Driver_Operator Continuing Education and Training

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					Driver/Operator Continuing
  Education and Training
     Safe Driving Practices
FDNY Fire Truck Crashes into
Passenger Car at Traffic Light
Career Captain/Safety Officer Dies
 in a Single Motor Vehicle Crash
  While Responding To a Call -
Volunteer Fire Fighter Dies
 and Two are Injured in
Engine Rollover - Alabama
Fire Engine Involved in Accident in
Eastern Mecklenburg County, North
                       Accidents Happen

Don’t Be A Statistic
   National Highway Traffic
    Safety Administration
• NHTSA has reported that 43,005
  people died in motor vehicle crashes
  in 2002 and that motor vehicle traffic
  crashes were the 8th-leading cause
  of death among all ages that year.But
  broken down by age, crashes were
  the No. 1 cause of death for every
  age from 3 through 33.
           United States Fire
• Every year 25% of firefighter fatalities are
  due to vehicle crashes
• Last 10 years – more than 225 firefighters
  have been killed as a result of vehicle crashes
• In 2000 there were 18 firefighter fatalities –
  – Struck by vehicles while operating on roadways
     • Including fire apparatus
   Emergency Services Vehicle
    Accident Profiles - 2003
• Thirty-six firefighters died while
  responding to or returning from
  emergency incidents in 2003.
• Vehicle crashes claimed 24 lives, eight
  firefighters suffered heart attacks, two
  firefighters were struck by vehicles, and
  two firefighters died in falls while
           More 2003 Stats
• Six firefighters died in 2003 as they
  responded to emergencies in their personal
  vehicles. The deceased firefighter was not
  wearing a seatbelt in four of the five cases
  where the status of seatbelt usage was
  known. Two of the firefighters killed in
  personally owned vehicle (POV) crashes were
  under 20 years of age, two were in their 20’s,
  and two were age 30 or older.
           2003 Fatality Statistics
2003 Firefighter Fatalities

Type of Duty                  Number of Fatalities

Responding and Returning                  36

Fireground Operations                     31

Other On-Duty                             20

Training                                  12

Non-fire Emergencies                      10

After an Incident                         2

                    Total                111
Responding To and Returning
      From Incidents
    Year   Number of Fatalities
    2003          36
    2002          13
    2001          23
    2000          19
    1999          26
    1998          14
    1997          21
    1996          22
We Can Change These
  All it takes is Good Sense
         Common Sense
         Today’s Purpose
• Want to add to our existing
  Driver/Operator training programs
• Raise Awareness of the impact an
  apparatus accident will have on us
• Discuss a few case studies and their
  “Far Reaching” impact on the fire
• Discuss the “Rules of the Road”
What Does It Cost?

           Employer Insurance
           Employee Medical Bills
           Employee Lost Wages
           Apparatus Repair or
           Lost Resources
Today’s Purpose - Ultimately!

       Make Us All Better
• Outline and Discuss pertinent State Laws
• Outline and Discuss pertinent EFD-SOP’s
• Review a few cases of apparatus accidents
  and their effects on the drivers, firefighters,
  department, and the fire service
• Discuss the Driver/Operator’s role in incident
  response and returning to the station
    Emergency Vehicle Condition
•   Top to Bottom and Left to Right
•   Engine Compartment
•   In the Cab
•   With Engine Started
•   Air Brakes
•   Exterior Check
•   Equipment
    Vehicle Condition - Minimum
• Driving Lights
    – Brake, Head, Tail, and Turn Signals
•   Brakes
•   Horn
•   Tires
•   Windshield
           Seat Belt Law
• The New Jersey seat belt law requires
  all front-seat occupants of passenger
  vehicles operated in New Jersey to wear
  a seat belt system. The driver is
  responsible for enforcing the seat belt
  law for passengers under 18-years-old.
  Front-seat passengers older than 18 are
  responsible for themselves.
     Seat Belts Help in a
      Number of Ways:
• They keep passengers from being
  thrown from a car in a collision.
• They prevent passengers from hitting
  the dashboard or windshield during
  severe breaking or a collision.
• They keep passengers from sliding on
  the seat during sudden stops and turns.
The driver was ejected from
         the tanker
        Safe Operations of
       Emergency Vehicles
• USFA Recommendations
  – Use Your Seatbelt
  – Ride Inside
  – Train Drivers
  – Restrict Vehicle Speed
  – Restrict Alcohol Use
           Steering the Vehicle

In normal driving, hands should be kept at 9 and 3
Blind Spots
          Speed Control
        Stopping Distances
• Start slowly, gradually increasing speed
  until safely within the legal speed limit
  and flow of traffic.
• There is no absolute formula to judge
  stopping distance. It depends on
  numerous factors
  From EFD Driver/Operator
   Training Manual -Engine
• Four Different Stopping Factors
1. Perception Distance
  – This is the distance your vehicle travels
    from the time your eyes see a hazard, until
    your brain recognizes it. The perception
    time of the average alert driver is about
    3/4 of a second. At 55 mph your vehicle
    will travel approximately 60 feet
   From EFD Driver/Operator
   Training Manual -Engine
2. Reaction Distance
  – The distance traveled from the time your
    brain tells your foot to move from the
    accelerator, until your foot is actually
    pushing on the brake pedal. The average
    alert driver has a reaction time of about
    3/4 of a second. This accounts for an
    additional 60 feet when traveling at 55
    From EFD Driver/Operator
    Training Manual -Engine
3. Brake Lag Distance
  – When accounting for the actions of the air brake
    system, at 55 mph add an additional 32 feet.
4. Effective Braking Distance
  – The distance it takes to stop once the brakes have
    been applied. At 55 mph on dry pavement, with
    good brakes, it can take a heavy vehicle about
    170 feet to stop. The time it takes is about 4 1/2
     From EFD Driver/Operator
      Training Manual -Engine
• Stopping Distance Formula

 Perception Distance          3/4 Sec      60 Feet
+Reaction Distance            +3/4 Sec + 60 Feet
+Brake Lag Distance           +1/2 Sec + 32 Feet
+Effective Braking Distance   +4 1/2 Sec +170 Feet
Total Stopping Distance       =6 3/4 Sec or 322 Feet
         Stopping Distances
•   Individual Reaction Time
•   Weather and Road Conditions
•   Vehicle Weight
•   Brake Conditions
•   Condition and Type of Tires
•   Roadway Conditions
•   Speed
            Proper Braking
• The use of brakes may seem simple, but it is
  not. A driver should always know what type
  of braking system a vehicle uses. It could be
  a conventional drum and disc system, or an
  anti-lock system (ABS).
• Apply gentle pressure to the brake pedal to
  bring the vehicle to a controlled stop.
             Speed Control
• Exceeding the speed limit is a common cause
  of fatal and other types of accidents. Always
  obey the speed limit. Speed affects almost
  everything that can happen while driving. A
  good rule is to keep up with the flow of traffic
  at any legal speed. In order to make safe or
  emergency stops when necessary, it is
  important to keep enough distance from
  surrounding traffic
New Jersey Speed Limits
      Notable Items From NJ
    Driver’s Education Program
•   Pass Only When Safe
•   Keep to the Right
•   Yielding the Right-of-Way
•   Controlled Intersections
•   Uncontrolled Intersections
 Turning Regulations - Right

• Right Turns
• Right Turn
  on Red
Turning Regulations - Left
       Stopping Regulations
• Never attempt to beat a traffic light change.
  Even if the light is changing to green,
  exercise caution. There may be one or more
  vehicles driving through the intersection.
• Accidents at traffic signals often happen
  shortly after the signal has changed.
• When a yellow light follows a green light,
  prepare to stop. Only continue through an
  intersection where the light is changing from
  green to yellow if already in the intersection.
When a Motorist Must Stop
• At an Intersection With a Stop Sign
• At an Intersection With a Red Light, Flashing or
• When a Traffic Officer Orders the Motorist to Stop
• When There Is a Yield Sign and Traffic Does Not
  Permit a Safe Merge
• When a School Bus Is Picking up or Letting off
  Children And/or Red Lights Are Flashing
• When Coming From an Alley, Private Driveway or
• For a Pedestrian in a Crosswalk or at an Intersection
Stopping for School Buses
NJ Street/Road Signs
NJ Street/Road Signs
               EFD SOP’s for
SOP 105.14   Engine Company Functions
SOP 105.03   Response Modes
SOP 103.09   Emergency Response w/Department Vehicles
SOP 105.18   Immediate Response Levels
SOP 105.01   Minimum Response Levels
SOP 103.06   Emergency Response Levels
SOP 103.07   Vehicle Backing Procedures
SOP 105.09   Engine Company Responses
SOP 105.15   Natural Gas Emergencies
SOP 105.16   EMS Engine Operations
SOP 105.02   Medivac Helicopter Landing Procedures
SOP 105.19   Hazardous Materials Incidents
SOP 105.07   Water Shuttle Operations
SOP 103.20   Highway Safety
SOP 105.05   Fire Department Radio Operations
SOP 103.11   Accident Procedures
 SOP 105.03 Response Modes
• Types Of Responses By Department
  – Emergency Response
  – Reduced Speed Response
  – Use Caution While Responding
  – Response Recalled
       Emergency Response
• All apparatus emergency lamps are in the on
  position. Apparatus audible warning devices
  utilized as needed to alert traffic of the
  vehicle's approach. All personnel utilizing full
  protective gear. Vehicle to accept the
  right of way from motorists, when it is
• During emergency responses, the speed of
  the vehicle shall be kept at a reasonable
  and lawful rate. Such conditions as
  weather, traffic congestion, and urgency of
  the call shall be evaluated while the
  apparatus is responding
   Reduced Speed Response
• No apparatus emergency lamps are
  utilized. No audible warning devices
  are utilized.
• Vehicle will obey all ordinary rules and
  laws regarding the operation of large
  vehicles and are not to seek other
  motorists right of way.
  SOP 103.09 Emergency Response
      w/Department Vehicles
• Regulated Intersections
  – When responding to an emergency, fire
    department vehicles approaching any
    regulated intersection in which they have
    the stop signal or stop sign, the
    department vehicle will come to a complete
    stop. Once all traffic has yielded, or the
    signal has changed to provide the
    apparatus with a right of way, the unit may
    proceed through the intersection
  SOP 103.09 Emergency Response
      w/Department Vehicles
• Opposing Traffic While Responding To
  An Emergency
  – At any time that an emergency unit must
    enter an opposing lane of traffic, such an
    option will be first carefully considered and
    an order to do so will be given by the
    officer of the unit.
 SOP 103.09 Emergency Response
     w/Department Vehicles
• Maximum Speed Of Emergency
  Responding Vehicles
  – The maximum for any fire department
    emergency response shall be that of the
    lawfully posted speed limit.
  SOP 103.09 Emergency Response
      w/Department Vehicles
• Distance To Be Maintained Between Fire Units
  – While responding at emergency modes, fire
    department units will maintain a minimum
    distance of 150 feet
• Proceeding On To An Emergency Scene
  – As apparatus approach the scene, the operator
    will sufficiently reduce the speed of the vehicle so
    as to be capable of bringing the vehicle to an
    immediate stop upon command of the unit officer
SOP 103.07 – Vehicle Backing
• The backing of department vehicles
  shall be avoided if at all practical
• Where backing of the apparatus is
  unavoidable, a spotter shall be utilized
  – The spotter shall be located at the front
    right corner of the apparatus and continue
    to maintain a position which is visible to
    the operator
SOP 103.07 – Vehicle Backing
• No vehicle shall be backed until the spotter(s)
  communicate the approval to the operator
• At any time that the operator looses sight of
  the spotter, the vehicle shall immediately stop
  until the spotter is again located by the
  operator, and the communication to continue
  has been given
      SOP 103.11 Accident
• The following information will be
  transmitted to the central
  communications dispatcher, A.S.A.P.:
    1. Unit involved notice
    2. Location of accident
    3. Whether the unit was responding to or from
       an assignment
    4. Injuries to firefighters or civilians
    5. If possible, determine if major or minor
• When responding to an emergency, if an
  accident occurs that is minor and the vehicle
  is still operable, the driver shall summon the
  assistance of the police department in
  addition to the required preliminary report
• The apparatus will leave the scene ONLY if
  the police officer indicates an affirmative
  response to the request
• Accidents should be considered major
    1. There are injuries requiring the services of a
       doctor or hospitalization
    2. When any of the involved vehicles cannot
    3. When there are more than two vehicles
    4. Where extensive property damage has
• Stabilization Of The Accident Scene
  – Officers and members initial obligation is to
    prevent the incident from increasing in magnitude,
    while continuing to act with the highest possible
    level of safety to the crew and civilians involved
• Medical assistance should be also sought as
  soon as possible, for crew or civilians.
  – The appropriate E.M.S. should be requested from
    the dispatcher as soon as it is determined.
•   If it becomes imperative to move apparatus
    or other vehicles then the officer in charge
    should attempt to take the following
     1. The location of the tires of all involved vehicles shall be
        marked with “T” shaped mark indicating:
         a) The outside edge of each tire, and
         b) The center line of the axle of each wheel
     2. If a trailer or other large vehicle is involved also mark
        the four corners of the vehicle.
•   Marks shall be made with a lumber, crayon,
    chalk, or any other means at hand
         SOP 103.11 Accident
• Notifications By The Officer In Charge
    1. Chief of the department
    2. Deputy Chief or SCO of that station
    3. Safety Officer of that apparatus
    4. Police Department, if the accident of a vehicle
       involved a non-fire department vehicle or if
       the accident occurred off department property
    5. The department insurance carrier, to be made
       by the department chief as soon as possible
    SOP 103.20 Highway Safety
•   The following critical personnel safety issues
    need to be considered on all roadway
      1. Never trust approaching traffic
      2. Avoid turning your back to approaching traffic
      3. Establish an initial “block” with the first arriving
         emergency vehicle or fire apparatus
      4. Always wear reflective vests, turnout coat or parka.
      5. Turn off all sources of vision impairment to approaching
         motorists at nighttime incidents including vehicle
         headlights and spotlights.
      6. Ensure advance warning and adequate transition area
         traffic control measures upstream of incident to reduce
         travel speeds of approaching motorists
    SOP 103.20 Highway Safety
•   The following critical issues need to be
    considered on roadway incidents.
      1. Always position first arriving apparatus to protect the
         scene, patients, and emergency personnel
      2. Initial fire apparatus placement should provide a work
         area protected from traffic approaching in at least one
      3. Angle apparatus on the roadway with a “block to the
         left” or a “block to the right” to create a physical barrier
         between the crash scene and approaching traffic
      4. Allow apparatus placement to slow approaching
         motorists and redirect them around the scene
SOP 103.20 Highway Safety
  1. When practical, position apparatus in such a manner to
     protect the pump operator position from being exposed
     to approaching traffic
  2. Positioning of large apparatus must create a safe
     parking area for EMS units and other fire vehicles.
     Operating personnel, equipment and patients should be
     kept within the “shadow” created by the blocking
     apparatus at all times
  3. When blocking with apparatus to protect the
     emergency scene, establish a sufficient size work zone
     that includes all damaged vehicles, roadway debris, the
     patient triage and treatment area, the extrication work
     area, personnel and tool staging area and the
     ambulance loading zone
SOP 103.20 Highway Safety
1.   Ambulances should be positioned within the protected
     work area with their rear patient loading door area angled
     away from the nearest lanes of moving traffic
2.   Command shall stage unneeded emergency vehicles off
     the roadway or return these units to service as quickly as
3.   At all intersections, or where the incident may be near the
     middle lane of the roadway, two or more sides of the
     incident will need to be protected
4.   Warning provided for approaching motorists. Traffic cones
     shall be deployed at 15 foot intervals upstream of the
     blocking apparatus with the furthest traffic cone
     approximately 75 feet upstream to allow adequate
     advance warning to drivers
SOP 103.20 Highway Safety
1. Police vehicles must be strategically positioned
   to expand the initial safe work zone for traffic
   approaching from opposing directions. The goal
   is to effectively block all exposed sides of the
   work zone. The blocking of the work zone by
   police must be prioritized, from the most critical
   or highest traffic volume flow to the least critical
   traffic direction
2. Traffic cones shall be deployed from the rear of
   the blocking emergency vehicles toward
   approaching traffic to increase the advance
   warning area
                   Case Studies
• February 16, 2005 – FDNY Fire Truck Crashes into Passenger
  Car at Traffic Light
• March 20, 2002 - Volunteer Fire Fighter Dies After Being Struck
  by Motor Vehicle on Interstate Highway
• April 7, 2002 - Volunteer Fire Fighter Dies and Two are Injured
  in Engine Rollover
• July 28, 2003 - One Volunteer Lieutenant Dies and a Volunteer
  Fire Fighter is Seriously Injured in a Motor Vehicle Rollover
  Incident While En-route to a Trailer Fire
• November 17, 2003 - Career Captain/Safety Officer Dies in a
  Single Motor Vehicle Crash While Responding To a Call
FDNY Fire Truck Crashes into
Passenger Car at Traffic Light
Volunteer Fire Fighter Dies After Being
Struck by Motor Vehicle on Interstate
Volunteer Fire Fighter Dies and Two
   are Injured in Engine Rollover
•One Volunteer Lieutenant Dies and a Volunteer Fire
   Fighter is Seriously Injured in a Motor Vehicle
  Rollover Incident While En-route to a Trailer Fire
Career Captain/Safety Officer Dies in
 a Single Motor Vehicle Crash While
        Responding To a Call
1. Negligence and the Emergency Vehicle
2. Driving with Due Regard
4. Apparatus Operational Considerations –
   John Mittendorf
Let’s Be Careful Out There!
After all, you can’t do anything
 here if you don’t get there
Have A Great Night!

     Stay Safe!
Safety is Everyone’s Responsibility
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