialism began so countries in Europe
  could get markets, raw materials and cheap
    “Q” What were the causes of
• a. Economic: materials, markets, workers and
• b. Social: educate the underdeveloped world; spread
   the European culture and Religions.
   c. Political: looking to increase national power, military
   bases and international respect.
      “Q” What were the results of Imperialism?
1. Rivalries developed that led to many wars between the
   countries in Europe. The worst of these were WWI and
2. The conquered countries lost their autonomy, and as a
   result of Imperialism they could no longer control their
   own destiny. Racism and Ethnocentrism spread
   throughout the world. (White Mans Burden)
• 3. Industrialization and Capitalism were spread
  throughout the world.
• 4. Christianity was spread worldwide as were the
  European languages.
• 5. Improved transportation, medicine and
  communication spread throughout the world.
• 6. Nationalist Movement developed in the countries that
  were conquered to rid themselves of foreign rule.
• 7. Slavery is ended.
            Age of Enlightenment
• Also referred to as the Age of Reason
• The intellectual leaders of this movement regarded
  themselves as elite, and regarded their purpose as one
  of leading the world toward progress and out of a long
  period of doubtful tradition, full of irrationality,
  superstition, and tyranny
• This movement also provided a framework for the
  American and French Revolutions
• The Enlightenment is held to be the source of the ideas
  such as freedom, democracy and reason as being
  the primary values of a society
                   John Locke
• argued a government could only be legitimate if it
  received the consent of the governed and protected
  the natural rights of life, liberty, and estate.
• If such consent was not given citizens had a right of
• Two Treatises of Government
• purpose is to justify William of Orange's ascension to
  the throne of England after the Glorious Revolution of
• An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
• Locke's main thesis is that the mind of a newborn is a
  blank slate and that all ideas are developed from
• The doctrine of empiricism was first explicitly
  formulated by John Locke in the 17th century
• the term empiricism is
  used to describe a set of
  philosophical positions
  that emphasize the role
  of experience
• Such empiricism denies
  that humans have
  innate ideas or that
  anything is knowable
  without reference to
• a French Enlightenment writer, essayist, deist and
• Voltaire is known for his sharp wit, philosophical
  writings, and defense of civil liberties, including
  freedom of religion and the right to a fair trial.
• Voltaire perceived the French bourgeoisie to be too
  small and ineffective
• the aristocracy to be parasitic and corrupt
• the commoners as ignorant and superstitious
• Voltaire distrusted democracy, which he saw as
  propagating the idiocy of the masses
• only an enlightened monarch advised by philosophers
  like himself, could bring about change (Plato)
• Voltaire is quoted as
  saying that he "would
  rather obey one lion,
  than 200 rats of [his
  own] species." Voltaire
  essentially believed
  monarchy to be the key
  to progress and change.
• "If God did not exist,
  it would be necessary     • I disapprove of what you
  to invent him“              say, but I will defend to
• "Think for yourselves       the death your right to
  and let others enjoy        say it, is commonly
  the privilege to do so      misattributed to Voltaire
           Jean Jacques Rousseau
• his most famous work was The Social Contract
• "Man is born free, and everywhere he is in
• the general will of the people as a whole guarantees
  individuals against being subordinated to the wills of
  others, and also ensures that they obey themselves
  because they are the authors of the law
• The government is charged with implementing and
  enforcing the general will and is composed of a smaller
  group of citizens
• the human race must adopt institutions of law or perish
• Rousseau contended that man was good by nature, but
  is corrupted by society
• He viewed society as artificial
• was the editor-in-chief of the famous Encyclopédie.
• In 1759 the Encyclopedia was formally suppressed
• There was a belief that the work was of an organized
  band of conspirators against society, and that the ideas
  they held were now made truly dangerous by their open
• The Spirit of the Laws
• there were three main forms of government
• governments run by a king or queen or emperor
• governments run by elected leaders (republics)
• governments run by dictators
• He believed that the best form of government was a
  monarchy, and he upheld the British constitution as
• He is famous for the theory of separation of powers
• He even goes so far as to assert that certain climates
  are superior to others
• people living in hot countries are "too hot-tempered,"
  while those in northern countries are "icy" or "stiff."
      The French Revolution
         The French Revolution
• The French Revolution began in 1789
  and didn’t end until 1799.
• The effects of this revolution were long
  lasting and far-reaching.
• The French revolution and its after
  math formed one of the most
  influential periods in the history of the
• Political Causes:
• One of the greatest causes of the French
  Revolution was the fact that France was
  still ruled by an Absolute Monarch.
• After the Glorious Revolution, the
  Enlightenment and the American
  Revolution many of the people in France
  demanded political reform.
• They wanted Absolutism ended and
  Limited Monarchy imposed.
• Social Causes: France was divided into the
  same three classes or Estates that existed
  during the Middle Ages.
• First Estate: The Clergy, who had less than
  1% of the population but owned 10% of the
• Second Estate: The Nobility or the Land
  Lords, with: almost 2% of the population
  but owned 25% of the land.
• They also received all the better political
  and religious positions.
• In addition, they were exempt from
  paying taxes.
• Third Estate: The remainder of the
  population. There were three distinct
  groups within the Third Estate.
• a. Peasants (78-80%)
• b. City workers (10%)
• c. Bourgeoisie (8-9%)
The Bourgeois resented having money
  without the social status that went with
They wanted the same privileges that the
  2nd Estate possessed.
 Economic Causes: France was on the verge
  of bankruptcy by 1785.
• The many wars of Louis XIV (14), the
  loans to the Americans during their
  Revolution and the inability to collect
  taxes from the first two Estates left
  France on the verge of collapse.
• Louis XVI (16) hired many finance
  ministers to try and solve the economic
• They all recommended the same solution,
  tax the Clergy and Nobility.
• In order to do this the King needed their
  approval, but they obviously refused.
  • “Q” What was the Immediate cause of
            the French Revolution?
• 1. When the representatives arrived at
  the Palace of Versailles they were
  ordered to meet and vote on the
  grievances as three separate bodies. This
  is exactly what the Third Estate did not
• 2. They demanded a National Assembly
  so that all the members could vote as one
  group. The first two estates refused, as
  did the Louis XVI.
   3.The Result was the Tennis Court Oath.
  In June 1789, they vowed not to disband
  until a constitution was written
  Achievements of Stage One 1789-1791

• The Bastille – (July 14, 1789): Looking
  for weapons and alarmed at the troops
  called into Versailles, Parisians stormed
  the King’s prison fortress.
• The Bastille symbolized the spirit of the
• The destruction of the Bastille was seen
  as the destruction of the king’s power.
• July 14th is regarded as France’s
  Independence Day.
• The Great Fear: Peasant uprisings
  throughout the countryside brought the
  King and the Nobles to their feet at
• They were afraid of the rebellions and
  quickly gave in to the demands of the
  Third Estate calling for the creation of a
  National Assembly.
• August Decrees: The National Assembly
  tried to end the peasant rebellions by
  giving into their demands. The decrees
  were responsible for:
• a. Feudal dues collected by the Nobles
  were ended
• b. Abolition of Tithes
• c. End to serfdom.
• d. the privileges of the Nobility were
  revoked, also Feudalism was ended.
•  The Declaration of the Rights of Man and
  Citizen: This declaration declared that all
  “Men are born and remain free and equal
  in rights.” Man’s natural rights were
  “liberty, property, security, and
  resistance to oppression.”
• Freedom of thought and religion was
  guaranteed to all people.
• Taxes could not be imposed without the
  common consent of the people.
• The Constitution of 1791: This plan of
  gov’t attempted to change everything
  about the Old Regime. France officially
  became a limited Monarchy.
  Why doesn’t the Revolution end in 1791?
The Civil Constitution of the Clergy:
The lands of the Catholic Church were
  confiscated, and all priests now had to be
  elected in the same manner as every
  other official in France
• All clergy received their salary from the
• No Papal decree (Law) could be enforced
  without permission from the gov’t,

• Church abuses were ended.
• In addition, all clergy had to swear
  loyalty to the new Constitution.
• The Pope said that any Priest who
  did was excommunicated
• Less than half of the clergy did this,
  which created two Churches within the
• This rift created many problems for the
  new government
 Stage Two: 1792-1794 Regarded as
         the Radical Stage
• This stage begins with
  the execution of Louis
  XVI, and ended with the
  execution of Robespierre,
  the leader of this stage.
• It is during this period
  that the revolution
  became bloody and
• In January 1793, Louis
  XVI was publicly
• A Committee of Public Safety was
  created in 1793 and instituted a Reign
  of Terror to rid France of all counter
• It is estimated that 40,000 to 50,000
  people lost their lives from 1793-1794
  just in Paris.
   Stage Three: The Directory 1795-1799
• It was during this
  stage that Napoleon
  Bonaparte became
  famous for the battles
  he had won in Europe.
  By 1797 Napoleon had
  made peace with all
  nations except
  • The Coup d’Etat of 1799: Napoleon ended
    the reign of the Directory with his military
    overthrow of the gov’t. This is the end of
    the revolution in France and the beginning
    of strong dictatorship.
      The Napoleonic Era 1799-1815
   • “Q” What reforms did Napoleon bring
                  about in France?
• 1. The Concordat 1801: Napoleon and
  Pope Pius VII finally ended the turmoil that
  began with the Civil Constitution of the Clergy
  in 1791
• a. The loyalty oath was removed
• b. Napoleon paid Church salaries
• c. Napoleon nominated the Bishops
   d. The land confiscated remained under
  gov’t control.
The people of France were delighted that the
  religious rift was healed.
• 2. Napoleonic Code 1804: He
  instituted Social, Legal and Economic
  reforms to try and satisfy all the people
  in France.
• a. People were granted trial by jury
  and equal treatment under the law
• b. People were granted the
  opportunity for social mobility
• c. positions were appointed based
  upon merit not birth
d. All people regardless of social rank paid
e. a Bank of France was established
f. Public Schools were created
* Napoleon did not allow for political
   freedom. Speech and press were rigidly
* In 1804 he crowned himself Emperor of
   France. What started out as a Revolution to
   bring about Limited Monarchy was eventually
   ended by a man who imposed a police state.
       Napoleon Bonaparte
               Napoleons Foreign Policy
•   Napoleon soon began
    to conquer lands
    surrounding France.
•   As he conquered
    these lands he
    instituted his new
    Civil Code.
•   The impact was the
    end of the Old
    Regime throughout
    Europe and the
    beginning of Liberal  • he suffered huge
    Reforms.                losses and left
•   In 1812 he invaded      Russia with only
    Russia with an army     30,000 soldiers.
    of 600,000 men
In 1814 the Quadruple Alliance defeated
Napoleon and exiled him to Elba (an island off
the coast of Italy).
In 1815 he escaped and returned to France. He
was eventually defeated and this time exiled to
St. Helena (an island off the coast of Africa)
       “Q” How did Napoleon impact the
      development of Europe and France?
• Although he was a Dictator, he did more to spread the
  Liberal ideas of Social, Legal and Economic equality
  than any other leader in the history of Europe.
• After he was exiled the second time, the leaders of
  Europe tried to bring back the Conservative ways of the
  Old Regime. Wherever they tried Revolution broke out.
• Although Napoleon’s reign didn’t last long his ideas did.
The Russian Revolution’s
Either death to capitalism, or death under the
heel of capitalism (1919)
       The November Revolution
• Russia had undergone several revolutions
  throughout their history.
• The basic causes of these revolutions
  have one common thread, the inability of
  the gov’t to correct the problems at hand.
• At the turn of the 20th century Russia was
  still an agricultural society, it was still in
  the dark ages compared to the rest of
  Western Europe.
• The citizens of Russia, although
  extremely loyal to the Czar, begged for
• The inability of the Czar to meet these
  demands ultimately led to his death in
              The Road to Revolution
•   Economic:
•   a. The inability to industrialize caused it
    to remain a Traditional society.
•   b. The peasants didn’t own their land;
    Russia was still a Feudal society.
    Peasants were barely surviving they
    depended upon the generosity of the
•   c. The Little Industry they had was also a
    problem; the Capitalists had no say in
    any affairs. They wanted the same
    treatment the business classes had in the
    other countries in Europe.
• Social:
• a. The class structure was very
  rigid; the opportunity for mobility
  didn’t exist. The class structure
  was very similar to that of France
  prior to their revolution in 1789.
• b. Clergy and Nobility (5% of the
  population) enjoyed all the
  privileges and were appointed to
  the important positions in the
• c. The Middle Class (business
  owners) were not granted the same
  status of the Nobility.
• d. The majority of the people were
  peasants, still stuck to the land.
• Political:
• The Political causes are divided into 3
• a. Nationality: By the 1800’s Russia
  was comprised of many nationalities
  due to the Imperialism that was
  practiced over the course of history.
• The problem was further complicated
  due to the policy of “Russification” that
  they practiced. This meant that the
  people “added” to Russia were forced to
  think, act and believe like Russians.
• b. Orthodoxy: the only accepted belief was
  the religion of the Czar. People were
  encouraged to be suspicious and fearful of
  Non-Orthodox religions.
• Anti-Semitism was encouraged as way to
  channel anger for problems that existed in
  Russia (scapegoat).
• c. Autocracy: Elements of Liberalism
  (Democracy) spread to Russia as a result of
  the Enlightenment and the revolutions in
  Europe after Napoleon.
• Although the Czar tried to prevent this, many
  people felt that the only way to improve the
  conditions was to end Autocracy.
• In addition to these problems, Russia also had a history
  of Military failure.
• a. 1812 Napoleons Invasion
• b. 1854 Crimean War
• c. 1878 Russo-Turkish War
• d. 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War
  e. 1914-1917 WWI
The results of these losses were; loss of life, money, pride
  and confidence in the gov’t
 “Q” What was the immediate cause of the
          Russian Revolution?

• The single greatest cause of the
  revolution was WWI.
• Russia suffered terrible casualties;
  soldiers weren’t properly equipped,
  clothed or fed.
• Civilians suffered even more than
  the soldiers. They had to sacrifice
  so that the soldiers could try and
  fight the war.
• March 1917 the soldiers finally
  revolted and they forced Czar
  Nicholas to Abdicate.
       The November Revolution
• Lenin, Stalin and Trotsky were the
  leaders of this stage of the Revolution.
  Lenin promised the people of Russia,
  Peace, Land, & Bread!!!!!!!
• Peace – end the war
• Land – peasants were promised that they
  could seize the land of the Nobility
• Bread – end of the shortages, better
  working conditions for the urban factory
  workers and a greater percentage of the
  wealth they produced
• Shortly after Lenin seized power he urged
  the Bolshevik Central Committee to sign a
  peace treaty with Germany so they could
  concentrate on the Revolution.
• March of 1918, the Treaty of Brest-
  Litovsk is signed and the war is officially
  ended. Russia paid a steep price for the
  peace; they lost much of the empire that
  was built and 1/3 of their population.
• The First Communist country was the
  USSR, 1917 (Soviet Union)
          The Lenin Years 1917-1924
• 1. War Communism:
• This was a policy was designed to take the
  concept of Total War to the home front. They
  seized grain from the peasants, introduced
  rationing, and nationalized all banks. Although
  this upset the economy it maintained discipline.
  2.Revolutionary Terror:
This policy was designed to hunt down the enemies
  of the Revolution, real or imaginary. The Tsar’s
  secret police were reorganized as the CHEKA, it
  soon created a fear that the gov’t used to silence
  any opposition.
  3. Nationalism:
Lenin quickly took over all foreign factories
  and refused to honor Russia’s war debt.
  This brought the West into civil war on
  the side of the Whites.
   4. The New Economic Policy (NEP):
By 1921 the civil war was over but the
  Bolsheviks destroyed the economy as
  well as their enemies. Lenin announced a
  new policy to help rebuild society, this
  policy drastically altered Marxism.
Instead of simply seizing the grain, Lenin
  imposed a grain tax.
To raise the money to pay the tax peasants
  were encouraged to sell their grain on the
  open market. This stimulated production
  for the first time in decades.
Peasants were also encouraged to buy as
  much as they could from the small
  traders and merchants as they could.
Small businesses were allowed, (under 20
  workers) although the banks, railroads
  and major factories remained under gov’t
• By 1926 the        • Lenin died in 1924
  economy of Russia    and did not name
  had significantly    a successor. Form
  improved. People     1924 to 1927
  were actually        Stalin and Trotsky
  living better than   fought for power,
  ever before.         and by 1927 Stalin
  Working              won.
  conditions finally
        The Stalin Years: 1927-1953
• The NEP was          • To ensure the
  officially ended       success of his plan
  and replaced with      he instituted a
  the Five Year          policy of
  Plans. Stalin was a    Collectivization.
  hard line            • All peasants were
  Communist; he          forced to give up
  was opposed to         their private lands
  the Capitalist         and animals and
  elements of the        join the collective.
  NEP.                 • All land was now
                         owned by the
                         gov’t. The forced
                         collectivization led
                         to a decrease in
                         livestock and
        The Red Terror
• Revolution Documents
• The gains made during Lenin’s NEP
  were soon reversed as a result of
  the collectivization by Stalin.
• Many peasants burned their crops
  and slaughtered the animals as a
  sign of protest.
• It is estimated that as many as 10
  million people died as a result of
  the man made famine.
• The industrial side to the Five Year
  Plans was more successful. The
  industrial output doubled the first
  five years, and doubled again the
  second five years
• The Purges: Between the years
  1935 and 1940 Stalin launched a
  Reign of Terror upon the people
  and Party Officials of the Soviet
Stalin was then
responsible for
sending 12-15
million people to
these camps
• He launched a propaganda campaign that
  led people to believe that the country was
  under attack from within.
• The purges led people to temporarily
  forget their problems and redirect their
  attention to the persecution of the
  enemies of the State.
• Newspapers, movies and the radio all
  were used to engineer the great charade
• By the time WWII began 1939, the Soviet
  Union had been transformed into a power
  that would have to be dealt with for many
  years to come
  Mao Zedong and the Communist
• In 1949 a communist revolution
  occurred which freed China from the
  shackles of Imperialism.
• Mao Zedong led this revolution and
  became the leader of Communist
  “Q” Why did the people
       turn to Mao?
• 1. He promised to end Imperialism
• 2. He promised to introduce land
• 3. Mao appealed to the poor by
  promising to set up a “dictatorship
  of the people (Proletariat)”.
• 4. He pledged to modernize, and as
  a result won the support of the
  educated middle class.
     The Mao Years: 1949-1976
• 1949-1956: For the first few years Mao
  allowed the peasants to seize the lands of
  the nobles.
• They quickly were encouraged to produce
  as much as possible to feed the new force
  of workers needed to develop China’s
• Farmers were required to turn over a
  percentage of the crops to the gov’t and
  the rest could be sold on the open
• Production rose very quickly for the first
  time in years.
• 1956-1958: Starting in 1956 the
  peasants were forced to give up
  their private property and from
• The peasants were no longer
  encouraged to think of themselves,
  the state became their first
• 1951-1961: The Great Leap
• In 1958 Mao formed communes to
  replace the collectives.
• The Great Leap was to launch
  China into a new age, instead it
  brought tremendous disaster.
• The peasants lost all will to work,
  they lost pride and any incentives
  they once had.
• Mao hoped that the Great Leap
  would bring China into the 20th
• Instead of the program making
  positive change it led to the death
  of nearly 30 million people
• 1961-1966: In 1961 Mao had to
  abandon the Great Leap and he
  resigned as the head of State. The
  people that took over the gov’t
  introduced policies to try and revive the
• a. They began to focus on the
  production of consumer goods rather
  than heavy industry
• b. Farmers were allowed to keep the
  profits from the farms, and
  production once again rose
c. Capitalism was encouraged to
  increase production in the cities as
These programs led to economic
  recovery of the country, yet in
  1966 Mao launched the Great
  Proletarian Cultural Revolution
  to put an end to these changes
• 1966-1969: Mao formed a
  revolutionary group called the Red
  Guards, composed of college
  students, to rid the country of any
  traitors to the revolution. The
  traitors were any capitalists that
  did not fully support the Chairman.
• The Cultural Revolution caused
  chaos in China. School closed and
  factory production fell due to the
• Eventually the army had to be
  called in to end the chaos because
  Mao couldn’t get the Red Guards
  to stop.
• It is estimated that almost 20
  million people died as a result of
  this Revolution.
• *Mao Zedong died in 1976, after
  his death a power struggle took
  place. In 1978 Deng Xiaoping
  assumed power and he instituted
  the Four Modernizations
          The Cuban Revolution 1959
• In 1959 Fidel Castro led   • “Q” Why did the
  the first communist          Cubans support
  revolution in the            Castro?
  Western Hemisphere.        • 1. He promised to
• Like many before him he      nationalize all the
  promised many social         industry and land in
  and economic reforms if
  the people supported       • 2. Castro pledged to
                               end Imperialism as well
                               as US involvement.
                             • 3. He promised to
                               improve education,
                               health and housing for
                               the poor in his country.
   “Q” What were the causes of the
              Cuban Revolution?
• The United States had taken control of Cuba as a result
  of winning the Spanish American War in 1898.
• A puppet government was established post WWII
• Fulgencio Batista was the leader of Cuba; foreign
  investors controlled more of Cuba than did Cubans.
• The economy of Cuba was in terrible shape, American
  investors were in control of most of Cuba’s resources.
    “Q” What were the results of the
          Cuban Revolution?
• Castro introduced a socialist society in which all
  property was taken over by the state and run for benefit
  of all the people.
• The United States imposed a strict Embargo upon Cuba.
  This led Castro to turn to the Soviet Union for aid, which
  they gladly offered.
• In 1961 the US financed an attempt to overthrow
  Castro called the Bay of Pigs invasion.
• The invasion proved to be a major embarrassment for
  President Kennedy because the invasion failed.
• The Berlin Wall was built in response to the American
  backed invasion and the Cold War intensified.
• The Cuban Missile Crisis Oct. 1962, spy planes took
  pictures of missile bases under construction in Cuba.
  The US ordered the missiles be removed and the bases
  be dismantled.
• Kennedy also ordered a blockade of Cuba, threatening
  military action if any Soviet or Cuban ship attempted to
  run the blockade.
• In the end the Soviet Union promised to remove the
  bases and missiles, averting a possible war
• The failure of the Soviet Union ultimately led to the
  economic collapse of Cuba. They have been struggling
  since 1989 to repair the failed economy.
• *The success of the Cuban Revolution in 1959
  inspired other revolutions in Latin America
• *1970’s El Salvador
• * 1979 Nicaragua:
• Sandinistas (Daniel Ortega) vs. the Contras
  (US backed).
• In 1990 Violeta Chamorrow won the election
  as the new leader in Nicaragua.
The Cuban Missile Crisis
   The Iranian Revolution: 1979
• In 1979 a revolution broke out in Iran, which represented a
  return to traditional Islamic values. The deposed ruler, Shah
  Reza Palavi, had instituted many sweeping changes in Iran
  but the Muslim clergy met them with resistance.
 • “Q” What were the causes of the Iranian Revolution?
• 1. Many people felt that the policies of the Shah resembled
  the west rather than the traditional policies of Islamic culture.
  These people wanted Iran to return to their old ways, the
  Shah resisted.
• 2. The Shah’s policies failed to improve the quality of life for
  many people and as a result the lower classes wanted him
• 3. Many people felt that the Shah was too friendly with the
  West, especially the USA, they asked for a change in foreign
• 4. The Shah used secret police to silence his critics; this
  led many to question his Islamic roots.
• 5. In 1979 the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
  returned from his exile in France and led an Islamic
  Revolution, which made Iran a Theocracy. (Ayatollah is
  Persian for “reflection of Allah”; it is the highest title
  Shiite Muslin can hold.)
      • “Q” What changes were imposed by the
• This new gov’t replaced civil law with that of the Koran
  (Qur’an). In addition, he replaced secular courts with
  religious courts
• Women were now made to wear veils (Hijabs) in public,
  and western music and movies were banned.
• The new gov’t wanted to break all ties to the west,
  especially the USA. The US embassy was captured and
  the hostages were held for over a year.
• The rise of Islamic Fundamentalism did not appear in
  many other countries in the Middle East due to the
  different social and political views those countries held.
• Shortly after the Ayatollah’s rise to power a war broke
  out between Iran and Iraq. This war lasted for 8 years
  (1980-1988); it slowed oil production, led to over 1
  million casualties and the decay of economic growth.
• *Recent elections in Iran have altered from the
  Fundamental policies of the Ayatollah. The election
  results seem to indicate that the people want to
  westernize their society and return to policies that will
  lead to modernization.

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