Pre WWII German Geopolitics

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					Pre WWII German Geopolitics

       And the Geopolitik
Origins of German Geopolitics I
• (all known from previous lectures)
• Rudolf Kjellén (Sweden, Gothenburg): The State
  as a Living Form and inventor of new words like:
• Geopolitics
• And National Socialism
• Kjellén as political scientist and conservative
• (Geopolitic is conservative, realist, determinist)
          Origins of G. G. II
• Biology
• Moritz Wagner (Superorganism)
• Darwin (Evolutionism)
• Germany as a new actor in International
• Realpolitik
• Weltpolitik
• Problem of German borders and Germans as
  minorities abroad
   Friedrich Ratzel 1844-1904
• biologist, geographer (importance of
  nature (determinist)
• Wounded in the French-Prusso War 1871
• Founder of Ethnography
• Founder of Human Geography as
  separate subject within Geography
                   Ideas I
•   State living creature
•   State=people+land symbolic unity
•   Biology: fight for resources, space
•   States: changing control of territory
•   Therefore changing borders as sign of
    changing power parity between
    neighbouring states
                Ideas II.
• Final aim of a state: maximised territory
  with well secured natural borders
• German State aims: reach natural borders
  as sea or mountains
• Control natural resources
• Control agricultural territories
• Control stategigally important territories
  and transport routes
                Ideas III.
• Also final aim for Germany:
• With the territorial expansion unite all
  Germans abroad
• Information gathering (Ethnography for
  political reason)
• Kulturprovinz
• Biogeography
• Demography-parity border change
                Ideas IV.
• Similarity in Demography and International
  Relations in Pre WWI era:
• Germany, Italy, Austro-Hungary, Japan:
  densely populated states with lack of
  resources and arable land
• No colonies
• A later vision of alliance system (WWII)
• Lebensraum
         Ratzel and Transport
• His Political Geography book 1897 subtitle:
• Geography of State, Transport and War
• Transportation have key role in international
• Connection, flow of people and ideas
• Transport systems and borders (eg. Trianon)
• Routes as Symbols:
• Berlin-Bagdad railway
• Amsterdam-Batavia first intercontinental flight
• Tirana-Beijing flight
     Karl Haushofer and Nazi
   International Relation Theory
• After Midterm Exam

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