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Renaissance

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					              Renaissance
• Renaissance = “rebirth” - philosophical
  and artistical movement
  – Marked by renewed interest in ancient
    greek and Roman literature and life
  – Secular - emphasis on a worldly viewpoint
  – Causes
     • Italy lies on the ruins of the Roman Empire
     • Trade with Byzantium and Arab empires
       brought knowledge of science and math
Renaissance: Italian Writers
                                      • Niccolo Machiavelli
                                         – Florentine Diplomat and
                                           Historian
                                         – Wrote “The Prince”
                                             • Described gov’t in the way
                                               it actually worked
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                                               function
                                             • Said a ruler should only be
                                               concerned with power and
                                               political success
                                             • Basically he should be
                                               ruthless
     Renaissance: Humanists
• Humanists - people who studied the humanities
  (grammar, history, poetry, and rhetoric)
• 3 Main features:
   – 1.) Displayed a critical approach to learning
   – 2.) Important to understand how things worked (emphasized
     education)
   – 3.) People should lead meaningful lives (make the world
     better)
           Renaissance: Artists
• Like literature art flourished during the Renaissance
• Medieval Paintings
   –   Stressed world beyond everyday life
   –   Used formal figures to express religious concern
   –   Pictures not drawn to scale or look very realistic
   –   Backgrounds often depicted or portrayed the Holy Land
                                                   Medieval Art
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         Renaissance: Artists
• Characteristics of Italian Art
   – Created realistic scenes and images
   – Humans were depicted as lifelike
   – Backgrounds portrayed the rugged Italian
     countryside
   – Perspective - made distant objects smaller than
     those in the foreground this created and illusion of
     depth
              Renaissance Artists
                                • Leonardo da Vinci
                                  – Lived from 1452-
                                    1519
                                  – The renaissance
                       d
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                                  – Used science to
                                    improve his paintings
  Renaissance: Artists
                                    • Michelangelo
                                      – Lived from 1475 -
                                        1564
                                      – Brilliant painter
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                                      – Painted the Sistine
                                        Chapel
                                      – Sculpted the David
                                      – Also wrote poetry
                                        and was an architect
                                              Renaissance: Art
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     Northern Renaissance
• From Italy the Renaissance spread to
  Northern Europe
• Johannes Gutenberg - invented the
  printing press
• Printing press allowed large numbers of
  the same book to be made and
  distributed
Northern Renaissance:
       Writers
                                    • William Shakespeare
                                       – Leading literary figure of the
                                         time
                                       – Was a famous playwright
                                       – Transformed well known
                                         stories into masterpieces
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                                       – Ex. “Hamlet”, “Romeo and
                                         Juliet”, and “Macbeth”
                                       – Portrayed personality and
                                         human emotion
   Age of Exploration

  Scientific Advances from the
 Renaissance led directly to the
advances made in Exploration at
             this time.
   Age of Exploration: China
• China actually began exploration before the
  Europeans (1100’s -1400’s)
• Had great ability to become a seafaring
  nation
• China abandons exploration
  – Ming rulers wanted China to be self-sufficient
  – Nomadic tribes to the north were threatening
    China
  – Didn’t have enough $ to defend China and explore
    overseas
   Age of Exploration: Japan
• Japan was a Feudal Society in the
  1500’s much like Medieval Europe
  – Ruled by local lords called Daimyo
• Japan was unified by 3 warlords (Oda
  Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi,
  Tokugawa Ieyasu)
  – Tokugawa Ieyasu sets up a government
    known as the Tokugawa Shogunate
Exploration: Japanese Class
          Structure



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    Age of Exploration: Japan
• Portuguese arrive in Mid 1500’s
• Brought 2 new items to Japan
   – Muskets and Christianity
   – Muskets weakened the Samurai Class
• Closing the Society
   – Shoguns felt Catholics were less loyal than other citizens
   – Kicked out Europeans and Christians
   – Japan only would trade w/ the Dutch a few months out of the
     year
   – Shoguns focused on domestic affairs and ignored outside
     world
   Age of Exploration: Japan
• China and Japan were both pressured by
  Europeans for Trade
• United States finally opens trade with Japan
  in 1854
• Japanese reformers overthrow Tokugawa
  Shogunate
• Set up Meiji Government
  – Meiji want to modernize Japan to be on equal
    footing with Europeans and USA
   The Enlightenment

 New ideas arise concerning the
nature of government, rulers, and
            the state.
   The Enlightenment: Gov’t
• Thomas Hobbes - disturbed by chaos created
  from English Civil War
  – Wrote Leviathan
  – Believed people should give up their rights for
    security
• John Locke - disagreed with Hobbes believed
  people naturally good
  – People have naturaly rights (life, liberty, property)
  – Gov’t is a contract
  – If gov’t breaks contract is tyrannical and should be
    overthrown
       The Enlightenment:
          Philosophes
• Philosophes - thinkers of the
  Enlightenment
• Jean Jacque Rousseau - wrote The
  Social Contract
  – Popular Sovereignty - gov’t must be
    created and controlled by the people.
  – People could only preserve their natural
    state if they could choose their gov’t
  Enlightenment: Philosophes
• Voltaire - spoke out against the old order of
  gov’t
   – Wrote Philosophical Letters
   – Said “I may disagree with what you say but I will
     defend your right to say it.”
• Montesquieu - Spoke about how to perfect
  gov’t to protect people rights
   – Came up with the idea of checks and balances
   – Said that different branches of gov’t would provide
     checks to political power
        The Enlightenment:
           Philosophes
• Enlightened Despotism - System of gov’t in
  which an absolute monarch would rule but
  according to principles of the enlightenment
  – Many philosophes preferred this system of gov’t
• Marry Wollstonecraft - early spokesperson for
  women’s rights.
  – Argued that the Enlightenment ideals of equality
    should be extended to women as well as men.
  – Salons - Forums in France for women to spread
    the Enlightenment
  Nationalism and Unification
• The Enlightenment led to a surge of
  Nationalism throughout Europe.
• From Europe Nationalism spread
  worldwide.
• Two Cases we will look at
  – Meiji Japan
  – German Empire
    Meiji Japan and German
             Empire
• Meiji Empire               • German Empire
  – Fear of Western              – Unification through
    Imperialism                    wars
  – Westernization               – Rise of Anti-
                                   Semitism
                       Similarities
                 1. Modernization
                 2. Industrialization
                 3. Nationalization
                      4. Militarism
  Age of Imperialism: Causes
• The causes of Imperialism are numerous but 3
  important ones were:
   – Nationalism - Nations believed that nations would respect
     them more if they had many colonies
   – Economics - Europeans needed lots of raw materials for
     their factories so they expanded their colonial empires to
     meet these material demands
       • They also needed places for their ships to fuel
   – Cultural - many Europeans thought it was their duty to
     spread western ideas
Age of Imperialism: Haiti
                                    • Up untill the 1800’s
                                      Haiti was a French
                                      Colony with many
                                      African Slaves
                                    • Toussaint-
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                                      Louverture led a
                                      slave revolt that won
                                      Haitian
                                      Independence
     Age of Imperialism: Asia
• China
   – By 1900 imperialist powers
     of France, Germany, G.B.,
     Japan, and Russia had
     carved up China
   – Chinese known as
     “BOXERS” rose up and               QuickTime™ and a
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   – The Boxer Rebellion was
     crushed by the Western
     Powers and Japan
   – This brought down the Qing
     Dynasty
Age of Imperialism: Asia
                                   • Indian Nationalism
                                     – 1857 Indian Sepoys
                                       revolted against
                                       British
                                        • Revolt is crushed
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                                        • But resistence to
                                          British rule is not
                                     – Indian push for self-
                                       rule
                                        • There was conflict
                                          though b/w Hindus
                                          and Muslims
    Imperialism: Sub-Saharan
              Africa
• To make Rhodes’ dream possible the British would
  have to clear out those groups who stood in the way
  of British expansion
   – Boers - descendants of Dutch settlers
      • These settlers spoke Afrikaans (original Boer language)
   – Zulus - African kingdom united by Shaka that was the
     enemies of the Boers
      • British give Zulu ultimatum of disbanding their army or face war
      • Zulu refuse to disband
      • British join Boers in the war against Zulu and defeat the Zulu
        empire
        Rise of Totalitarianism
• Totalitarianism - a form of government in which the
  political authority exercises absolute and centralized
  control over all aspects of life
• Fascism - dictatorship which was strongly nationalistic and
  militaristic and opposed communism and democracy
   – Maintained control through force and censorship
• Communism - dictatorship which was strongly associated
  with class struggle
   – Economic and politic system in which the gov’t owns the means of
     production and controls economic planning
Totalitarianism: Nazi Germany
• One Party Rule - Nazi Party
   – Extremely nationalistic, anti-semitic, and
     anticommunist
• Humans Rts Violations - persecuted Jews
  and other members of so-called inferior races
   – Jews forced to live in ghettos
   – Sent to concentration camps
• Secret Police - Gestapo had wide-ranging
  powers to arrest political opposition and for
  Jews
   – Brownshirts and Blackshirts - paramilitary
     organization that assisted Nazi Party
Totalitarianism: Nazi Germany
• State was more important than the individual
  – Political opponents harshly suppressed
• Role of Private Property
  – Nazi Germany was Socialist not Communist
• Class Structure - very similar to most western
  nations but with very little political power
  – Did not strive to be classless but that everyone did
    their job to make the state better
  Totalitarianism: Communist
          Soviet Union
• One Party Rule - Communist Party
  – Communist Party dominated Soviet Rule
  – Opposition was suppressed in forced labor camps
  – Religion and art controlled by the state
• Human Rts Violations - Stalin and
  Communists used spies and secret police to
  maintain rule
  – Purges - Stalin routinely eliminated all party
    members perceived to be disloyal
  – People could be imprisoned without trials
  – More than 5 million imprisoned or executed by
    1939
  Totalitarianism: Communist
          Soviet Union
• State Supremacy over the individual
  – Communist controlled all aspects of individuals life
  – Command economy - government controlled all
    economic decisions
• Role of private property
  – Gov’t controlled all major industries
  – Citizens had limited property rts
  – All Farms are collectivized
• Class Structure - Communists abolish
  bourgeoisie (middle class) and nobility when
  they take over
  – Only one class, everyone is equal, equally poor
         The Cold War: Israel
• Balfour Declaration - pledge to secure a Jewish
  national homeland
• In 1939 British reversed decision and instead favored
  an Arab Palestinian State
• The Holocaust left many Jewish refugees stranded
   – Many of these refugees immigrated to Palestine
• After the UK withdrew from Palestine the UN divided
  Palestine into 2 states a Jewish one and an Arab one
                          Israel
• The establishment of an Israeli state infuriated many
  Arabs.
• The UN plan led to war in 1948 when Israel was
  invaded
• Israel won the war but much tension now remained
  b/w Israel and the rest of the Muslim world
• Kibbutz - a type of collective farm in Israel that helped
  turn the desert into productive land
• Suez Crisis - Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalizes the
  Suez Canal
   – France, Great Britain and Israel intervene to stop this
   – U.S. fears Soviet Intervention forces Coalition to back down
   – Defeat of Euro. Imperialism made Nasser a Arab hero
   The Cold War: Middle East
• Six Days War - Preemptive Israeli attack on Egypt,
  Syria, and Jordan
   –   Israel captured territory from all three.
   –   Golan Heights from Syria
   –   West Bank from Jordan
   –   Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip from Egypt
• OPEC - alliance of Middle Eastern and Latin
  American oil producing countries
   – Formed to increase their bargaining power.

				
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posted:7/2/2012
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