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Comprehension market

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					B. Some Pertinent Ideas

   1.   Comprehension

        What is reading comprehension?

               There are many definition of reading comprehension. A prevalent and

        current view is that comprehension is a special kind of readers comprehends

        by actively constructing meaning internally from interacting with the material

        that is read (Alexander, 1977: 160).

               Successful comprehension involves the readers discovering the

        meaning to achieve particular purpose set for, or by, him. It may be finding

        particular peace of information, solving a problem through reading, working

        to understand an idea, or following a set of direction.

               According to Smith and Johnson (1980) states that reading

        comprehension means the understanding, evaluating utilizing of information

        and gained through the interaction between reader and author. Reading

        comprehension means understanding what has or have been read. Smith

        Lamuhiddin (1988 :27) explains that reading is a complex process in which

        the reader uses mental content to contain the meaning from written materials

        it means that the reader is supposed to recognize the meaning of printed

        words. It can be said that reading comprehension is the capability to
     understand or grasp it ideas of one passage. Reading comprehension refers to

     reading with comprehension.



2.        Level of Comprehension.

              When the reader has no clearly defined specific, purpose but is simply

     reading, he may be said to comprehend at one or more levels, the term “level”

     does not mean simply different degree of difficulties it refers to the attitude

     and reaction to what is read ( Alexander, 1977 :161 )

     a.      Literal Comprehension

                          If the reader is getting only literal meaning, he is reading

           receptively and somewhat passively, he is reading receptively and a some

           what passively. He is trying to receive only words the author has to say.

           This level of comprehension involves surface meaning. Being able to read

           for literal meaning sated ideas is influenced by one’s mastery of

           vocabulary in context.

     b.      Interpretive or inferential comprehension.

                   Higher of level comprehension involves reading beyond or

           between the lines. The reader brings knowledge and experience to the act

           of reading and draw inferences. Interpretive of referential comprehension

           includes thinking process such as drawing conclusion, making

           generalization out comes.
     c.     Critical or applied reading comprehension.

                    For literal comprehension, the reader needs only to understand

           exactly what at is stated to receive the author literal massage. For higher

           level of comprehension, the reader is involved in an interchange of ideas

           with the author and applies reading to life situation.

3.        Factors that Influence Reading Comprehension

     There are many factors that might affect comprehension of printed materials.

     a.      Background Knowledge

                  Familiarity with concept of a reading material being read, both

           through experience of knowledge can make a reader easy to comprehend.

           Burhanuddin ( 1997 : 49 ) stated that the low achievement of standing in

           reading caused by insufficient of basic knowledge had more effect on

           understanding of implied that an explicit information.

     b.      Vocabulary

                   One of the important factors influencing a readers comprehension

           is the familiarity with the vocabulary, where the successful in associating

           between the printed words with their meaning and their referents depends

           on the familiarity with the words. Successful reading comprehension is

           possible when most of the vocabularies in a reading selection are familiar

           to the readers.

     c.      Teacher Influence
                     The teacher may give retention of information contained in

            printed material and this help students cope successful with reading

            assignment.

          There are some teacher’s role to the students :



          1.    Encourage the students to apply what they have read

          2.    Have them constantly evaluated the material that they have read

          3.    Encourage the students to tell something about a book to other students

          4.    Encourage students to think of their own ways or reporting on books or

               stories.

4.    Reading Process

            Wiryodijoyo et al ( 1989 10-11 ) put forward some stages of reading

     process as follows :

     a.        Perception

            The perception here indicates the ability to read words as significant units.

     b.        Comprehension

            The comprehension refers to the ability to make the author’s or writer’s

            word conductive to useful through as read in context

     c.        Reaction

            The reaction is the action that requires consideration in connection with

            what has been said by the author or writer.
d.    Integration

     The integration revels to the ability to comprehend or understand the

     concept towards the experiences background of the writer that can be

     useful as part of the reader’s experience

e.        Some types of reading

     Nasr ( 1984 : 78 – 79 ) classifies onto three types namely, oral reading,

     silent reading, and efficient reading

     1.     Oral reading

                 In oral reading, a reader vocalizes the printed words one by one.

           Thus a reader who does oral reading must have good pronunciation,

           oral reading is used when a reader is learning to combine words with

           meaning ( Anderson, et, al, 1969 : 96 ) . Oral reading can be dividing

           into group reading and individual reading. Reading in group is done

           with a whole group altogether reading loudly usually by imitating the

           teacher. This type intends to cheek pronunciation and intonation of the

           students one by one.

     2.      Silent reading

               Silent reading does not mean that a teacher read without sound. A

           reader my sound in respond to words but there is no need to say out

           each word. A reader, in silent reading only says the words in his mind.
           Thus, the main aim in silent reading understand with out any

           references to pronunciation, stress, or intonations.

     3.      Efficient reading

                Efficient reading includes both intensive and extensive reading.

           Intensive reading refers to the work done by the students in class. A

           student may do intensive reading when he is studying for an

           examination. The students do extensive reading for the purpose of not

           to remember detail for an examination, but for getting general

           information and ideas as well. Efficient reading involves two

           components:

           a)   Getting work done

           b)   Doing the work in the shortest time.

f.        Kinds of reading techniques

                          There are three reading technique that are commonly

     known. They are scanning, skimming, and survey reading.

     1.      Scanning

                   Scanning is closely related to skimming, but when a reader

           scans, he already has a purpose in mind. Scanning means searching for

           particular information (postman, 1985 : 107 ). He suggests three steps

           when a reader scans:
                  Read the questions, keep the key words of the questions in

           mind, and scan until a reader finds the answer to the questions. Stop

           and write the answer to the question.

     2.      Skimming

                  Postman (1985: 107) says that skimming should be used when

           a reader wants to cover large amounts of materials quickly and don’t

           intend to read the material completely at a later time. Skimming is

           used to get in general impression of the material and not for a high

           level as comprehension. Skimming can be a very valuable reading and

           aid when it is used properly

     3.      Survey reading

                  Before reading we must analyze what we want to analyze. We

           need to survey the material that we will learn by looking into the

           scheme, the outline of the book and looking the title of the chapter in

           the book, fast and accurately.

g.        Reasons for reading

                According to Jeremy harmer ( 1995 :190 ) there are four reasons

     for reading, they are :

     1.     Reading in language learning
                      Reading is an exercise dominated by the eyes and the bring.

               The Ayes receives messages and the brain has to work out the

               significance of these message.

          2.    Reading for language learning

                      In real life people generally read to something because they

               want to and they have purpose which is more fundamental than that

               involved in some language learning tasks seem only to be asking

               about details at language.

          3.    Reading for information

                             In most cases, reading for information is relevant to

               accurate study of the reader, they read to find out information to

               reduce their uncertain.

          4.    Reading for pleasure

                           Reading for pleasure is done without other people order

               but according to an individual reader wish and taste.



C. Communicative Task

           Communicative tasks can encourage the students in learning. These are

   because they fell that they are working on communicative skills. These tasks

   involve the students in interacting with their teachers and fellow students. They
can get practice in activating their knowledge in communication. The following

statements would be the confirmation of this notion :

    “Adherents of the communicative tasks (e.g. Johnson and marrow, 1980)
    assert that students’ motivation will be enhanced if they fell that they are
    working on communicative skills, i.e., practicing some function within a
    social context, not just some function within a social context, not just
    accumulating knowledge of vocabulary ands sentence – level structure, by
    interacting with their teacher and follows students, students receive practice in
    activating this knowledge in negotiating meaning” (freeman, 1987:6)

    The teacher of English through communicative tasks has some advantages.

The students feel comfortable in learning ; they can get a chance to use their

language : and their language learning activities are identifiable, etc. in this

respect, (Harmer 1987 : 5-6) confirms :

    “Communicative activities have many advantages : they are usually
    enjoyable, they give students a chance to use their language : they allow both
    students and teacher to see how well the students are doing in their language
    learning ; and they give a break from the normal teacher – students
    arrangement in a classroom”.

    The communicative language teaching can involve the learners in the

dynamic and interactive process of communication that they experience the

language as well as to analyze it. In this case, the following statement would

assert :

           Communicative as being inclined to communicative, by the ability or
    tendency to communicate (Muin, Abdul muis :1991) and communicative as
    being ready or willing to talk and give information (Hornby 1987:170)

    In line with the statement above, it is also stated that the communicative

language teaching can increase and improve the learners’ motivation ; provide
     meaningful tasks practice, encourage natural learning ; and create a context that

     support the learning. In this instance, let us consider the following statement :

         “Communicative language teaching (clt) methodology aims to provide
         meaningful tasks practice, to improve motivation, to encourage, natural
         learning, and to create a context that support learning (Maurice, 1987 : 9)


         Decker (1987:17) also states that there are two principle assumptions that

     underline of the importance of the communicative tasks. They are : the

     involvement of the students in language use (rather than language knowledge) in

     class : and the realistic situation, in this case, Decker says :

         “The first assumption is that we are concerned in the classroom with language
         use, not language knowledge ; the second is the view that we learn language
         most effectively by using it in realistic situations.”

         Latif (1991:25) also points out that teaching a foreign language, English,

     through communicative tasks focuses not only on the form, but also on the

     communicative function of the language. The teacher aims his or her teaching at

     the fluency of the skills in using the language. The communicative tasks try to

     achieve a balance among the four language skills (reading, writing, listening, and

     speaking).



D.    Tasks

         Tasks are a set of exercise that must be finished at that time and complete.

     Tasks are different from activity, in away that activity could be done in other
time, nevertheless, it is a part of task. David et.al (1974) distinguish between two

major classes of tasks : action tasks and cognitive tasks.

     Two major classes of tasks will be given description below :

1.    Action Tasks

            The term action task implies that someone is doing something to

     another person or object; it is almost impossible to do anything to other

     person or object without doing something. Therefore the action is never one

     way, there is always an interaction between a person and an object or a person

     and another person. One of the major characteristic of action task is

     interaction.

            The concept of an action task includes three critical attributes, an

     interaction between a person and another person or object, with view to

     changing him or it, and the last in order to meet some goals. There are four

     critical elements in describing an action tasks. First, there are signs or cues

     signaling actions, generally these cues originate in the external world. Actions

     in tasks are frequently preceded by cues that signal their beginning. Second,

     there must be action verb to explain the behavior or the performer at each step

     in the task. We have already noted some examples of the action verbs, for

     instance, the task adjusting the microscope. The third are indications of the

     persons or objects acted upon. Tasks, as we have observed, involve an

     interaction of the performer with the world. A task description states with
     whom or with she/he is interacting. Finally, actions are accompanied by

     feedback from the interaction process.

2.    Cognitive Tasks

              Not all tasks have an overt action component. Many tasks are done at

     the cognitive level, or in more popular Jargon, “in the head”. Several of verbs

     are used to describe such cognitive tasks some of them are : decide,

     discriminate, or solve. When a teacher evaluates, they are doing a cognitive

     tasks.

              Although we do not often know enough about how people actually do

     such cognitive tasks, it is still helpful to try to identify the component parts or

     subtasks and list them. In the case decision. These criteria can then be

     converted into a form of task description.

              From those explanation about communicative and task now we can

     conclude that communicative task is a tendency to give information, idea,

     opinion, etc. between a person to another person or object, which is carried

     out as the result of processing or understanding which could be in an action or

     activity, or command.

              Communicative task is one kinds of the communicative approach. In

     communicative tasks the interaction is not only between the students and the

     teacher but more than it. Here the interaction is stressed between the students
and the materials in task form. Beside, the role of the teacher only as a tool to

explain the given materials.

        The purpose is to make the students involve actively in doing the task

which given by teacher, whether the students not so good in English subject,

particularly in reading material (Harmer 1991)

        Harmer (1991) gives three designs of this communicative task, they

are : jumbled text, students questions, and pooling information. These kinds

of communicative task will be given description and example.

a.    Jumbled Text

        A popular reading technique is the reassembling of text that has

     become disordered. In solving the puzzle, the students will be working in

     a rather different pairs to read the story in the correct order. This story

     below is the example of jumbled text :
                                                                                 14




b.     Students’ Question

         In this activity some of the students read the text so that can answer

     their friends’ questions. Half of the class are given the text and told to read

     it so that they will be able to answer their colleagues’ questions the other

     half are put into a group to decide what questions they would like to ask.

     This is the text that half the class read :
                                                                                 15




           They now put down the text and try to answer their friends’

     questions. On the basis of what they have read. They may answer I don’t

     know if the text has not given them any answer to others’ questions.

c.    Pooling Information

          In this activity different text in order to complete task by sharing their

     information. The students are dividing into two groups, A and B. Group a

     reads the following article and answer some simple comprehension

     question.
                                                                          16




   Group B reads a different text and answer simple comprehension question in

the same way this is the text :
                                                                                         17




        The class is then divided into pairs with one member of each pair coming

     from group A and the other from group B. they tell each other about their articles

     and then use their shared information to complete the following task.




E.    Resume

          Reading is one of the four language skills, it’s a complex process to learn

     and to teach. The students are expected to have good capacity to read even as

     affected as possible in order that they can perform their proper role in society.

                                      Communicative tasks are useful to encourage

     students in improving reading comprehension. Through reading comprehension,

     Indonesia people in general and the students in particular are expected to be able

     develops them selves.
                                                                                       18




F.    Theoretical Framework

        The theoretical framework underlying this research is presented in the

     following diagrams :


                                           INPUT

                                      Reading Material




                                          PROCESS

                                Teaching And Learning Process:
       The teacher applies by using communicative tasks in teaching reading
        namely : Jumble text, students’ questions and pooling information
            -     Read the reading material
            -     Find out the main ideas and other information in a paragraph
            -     The students’ can answer the questions
       The teacher roles
        -       The teacher give motivating, controlling, and guiding to students
        -       The teacher giving correction and explanation to the students answer
       The students’ roles
        -       The students apply this technique to the text




                                          OUTPUT

                           The students Reading Comprehension
                                                                                       19




            In the diagram above input process and output are briefly classified in the

      following :

           1.    Input refers to using reading materials

           2.    Process refers to the use of communicative task in teaching and

                learning process

           3.    Output refers to the students’ achievement in reading comprehension



G.    Hypothesis

     The hypothesis of this research is formulated as follows:

      1.         Alternative Hypothesis (H1)

           Teaching reading through communicative task can improve the students’

           reading comprehension

      2.         Null Hypothesis (H0)

           Teaching reading through communicative task can not improve the students’

           reading comprehension
20

				
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Description: Some Pertinent Ideas RESEARCH MARKET