Identifying Surface Signals by dj4HlG

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									                                                       Name: ____________________


                    Identifying Surface Signals
                                Return to Unit D

Directions: In the following sentences, circle each surface signal
that you find. Then draw an arrow between the “given” idea in the
previous sentence and the surface signal. The first one has been
done for you. Discuss your results with a tutor.


1. There were only a few minutes left in the class, so the teacher rushed to put
all the rules for the present perfect tense on the board. The students took out
their notebooks to copy the rules down.


2. The students were a little upset because they had an assignment with the
present perfect for the next day, and they weren’t sure they would be able to do
it correctly.


3. The neighbors, themselves, have suffered crop damage. This loss of crops
does not matter to them. They will still share their few seeds with a neighbor
who has lost everything.


4. The most recent use of gold in astronaut’s suits. Astronauts wear gold-plated
heat shields for protection outside the spaceship.


5. English has become an international language. Except for Chinese, more
people speak English than any other language.


6. Interest in dolphins has increased in the past few years. Dolphins have
become interesting, because they display almost human-like behavior at times.


7. In order to be an Olympian, an athlete must be very dedicated. This means
that an athlete must have a real passion for his or her sport.
Directions: In the following paragraph, each surface signal has
been circled. An arrow between the “given” idea in the previous
sentence and the surface signal has been drawn. Look at the
example before going to the next exercise.


       One important value in Brazilian culture that I accept is hospitality. To a

Brazilian hospitality means that your “door” is always open to friends, relatives,

and guests. Hospitality is very important in my family’s home in Brazil:

acquaintances and relatives are always welcome to drop in on us. They can

appear at the doorstep and know that they will be invited in to share a meal or

to join the family for an evening of conversation. Acquaintances and relatives

know that when they travel to Sao Paulo, there is a bed in my parents’ home for

them. This Brazilian value of hospitality is important to me because I believe

sharing your home and food with others is important. You not only help others

by sharing extra food and space, but you also make your own life richer by

getting to know other people and hearing their ideas about the world.



Example Source:
Bates, L. (1997). Transitions: An interactive reading, writing, and grammar text.
       New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Directions: In the following paragraph, circle each surface signal
that you find. Then draw an arrow between the “given” idea in the
previous sentence and the surface signal. The first two examples are
done for you. Discuss your results with a tutor.


      One value of American culture that I do not accept is the value of
materialism. In general, Americans tend to value and collect more material
objects than most people in other parts of the world would ever think of owning.
The typical modern American owns one or more television sets, cars, stereo
systems, computers, and/or telephones. Much time and energy is spent on
maintaining and protecting these things. In addition to maintaining and
protecting their possessions, Americans often give higher priority to obtaining
more things than they do to investing time in interpersonal relationships. This
value seems to result in producing regret in Americans when they reach the end
of their lives. Many times people look back at their lives and realize that the
things they have accumulated are not nearly as important as the relationships
they should have nurtured.




Revision Checklist:

Look at your essay. Circle all the main ideas in your sentences. Check
to make sure that all your sentences and paragraphs logically follow
each other. If you notice some problems:

             Use the “Given-New Principle.”
             Use surface signals to link your ideas.


After you have checked your essay for coherence problems, read your
essay draft aloud to your tutor. As you read it, ask your tutor to listen
to make sure there are no breaks in coherence.

								
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