“Q” What is Revolution?
• Revolution is a complete change.
• This change does not have to be violent,
although some Revolution’s are.
• Not all change is positive, although some
• There have been many revolutions
throughout the course of history, which
have drastically altered the way in which
• Revolutions can be political, economic
and/or social. All revolutions have
several things in common.
• 1. the old system was not working.
• 2. people found what they thought were
“better” or “easier” ways to do things.
• All of them began because the existing gov’t.
could not meet the social or economic needs of
the people. As a result the people demanded a
• Successful revolutions do not need the support of
a majority of the people. In fact, most succeeded
with only a minority of the people calling for the
• Most of the revolutions did not produce the
outcomes that were promised; in fact only a
The Neolithic (or "New" Stone Age)
• This is considered the beginning of civilization
throughout the world. During this revolution man
created the tools and weapons which allowed him to
finally settle down in one spot. It is as a result of this
revolution that the Ancient Civilizations began
“Q” What were the Achievements of
the Neolithic Revolution?
• A surplus of food was • Specialization of labor
created; man no longer created a diversity of
had to hunt and laborers
gather; as a result
permanent settlements • “Q” What were the
were built. results of the
• The ability to control fire Neolithic revolution?
• As surpluses increased so
• Domestication of
animals allowed their use did trade; a result was
as laborers, food and increased contact with other
• Tools and weapons • Population increased
made work easier; the because people lived longer
wheel and the plow were
two examples. healthier lives.
• Material possessions such
• Epidemics such as malaria,
as farms, tools, food,
TB, and typhoid arose and
clothes, and pottery were
started to spread and kill
all highly valued
more people since groups of
• Populations started to people were sedentary and
grow. Women started to larger
have more children since it
• the lifespan, of both men
was no longer a burden to
and women, decreased
• The biggest mortality factor
• The general health of the
in women was childbirth. In
public seemed to decline
men, the greatest cause of
• humans started to have death was warfare
cavities from the new
• A new type of political structure had to be established.
Society went from a small, informal society to a large,
• Military and religious leaders were given authority over
• Distinctions in social class began to arise based on the
value of material goods. Property was based on private
wealth, not on the wealth of the group
• Women stayed home with their children, while men
went out and plowed the fields or did other tasks
• Complex institutions developed such as governments
and religions. These helped to impose rules and
regulations to control urban society.
The Rise of Civilization
• A civilization is compiled of eight features.
• 1. Cities
• 2. Well-Organized Central Government
• 3. Complex Religions
• 4. Job Specialization
• 5. Social Classes
• 6. Arts and Architecture
• 7. Public Works
• 8. Writings
The Commercial Revolution
• The commercial revolution has a long history. It was
born during the latter Middle Ages and continued well
into the Age of Exploration.
• In reality the “revolution” has yet to end. This
revolution has been responsible for dramatic changes
that have transformed society from an agricultural to
an industrial society.
• “Q” What are the causes of the Commercial
• 1. The growth of towns: there are several
explanation for the growth of these towns
• They were born as a result of merchants and traders
gravitating toward the forts, which were favorable due
to the large number of people there. (The word suburb
means in the shelter of the walls)
• The great Cathedrals and Monasteries drew large
numbers of foreigners and as a result also drew
merchants and traders who tried to cater to their needs.
• The Crusades (Holy Wars started by Pope Urban II in
1095 Ad when he ordered the capture of the Holy Land
for the Catholic Church) began a desire for the goods of
the Middle East. This resulted in many people moving
to coastal towns looking for economic opportunities as a
result of trade
• The Bubonic Plague (black death) killed 25%-40% of
Europe’s population. The disease resulted from the
horrible living conditions. This left greater opportunities
than ever before for those that survived. New unions,
Guilds, were formed to limit the competition, which
afforded people and opportunity for a better living.
• 4. The Growth of Capitalism: International trade was
responsible for many changes within the economy.
• Letters of Credit were used to prevent the shipment of
large quantities of money across dangerous routes.
• The Banking Industry grew as people looked to invest in
new business opportunities.
• Trade Leagues (associations of towns) were formed to
compete with the large entrepreneurs.
“Q” What were the results of the
• 1. Bourgeoisie: A new class of business people was
born. They had a huge impact on the Monarchs of
Europe. Many new cities now began to develop. As a
result of these new cities the taxes that were collected
helped to consolidate political power in the hands of a
few wealthy families. (The Medici’s of Florence or the
Fuggers of Germany)
• 2. New Businesses: The birth of joint-stock
companies, banks and insurance companies helped to
• 3. Universities: Throughout Europe many new
universities turned out trained leaders, which helped to
• 4. The Age of Exploration: began as a way to end the
monopoly the Italians had with the Middle East. Spain
and Portugal set out to find the all water route to India
so they could break the hold the Italians had on trade.
Eventually the French, English and the Dutch also got
• 5. Mercantilism: An economic theory that was
developed during the Age of Exploration. This theory
was based on:
• Acquiring colonies (colonialism) to obtain cheap
resources, market places, and laborers.
• Developing a favorable balance of trade (exporting
more than you import) to build up the supply of gold in
• Believing that the Monarch controlled all business
activities for the good of the “state.”
• 6. The Atlantic Slave
Trade: As the Native
Americans died, the
Europeans needed to
replace the workers to
keep the plantations
going. They began the
importation of slaves
from Africa to the
The Scientific Revolution
• Some say that the changes that took place in science
during this period resulted in Western society becoming
• As a result of the scientific revolution, humans searched
for answers to questions that previously had remained
not only unanswered but also unasked.
• “Q” What was science like before the Revolution?
• Prior to 1500 the universe was still based upon the
ideas of Aristotle. People believed that the motionless
earth was the center of the universe. Around the planet
circled 10 crystal spheres, which contained the sun,
moon, the 5 planets and the stars.
• Above that was heaven, with the souls of those saved
and the angels. The angels were responsible for the
movement of the universe in perfect circles. This
theory was called the Geocentric theory. People
accepted this theory for 2 reasons:
• It explained in common sense terms what the eye saw
• It placed God and Heaven where it belonged according
to the Bible, up above
• As a result of the Church during the Middle Ages,
science had to offer explanations that fit into the
interpretation of God’s plan.
“Q” How did the Scientific
• Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543): Was a
Polish clergyman and astronomer. He tried to
fix the Church calendar. His new theory
claimed that the Sun, not the Earth was the
center of the universe.
• When his work was published in 1543, On the
Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, it had
enormous Religious and Scientific implications
• “Q” What were the results of Copernicus’
• It put the stars to rest; now their movement
was due to the revolution of the earth. As a
result, the size of the universe expanded.
• The earth was just another planet. It no longer held
• What happened to Heaven and God?
Leading Scientists of this Time
• Johannes Kepler (1571-1630): A German astronomer,
assistant to Tycho Brahe, formulated the three laws of
• The orbits of the planets are elliptical, not circular
• The planets do not move at uniform speed around the
• The time a planet takes to orbit the sun is related to the
distance from the sun
• Galileo Galilei (1564-1642): A Florentine
mathematician, who is famous for conducting many
experiments, which turned the world upside down.
• Was responsible for elaborating and consolidating the
modern scientific method of discovery (the Scientific
• Discovered the universal law for acceleration 32ft. per.
• Formulated the law of inertia (a body in motion will
continue in motion until acted upon by an outside force)
• Built his own telescope and did the unthinkable, pointed
it to the Heavens
He was tried for Heresy after publishing Dialogue on
the Two Chief Systems of the World in 1632. He was
forced to recant and spent the last ten years of his life
under house arrest
• Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727): An English
Mathematician/ Physicist. He is responsible for
formulating the Universal Law of Gravitation. This law
• “Every body in the • 1. A body in motion will
universe attracts every remain in motion until an
other body in the outside force acts upon it
universe in a (friction); a body at rest
relationship, the force of
• 2. The force needed to
attraction is proportional
move an object is
to the quantity of the
proportional to the mass
matter and inversely
of the object.
proportional to the
square of the distance • 3. For every action
between them.” there is an opposite but
• This was translated as
the three laws of
“Q” What were the results of the
• 1. The belief that Natural Laws governed the Universe
and that these laws could be described in
• 2. The use of the Scientific Method, which encouraged
people to be skeptical and to question rather than
accept what they saw.
• 3. The belief that all knowledge could be obtained
through the use of reason.
• 4. New instruments like the barometer, thermometer,
pendulum clock, telescope, microscope and the air
The Glorious Revolution
• The Glorious Revolution began in England in the year
1688-89. This revolution had many significant impacts
throughout the world. It is referred to as Glorious
because it was a bloodless revolution.
• “Q” What were the causes of the Glorious
• King James II was a firm believer in the theory of
Divine Right (Absolute Monarchy). This presented a
problem for the English, which had a history of Limited
• In the year 1215 the English Nobles forced King John to
agree to the Magna Carta, a document that limited the
power of the English Kings.
• This document created a Great Council (Parliament),
which had the power to legislate laws and taxes.
According to English tradition the King was not above
• Soon after he became King in 1685, King James II
began ignoring Parliamentary Laws by appointing
Catholics to government positions.
• He had a son in 1688, his second wife was Catholic, and
he baptized his son a Catholic not an Anglican. This act
of arrogance cost James the throne of England.
• His oldest daughter and her husband, William and
Mary, were offered the Monarchy, and they accepted.
• In 1689 they were officially coronated as the new King
and Queen of England.
“Q” What were the results of the
• The English Bill of Rights 1689: this placed
even more restrictions upon the Monarchs of
England. It granted citizens basic civil
liberties and eventually the Monarchs were
reduced to figureheads.
• John Locke: In 1689 he wrote an Essay,
which defended the Glorious Revolution. In
this essay, Two Treatises of Government,
• Locke claimed that the citizens of England had
the right to depose the King due to the fact
that he violated his contract with the citizens
• He went on to explain that the King had the
responsibility to protect the Natural Rights of the
• Locke claimed that all people were born with the rights
of Life, Liberty and Property. He is known as the Father
of the Enlightenment.
• If he failed to do so, the citizens had the right to rebel
(similar to the Chinese belief in the Mandate of
• Parliament, which at this time was dominated by the
House of Lords, passed several Enclosure Acts, which
“fenced” off common lands. These acts were
responsible for an Agricultural Revolution, which is why
England was the first nation to undergo an Industrial
The Industrial Revolution
• The Industrial Revolution began in England around the
late 1700’s. This revolution transformed the way in
which goods were made, where they were made and
how quickly they were made. This way in which this
revolution impacted society and the results are
• “Q” Why did the Industrial revolution begin in
• The English had an agricultural revolution, which
produced a surplus of food.
• The Enclosure Movement forced people off the land,
pushed them to the new towns, and provided a ready
• The Island location allowed them to
cheaply ship their goods. It also
afforded them the opportunity to
isolate themselves from mainland
Europe and the problems within
• England had a central bank, which
made capital available for the
purpose of investment.
• Entrepreneurs encouraged the
growth of new inventions and
• The government encouraged the
people to invest in business.
• Natural Resources – coal, iron, climate,
rivers, island – size able to unite
• A Colonial Empire largest colonial
empire – exports 4xs 1660-1760. The
colonies were forced to buy products from
the Mother Country. (Mercantilism)
Changes that lead to Industrialization
1700 - 1800
• A. Better growing conditions (Climate change)
• B. Immunities to diseases that previously
• C. New foods and new food sources (Colombian
Exchange – new rice from S.E. Asia into China)
Land development – swamps drained, canals,
• D. New weapons developed for larger empires,
• The English countryside was transformed between
1760 and 1830 as the open-field system gave way
to enclosed fields. (Enclosure Movement)
• The rotation of nitrogen producing crops and
cereal crops ended the necessity of leaving a third
or half the land fallow each planting.
• Another feature of the revolution was the
cultivation of turnips and potatoes.
• Jethro Tull (1674-1741) and Lord
Townshend popularized the importance of
• Tull's most original contributions were the
seed drill and horse hoe.
• The seed drill allowed a much greater
proportion of the seed to germinate by
planting it below the surface of the ground
out of reach of the birds and wind.
• Important Inventions of the Industrial Age
• 1. The Steam Engine: (James Watt
improved on the Newcomen Engine)
Factories no longer had to be built
• 2. Steam Locomotive: (George
Stephenson) Trains provided a faster
way to transport goods across land.
3. Steamboat: (Robert Fulton) They
provided a faster way to transport
goods on water.
4. The Dynamo: (Michael Faraday) The
electrical generator provided a new
source of power which affected
manufacturing as well as everyday life.
the spinning jenny
The ‘water frame’
The Power Loom
• The Industrial Revolution began with the
• The first machines invented were able to
produce threads and materials much faster
than in the past.
• These machines created a demand for clothing
like never before.
• The first factories were built in the 1770’s-
• “Q” What were the effects of the
• The Factory System: People now left the
house to go to work. The Cottage Industries
(Domestic System) of the 17th century ended.
Results of the Factory System
• Hours lengthen • Prices go down
• Families are apart • Assembly line
• Hours become • Child labor
• *** The beauty of the Industrial Revolution
was how it spiraled upward.
• New inventions increased production,
which increased profits, which reduced
prices, which allowed for more re-
investment, which started the process all
over again. Cool!!
Impact on Population
• Six year old girl:
"I have been down six weeks and make 10 to 14
rakes a day; I carry a full 56 lbs. of coal in a
wooden bucket. I work with sister Jesse and
mother. It is dark the time we go.“
• Both boys and girls who worked in factories were subject to
beatings and other harsh forms of pain infliction. One
common punishment for being late or not working up to
quota would be to be "weighted." An overseer would tie a
heavy weight to worker's neck, and have them walk up and
down the factory aisles so the other children could see
them and "take example."
‘I start work at 6.00 each day and sit here
for 12 hours. It is pitch dark, although now
and then a miner gives me a bit of a candle
to see by. I have bread, dripping and a flask
of water for lunch. Because I work for 12
hours I only see daylight at the weekends in
The child spent all day in pitch blackness.
There was no toilet. The stench was awful.
At once Mr Rose told the boy to go back to
the mine shaft and wait to be hauled up in
the cage to the surface. Jane was horrified at
what she had just seen, heard and smelt. On
they crawled towards the coal face.
• Capitalism Spreads: The theory of Capitalism grows
due to the new business class. The belief in Laissez
Faire spreads not only within England, but also
throughout Europe and America.
• Impacts of the spread of Capitalism
• a. Standard of living increases
• b. Investment capital increases
• c. Democracy develops
d. Political power shifts from Landed Aristocracy to
Working Conditions Change: the immediate results
were not positive.
Unsafe conditions, physical abuse, low wages, child labor
and unsanitary conditions were prevalent.
It was not until Unions were legalized or Governments
finally passed laws that these conditions eventually
• Urbanization: the rapid growth of cities.
• In the beginning the cities were overcrowded,
unsanitary, filled with crime, and short of
housing. People flocked to the cities looking
for employment, much as they are doing
today in third world countries.
• The problems don’t get better until salaries
and skills improve.
• Imperialism: One of the major effects is the
spread of imperialism.
• “Q” What is Imperialism?
• It is when one nation takes over the people
and resources of another nation.
• Imperialism began so countries in Europe
could get markets, raw materials and cheap
“Q” What were the causes of
• a. Economic: materials, markets, workers and
• b. Social: educate the underdeveloped world; spread
the European culture and Religions.
c. Political: looking to increase national power, military
bases and international respect.
“Q” What were the results of Imperialism?
1. Rivalries developed that led to many wars between the
countries in Europe. The worst of these were WWI and
2. The conquered countries lost their autonomy, and as a
result of Imperialism they could no longer control their
own destiny. Racism and Ethnocentrism spread
throughout the world. (White Mans Burden)
• 3. Industrialization and Capitalism were spread
throughout the world.
• 4. Christianity was spread worldwide as were the
• 5. Improved transportation, medicine and
communication spread throughout the world.
• 6. Nationalist Movement developed in the countries that
were conquered to rid themselves of foreign rule.
• 7. Slavery is ended.
Age of Enlightenment
• Also referred to as the Age of Reason
• The intellectual leaders of this movement regarded
themselves as elite, and regarded their purpose as one
of leading the world toward progress and out of a long
period of doubtful tradition, full of irrationality,
superstition, and tyranny
• This movement also provided a framework for the
American and French Revolutions
• The Enlightenment is held to be the source of the ideas
such as freedom, democracy and reason as being
the primary values of a society
• argued a government could only be legitimate if it
received the consent of the governed and protected
the natural rights of life, liberty, and estate.
• If such consent was not given citizens had a right of
• Two Treatises of Government
• purpose is to justify William of Orange's ascension to
the throne of England after the Glorious Revolution of
• An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
• Locke's main thesis is that the mind of a newborn is a
blank slate and that all ideas are developed from
• The doctrine of empiricism was first explicitly
formulated by John Locke in the 17th century
• the term empiricism is
used to describe a set of
that emphasize the role
• Such empiricism denies
that humans have
innate ideas or that
anything is knowable
without reference to
• a French Enlightenment writer, essayist, deist and
• Voltaire is known for his sharp wit, philosophical
writings, and defense of civil liberties, including
freedom of religion and the right to a fair trial.
• Voltaire perceived the French bourgeoisie to be too
small and ineffective
• the aristocracy to be parasitic and corrupt
• the commoners as ignorant and superstitious
• Voltaire distrusted democracy, which he saw as
propagating the idiocy of the masses
• only an enlightened monarch advised by philosophers
like himself, could bring about change (Plato)
• Voltaire is quoted as
saying that he "would
rather obey one lion,
than 200 rats of [his
own] species." Voltaire
monarchy to be the key
to progress and change.
• "If God did not exist,
it would be necessary • I disapprove of what you
to invent him“ say, but I will defend to
• "Think for yourselves the death your right to
and let others enjoy say it, is commonly
the privilege to do so misattributed to Voltaire
Jean Jacques Rousseau
• his most famous work was The Social Contract
• "Man is born free, and everywhere he is in
• the general will of the people as a whole guarantees
individuals against being subordinated to the wills of
others, and also ensures that they obey themselves
because they are the authors of the law
• The government is charged with implementing and
enforcing the general will and is composed of a smaller
group of citizens
• the human race must adopt institutions of law or perish
• Rousseau contended that man was good by nature, but
is corrupted by society
• He viewed society as artificial
• was the editor-in-chief of the famous Encyclopédie.
• In 1759 the Encyclopedia was formally suppressed
• There was a belief that the work was of an organized
band of conspirators against society, and that the ideas
they held were now made truly dangerous by their open
• The Spirit of the Laws
• there were three main forms of government
• governments run by a king or queen or emperor
• governments run by elected leaders (republics)
• governments run by dictators
• He believed that the best form of government was a
monarchy, and he upheld the British constitution as
• He is famous for the theory of separation of powers
• He even goes so far as to assert that certain climates
are superior to others
• people living in hot countries are "too hot-tempered,"
while those in northern countries are "icy" or "stiff."
The French Revolution
The French Revolution
• The French Revolution began in 1789
and didn’t end until 1799.
• The effects of this revolution were long
lasting and far-reaching.
• The French revolution and its after
math formed one of the most
influential periods in the history of the
• Political Causes:
• One of the greatest causes of the French
Revolution was the fact that France was
still ruled by an Absolute Monarch.
• After the Glorious Revolution, the
Enlightenment and the American
Revolution many of the people in France
demanded political reform.
• They wanted Absolutism ended and
Limited Monarchy imposed.
• Social Causes: France was divided into the
same three classes or Estates that existed
during the Middle Ages.
• First Estate: The Clergy, who had less than
1% of the population but owned 10% of the
• Second Estate: The Nobility or the Land
Lords, with: almost 2% of the population
but owned 25% of the land.
• They also received all the better political
and religious positions.
• In addition, they were exempt from
• Third Estate: The remainder of the
population. There were three distinct
groups within the Third Estate.
• a. Peasants (78-80%)
• b. City workers (10%)
• c. Bourgeoisie (8-9%)
The Bourgeois resented having money
without the social status that went with
They wanted the same privileges that the
2nd Estate possessed.
Economic Causes: France was on the verge
of bankruptcy by 1785.
• The many wars of Louis XIV (14), the
loans to the Americans during their
Revolution and the inability to collect
taxes from the first two Estates left
France on the verge of collapse.
• Louis XVI (16) hired many finance
ministers to try and solve the economic
• They all recommended the same solution,
tax the Clergy and Nobility.
• In order to do this the King needed their
approval, but they obviously refused.
• “Q” What was the Immediate cause of
the French Revolution?
• 1. When the representatives arrived at
the Palace of Versailles they were
ordered to meet and vote on the
grievances as three separate bodies. This
is exactly what the Third Estate did not
• 2. They demanded a National Assembly
so that all the members could vote as one
group. The first two estates refused, as
did the Louis XVI.
3.The Result was the Tennis Court Oath.
In June 1789, they vowed not to disband
until a constitution was written
Achievements of Stage One 1789-1791
• The Bastille – (July 14, 1789): Looking
for weapons and alarmed at the troops
called into Versailles, Parisians stormed
the King’s prison fortress.
• The Bastille symbolized the spirit of the
• The destruction of the Bastille was seen
as the destruction of the king’s power.
• July 14th is regarded as France’s
• The Great Fear: Peasant uprisings
throughout the countryside brought the
King and the Nobles to their feet at
• They were afraid of the rebellions and
quickly gave in to the demands of the
Third Estate calling for the creation of a
• August Decrees: The National Assembly
tried to end the peasant rebellions by
giving into their demands. The decrees
were responsible for:
• a. Feudal dues collected by the Nobles
• b. Abolition of Tithes
• c. End to serfdom.
• d. the privileges of the Nobility were
revoked, also Feudalism was ended.
• The Declaration of the Rights of Man and
Citizen: This declaration declared that all
“Men are born and remain free and equal
in rights.” Man’s natural rights were
“liberty, property, security, and
resistance to oppression.”
• Freedom of thought and religion was
guaranteed to all people.
• Taxes could not be imposed without the
common consent of the people.
• The Constitution of 1791: This plan of
gov’t attempted to change everything
about the Old Regime. France officially
became a limited Monarchy.
Why doesn’t the Revolution end in 1791?
The Civil Constitution of the Clergy:
The lands of the Catholic Church were
confiscated, and all priests now had to be
elected in the same manner as every
other official in France
• All clergy received their salary from the
• No Papal decree (Law) could be enforced
without permission from the gov’t,
• Church abuses were ended.
• In addition, all clergy had to swear
loyalty to the new Constitution.
• The Pope said that any Priest who
did was excommunicated
• Less than half of the clergy did this,
which created two Churches within the
• This rift created many problems for the
Stage Two: 1792-1794 Regarded as
the Radical Stage
• This stage begins with
the execution of Louis
XVI, and ended with the
execution of Robespierre,
the leader of this stage.
• It is during this period
that the revolution
became bloody and
• In January 1793, Louis
XVI was publicly
• A Committee of Public Safety was
created in 1793 and instituted a Reign
of Terror to rid France of all counter
• It is estimated that 40,000 to 50,000
people lost their lives from 1793-1794
just in Paris.
Stage Three: The Directory 1795-1799
• It was during this
stage that Napoleon
famous for the battles
he had won in Europe.
By 1797 Napoleon had
made peace with all
• The Coup d’Etat of 1799: Napoleon ended
the reign of the Directory with his military
overthrow of the gov’t. This is the end of
the revolution in France and the beginning
of strong dictatorship.
The Napoleonic Era 1799-1815
• “Q” What reforms did Napoleon bring
about in France?
• 1. The Concordat 1801: Napoleon and
Pope Pius VII finally ended the turmoil that
began with the Civil Constitution of the Clergy
• a. The loyalty oath was removed
• b. Napoleon paid Church salaries
• c. Napoleon nominated the Bishops
d. The land confiscated remained under
The people of France were delighted that the
religious rift was healed.
• 2. Napoleonic Code 1804: He
instituted Social, Legal and Economic
reforms to try and satisfy all the people
• a. People were granted trial by jury
and equal treatment under the law
• b. People were granted the
opportunity for social mobility
• c. positions were appointed based
upon merit not birth
d. All people regardless of social rank paid
e. a Bank of France was established
f. Public Schools were created
* Napoleon did not allow for political
freedom. Speech and press were rigidly
* In 1804 he crowned himself Emperor of
France. What started out as a Revolution to
bring about Limited Monarchy was eventually
ended by a man who imposed a police state.
Napoleons Foreign Policy
• Napoleon soon began
to conquer lands
• As he conquered
these lands he
instituted his new
• The impact was the
end of the Old
Europe and the
beginning of Liberal • he suffered huge
Reforms. losses and left
• In 1812 he invaded Russia with only
Russia with an army 30,000 soldiers.
of 600,000 men
In 1814 the Quadruple Alliance defeated
Napoleon and exiled him to Elba (an island off
the coast of Italy).
In 1815 he escaped and returned to France. He
was eventually defeated and this time exiled to
St. Helena (an island off the coast of Africa)
“Q” How did Napoleon impact the
development of Europe and France?
• Although he was a Dictator, he did more to spread the
Liberal ideas of Social, Legal and Economic equality
than any other leader in the history of Europe.
• After he was exiled the second time, the leaders of
Europe tried to bring back the Conservative ways of the
Old Regime. Wherever they tried Revolution broke out.
• Although Napoleon’s reign didn’t last long his ideas did.
The Russian Revolution’s
Either death to capitalism, or death under the
heel of capitalism (1919)
The November Revolution
• Russia had undergone several revolutions
throughout their history.
• The basic causes of these revolutions
have one common thread, the inability of
the gov’t to correct the problems at hand.
• At the turn of the 20th century Russia was
still an agricultural society, it was still in
the dark ages compared to the rest of
• The citizens of Russia, although
extremely loyal to the Czar, begged for
• The inability of the Czar to meet these
demands ultimately led to his death in
The Road to Revolution
• a. The inability to industrialize caused it
to remain a Traditional society.
• b. The peasants didn’t own their land;
Russia was still a Feudal society.
Peasants were barely surviving they
depended upon the generosity of the
• c. The Little Industry they had was also a
problem; the Capitalists had no say in
any affairs. They wanted the same
treatment the business classes had in the
other countries in Europe.
• a. The class structure was very
rigid; the opportunity for mobility
didn’t exist. The class structure
was very similar to that of France
prior to their revolution in 1789.
• b. Clergy and Nobility (5% of the
population) enjoyed all the
privileges and were appointed to
the important positions in the
• c. The Middle Class (business
owners) were not granted the same
status of the Nobility.
• d. The majority of the people were
peasants, still stuck to the land.
• The Political causes are divided into 3
• a. Nationality: By the 1800’s Russia
was comprised of many nationalities
due to the Imperialism that was
practiced over the course of history.
• The problem was further complicated
due to the policy of “Russification” that
they practiced. This meant that the
people “added” to Russia were forced to
think, act and believe like Russians.
• b. Orthodoxy: the only accepted belief was
the religion of the Czar. People were
encouraged to be suspicious and fearful of
• Anti-Semitism was encouraged as way to
channel anger for problems that existed in
• c. Autocracy: Elements of Liberalism
(Democracy) spread to Russia as a result of
the Enlightenment and the revolutions in
Europe after Napoleon.
• Although the Czar tried to prevent this, many
people felt that the only way to improve the
conditions was to end Autocracy.
• In addition to these problems, Russia also had a history
of Military failure.
• a. 1812 Napoleons Invasion
• b. 1854 Crimean War
• c. 1878 Russo-Turkish War
• d. 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War
e. 1914-1917 WWI
The results of these losses were; loss of life, money, pride
and confidence in the gov’t
“Q” What was the immediate cause of the
• The single greatest cause of the
revolution was WWI.
• Russia suffered terrible casualties;
soldiers weren’t properly equipped,
clothed or fed.
• Civilians suffered even more than
the soldiers. They had to sacrifice
so that the soldiers could try and
fight the war.
• March 1917 the soldiers finally
revolted and they forced Czar
Nicholas to Abdicate.
The November Revolution
• Lenin, Stalin and Trotsky were the
leaders of this stage of the Revolution.
Lenin promised the people of Russia,
Peace, Land, & Bread!!!!!!!
• Peace – end the war
• Land – peasants were promised that they
could seize the land of the Nobility
• Bread – end of the shortages, better
working conditions for the urban factory
workers and a greater percentage of the
wealth they produced
• Shortly after Lenin seized power he urged
the Bolshevik Central Committee to sign a
peace treaty with Germany so they could
concentrate on the Revolution.
• March of 1918, the Treaty of Brest-
Litovsk is signed and the war is officially
ended. Russia paid a steep price for the
peace; they lost much of the empire that
was built and 1/3 of their population.
• The First Communist country was the
USSR, 1917 (Soviet Union)
The Lenin Years 1917-1924
• 1. War Communism:
• This was a policy was designed to take the
concept of Total War to the home front. They
seized grain from the peasants, introduced
rationing, and nationalized all banks. Although
this upset the economy it maintained discipline.
This policy was designed to hunt down the enemies
of the Revolution, real or imaginary. The Tsar’s
secret police were reorganized as the CHEKA, it
soon created a fear that the gov’t used to silence
Lenin quickly took over all foreign factories
and refused to honor Russia’s war debt.
This brought the West into civil war on
the side of the Whites.
4. The New Economic Policy (NEP):
By 1921 the civil war was over but the
Bolsheviks destroyed the economy as
well as their enemies. Lenin announced a
new policy to help rebuild society, this
policy drastically altered Marxism.
Instead of simply seizing the grain, Lenin
imposed a grain tax.
To raise the money to pay the tax peasants
were encouraged to sell their grain on the
open market. This stimulated production
for the first time in decades.
Peasants were also encouraged to buy as
much as they could from the small
traders and merchants as they could.
Small businesses were allowed, (under 20
workers) although the banks, railroads
and major factories remained under gov’t
• By 1926 the • Lenin died in 1924
economy of Russia and did not name
had significantly a successor. Form
improved. People 1924 to 1927
were actually Stalin and Trotsky
living better than fought for power,
ever before. and by 1927 Stalin
The Stalin Years: 1927-1953
• The NEP was • To ensure the
officially ended success of his plan
and replaced with he instituted a
the Five Year policy of
Plans. Stalin was a Collectivization.
hard line • All peasants were
Communist; he forced to give up
was opposed to their private lands
the Capitalist and animals and
elements of the join the collective.
NEP. • All land was now
owned by the
gov’t. The forced
to a decrease in
The Red Terror
• Revolution Documents
• The gains made during Lenin’s NEP
were soon reversed as a result of
the collectivization by Stalin.
• Many peasants burned their crops
and slaughtered the animals as a
sign of protest.
• It is estimated that as many as 10
million people died as a result of
the man made famine.
• The industrial side to the Five Year
Plans was more successful. The
industrial output doubled the first
five years, and doubled again the
second five years
• The Purges: Between the years
1935 and 1940 Stalin launched a
Reign of Terror upon the people
and Party Officials of the Soviet
Stalin was then
million people to
• He launched a propaganda campaign that
led people to believe that the country was
under attack from within.
• The purges led people to temporarily
forget their problems and redirect their
attention to the persecution of the
enemies of the State.
• Newspapers, movies and the radio all
were used to engineer the great charade
• By the time WWII began 1939, the Soviet
Union had been transformed into a power
that would have to be dealt with for many
years to come
Mao Zedong and the Communist
• In 1949 a communist revolution
occurred which freed China from the
shackles of Imperialism.
• Mao Zedong led this revolution and
became the leader of Communist
“Q” Why did the people
turn to Mao?
• 1. He promised to end Imperialism
• 2. He promised to introduce land
• 3. Mao appealed to the poor by
promising to set up a “dictatorship
of the people (Proletariat)”.
• 4. He pledged to modernize, and as
a result won the support of the
educated middle class.
The Mao Years: 1949-1976
• 1949-1956: For the first few years Mao
allowed the peasants to seize the lands of
• They quickly were encouraged to produce
as much as possible to feed the new force
of workers needed to develop China’s
• Farmers were required to turn over a
percentage of the crops to the gov’t and
the rest could be sold on the open
• Production rose very quickly for the first
time in years.
• 1956-1958: Starting in 1956 the
peasants were forced to give up
their private property and from
• The peasants were no longer
encouraged to think of themselves,
the state became their first
• 1951-1961: The Great Leap
• In 1958 Mao formed communes to
replace the collectives.
• The Great Leap was to launch
China into a new age, instead it
brought tremendous disaster.
• The peasants lost all will to work,
they lost pride and any incentives
they once had.
• Mao hoped that the Great Leap
would bring China into the 20th
• Instead of the program making
positive change it led to the death
of nearly 30 million people
• 1961-1966: In 1961 Mao had to
abandon the Great Leap and he
resigned as the head of State. The
people that took over the gov’t
introduced policies to try and revive the
• a. They began to focus on the
production of consumer goods rather
than heavy industry
• b. Farmers were allowed to keep the
profits from the farms, and
production once again rose
c. Capitalism was encouraged to
increase production in the cities as
These programs led to economic
recovery of the country, yet in
1966 Mao launched the Great
Proletarian Cultural Revolution
to put an end to these changes
• 1966-1969: Mao formed a
revolutionary group called the Red
Guards, composed of college
students, to rid the country of any
traitors to the revolution. The
traitors were any capitalists that
did not fully support the Chairman.
• The Cultural Revolution caused
chaos in China. School closed and
factory production fell due to the
• Eventually the army had to be
called in to end the chaos because
Mao couldn’t get the Red Guards
• It is estimated that almost 20
million people died as a result of
• *Mao Zedong died in 1976, after
his death a power struggle took
place. In 1978 Deng Xiaoping
assumed power and he instituted
the Four Modernizations
The Cuban Revolution 1959
• In 1959 Fidel Castro led • “Q” Why did the
the first communist Cubans support
revolution in the Castro?
Western Hemisphere. • 1. He promised to
• Like many before him he nationalize all the
promised many social industry and land in
and economic reforms if
the people supported • 2. Castro pledged to
end Imperialism as well
as US involvement.
• 3. He promised to
health and housing for
the poor in his country.
“Q” What were the causes of the
• The United States had taken control of Cuba as a result
of winning the Spanish American War in 1898.
• A puppet government was established post WWII
• Fulgencio Batista was the leader of Cuba; foreign
investors controlled more of Cuba than did Cubans.
• The economy of Cuba was in terrible shape, American
investors were in control of most of Cuba’s resources.
“Q” What were the results of the
• Castro introduced a socialist society in which all
property was taken over by the state and run for benefit
of all the people.
• The United States imposed a strict Embargo upon Cuba.
This led Castro to turn to the Soviet Union for aid, which
they gladly offered.
• In 1961 the US financed an attempt to overthrow
Castro called the Bay of Pigs invasion.
• The invasion proved to be a major embarrassment for
President Kennedy because the invasion failed.
• The Berlin Wall was built in response to the American
backed invasion and the Cold War intensified.
• The Cuban Missile Crisis Oct. 1962, spy planes took
pictures of missile bases under construction in Cuba.
The US ordered the missiles be removed and the bases
• Kennedy also ordered a blockade of Cuba, threatening
military action if any Soviet or Cuban ship attempted to
run the blockade.
• In the end the Soviet Union promised to remove the
bases and missiles, averting a possible war
• The failure of the Soviet Union ultimately led to the
economic collapse of Cuba. They have been struggling
since 1989 to repair the failed economy.
• *The success of the Cuban Revolution in 1959
inspired other revolutions in Latin America
• *1970’s El Salvador
• * 1979 Nicaragua:
• Sandinistas (Daniel Ortega) vs. the Contras
• In 1990 Violeta Chamorrow won the election
as the new leader in Nicaragua.
The Cuban Missile Crisis
The Iranian Revolution: 1979
• In 1979 a revolution broke out in Iran, which represented a
return to traditional Islamic values. The deposed ruler, Shah
Reza Palavi, had instituted many sweeping changes in Iran
but the Muslim clergy met them with resistance.
• “Q” What were the causes of the Iranian Revolution?
• 1. Many people felt that the policies of the Shah resembled
the west rather than the traditional policies of Islamic culture.
These people wanted Iran to return to their old ways, the
• 2. The Shah’s policies failed to improve the quality of life for
many people and as a result the lower classes wanted him
• 3. Many people felt that the Shah was too friendly with the
West, especially the USA, they asked for a change in foreign
• 4. The Shah used secret police to silence his critics; this
led many to question his Islamic roots.
• 5. In 1979 the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
returned from his exile in France and led an Islamic
Revolution, which made Iran a Theocracy. (Ayatollah is
Persian for “reflection of Allah”; it is the highest title
Shiite Muslin can hold.)
• “Q” What changes were imposed by the
• This new gov’t replaced civil law with that of the Koran
(Qur’an). In addition, he replaced secular courts with
• Women were now made to wear veils (Hijabs) in public,
and western music and movies were banned.
• The new gov’t wanted to break all ties to the west,
especially the USA. The US embassy was captured and
the hostages were held for over a year.
• The rise of Islamic Fundamentalism did not appear in
many other countries in the Middle East due to the
different social and political views those countries held.
• Shortly after the Ayatollah’s rise to power a war broke
out between Iran and Iraq. This war lasted for 8 years
(1980-1988); it slowed oil production, led to over 1
million casualties and the decay of economic growth.
• *Recent elections in Iran have altered from the
Fundamental policies of the Ayatollah. The election
results seem to indicate that the people want to
westernize their society and return to policies that will
lead to modernization.