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Neutrino Experiments

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					               Neutrino Experiments
               Status, recent progress, prospects


                            Steve Brice
                             Fermilab




EPS HEP 2007          Steve Brice    Fermilab       1
Intro      12 Sector                        23 Sector                 13 Sector             Mass         Summary

                               Mixing Matrix and Masses
 ν e   c12            s12      01         0     0   c13          0   s13eiδ   1     0          0      ν1 
                                                                                                     
 ν μ  =  -s12      c12         00      c 23    s 23   0          1     0 0        eiα/2       0   ν2 
ν   0                          10              c 23   -s13e-iδ        c13   0              eiα/2+iβ   ν 3 
 τ                  0                  -s 23                     0                 0                 

                                                                         3s Ranges
  Normal hierarchy                             Inverted hierarchy
                               (m3)2   (m2)2
                                                         Dm221
                                                                         Dm221   : (7.0 - 9.1) × 10-5 eV2
                                       (m1)2
                                                                         TAN2q12 : 0.34 – 0.62

                                       ne                                Dm232   : (1.9 – 2.98) × 10-3 eV2
           Dm2   32                                                      TAN2q23 : 0.49 – 2.2
                                       nm
                                                        Dm231
                                       nt                                SIN2q13 ≤ 0.045
                                                                         d unknown
                               (m2)2
                                                                         Hierarchy unknown
           Dm2   21

                               (m1)2   (m3)2                             mlightest < 2.2 eV
                                                                         Dirac or Majorana unknown
            m2lightest                                   m2lightest
                                                                               [updated from Gonzalez-Garcia PASI 2006]

 EPS HEP 2007                                          Steve Brice             Fermilab                             2
Intro   12 Sector            23 Sector                13 Sector          Mass          Summary


                               Talk Overview
         • Intro
                – More than 3 neutrino types?
         • 12 Sector
         • 23 Sector
                – Is q23 maximal?
         • 13 Sector
                – What is the value of q13?
                – How are the mass eigenstates ordered?
                – Is CP violated?
         • Mass
                – What are the values of the neutrino masses?
                – Are neutrinos their own anti-particles?
         • Summary

 Philosophy:- Describe the status of the field, highlighting progress
 made in the last 2 years (since last EPS HEP conference), and
 outlining prospects for the near (~5 year) future.
        Connections to the parallel talks given last week will be highlighted in red

 EPS HEP 2007                           Steve Brice           Fermilab                     3
Intro   12 Sector             23 Sector               13 Sector         Mass      Summary


                      Not Covered in this Talk
    –   Theoretical developments – see next talk
    –   Cosmic ray neutrinos (e.g. IceCube) – see previous talk
    –   Neutrinos in cosmology
    –   Neutrino magnetic moment searches
         • Recent result: A.G. Beda et al., "The first result of the neutrino magnetic
           moment measurement in GEMMA", arXiv:0705.4576
         • < 5.8 x 10^{-11} mB 90% CL
    – BB Relic neutrinos
         • M. Messina parallel talk Fri AM
    – Experiments more than ~5 years distant
         • Superbeams beyond NOnA and T2K
         • Neutrino Factory
         • Beta Beams
                – C. Espinoza parallel talk Thu PM (EC Beam)
                – T. Tabarelli parallel talk Thu PM (Beta Beam and Atmospheric)
                – C. Orme parallel talk Thu PM (Beta Beam)




 EPS HEP 2007                           Steve Brice          Fermilab                    4
Intro     12 Sector          23 Sector              13 Sector         Mass   Summary


                                      LSND

 • LSND:
        – Excess of ne events in a nm beam
        – 87.9 ± 22.4 ± 6.0 over background
        – ~4s evidence for n oscillation



 L/E dictates Dm2 be very different
 from the well established solar and
 atmospheric Dm2s.

 Z width dictates 3 light, active
 neutrinos and therefore only
 2 independent Dm2s

 Therefore is the LSND result evidence for a sterile neutrino?


 EPS HEP 2007                         Steve Brice          Fermilab              5
Intro      12 Sector             23 Sector                 13 Sector               Mass   Summary

                                      MiniBooNE
                        Keep L/E same as LSND
          while changing systematics, energy & event signature
                          P(nm ne)= sin22q sin2(1.27Dm2L/E)

    target and horn           decay region         absorber                 dirt          detector




        Booster
                                      K+
                                      p+                    nm  ne ???

           primary beam       secondary beam                tertiary beam
              (protons)          (mesons)                     (neutrinos)

           Order of magnitude                            Order of magnitude
        higher energy (~500 MeV)                      longer baseline (~500 m)
          than LSND (~30 MeV)                            than LSND (~30 m)
 EPS HEP 2007                                Steve Brice             Fermilab                        6
Intro    12 Sector              23 Sector            13 Sector         Mass   Summary


                              MiniBooNE Result
                                            No ne excess in oscillation signal region
                                               but 96 ± 17 ± 20 events above
                                             background, for 300<EnQE<475MeV




  Two independent analyses show
     no evidence for nm ne
   appearance-only oscillations.
   M. Sorel parallel talk Fri AM
   M. Maltoni parallel talk Fri AM


 EPS HEP 2007                          Steve Brice          Fermilab              7
Intro      12 Sector                        23 Sector                 13 Sector             Mass         Summary

                                             The 12 Sector
 ν e   c12            s12      01         0     0   c13          0   s13e iδ   1     0         0       ν1 
                                                                                                      
 ν μ  =  -s12      c12         00      c 23    s 23   0          1     0 0         e iα/2      0   ν2 
ν   0                           
                                  10              c 23   -s13e-iδ        c13   0
                                                                                                   eiα/2+iβ   ν 3 
 τ                  0                   -s 23                     0                     0                

                                                                         3s Ranges
  Normal hierarchy                             Inverted hierarchy
                               (m3)2   (m2)2
                                                         Dm221
                                                                         Dm221   : (7.0 - 9.1) × 10-5 eV2
                                       (m1)2
                                                                         TAN2q12 : 0.34 – 0.62

                                       ne                                Dm232   : (1.9 – 2.98) × 10-3 eV2
           Dm2   32                                                      TAN2q23 : 0.49 – 2.2
                                       nm
                                                        Dm231
                                       nt                                SIN2q13 ≤ 0.045
                                                                         d unknown
                               (m2)2
                                                                         Hierarchy unknown
           Dm2   21

                               (m1)2   (m3)2                             mlightest < 2.2 eV
                                                                         Dirac or Majorana unknown
            m2lightest                                   m2lightest
                                                                               [updated from Gonzalez-Garcia PASI 2006]

 EPS HEP 2007                                          Steve Brice             Fermilab                             8
Intro    12 Sector            23 Sector               13 Sector         Mass       Summary


                How to Measure the 12 Sector
Probed by measuring neutrino disappearance
in solar neutrino experiments
                   sin 2 q12             En > ~5 MeV
               
P(n e  n e)      1
               (1  sin 2 2q12 )         En < ~2 MeV
                   2

                                                                          A. De Gouvea NUSS 07

Also probed by measuring anti-neutrino
disappearance with the Kamland reactor
neutrino experiment

P (n e  n e )  1  sin 2 2q12 sin 2 (1.27 Dm 212 L / E )        For En/L = O(Dm122)
                                                             L(km), E(MeV), Dm2(10-3eV2)


 EPS HEP 2007                           Steve Brice          Fermilab                        9
Intro     12 Sector                23 Sector            13 Sector            Mass         Summary

                                           SNO
                                                 CC = 1.68+0..06 ( stat.)+0..08 ( sys.) 106 cm2 s 1
                                                           0 06          0 09

                                                 ES = 2.35+0..22 ( stat.)+0..15 ( sys.) 106 cm2 s 1
                                                           
                                                             0 22
                                                                          
                                                                            0 15


                                                 NC = 4.94+0..21 ( stat.)+0..38 ( sys.) 106 cm2 s 1
                                                           0 21          0 34

                                                 BP04 = 5.82  1.34 106 cm2 s 1

                                                    Flavor content of solar flux.




 Solved the solar neutrino problem
 Charged current measurement of electron
 flavour coupled with neutral current
 measurement of all active flavours provides
 conclusive proof of flavour transformation
 S. Peeters parallel talk Fri AM
 EPS HEP 2007                             Steve Brice            Fermilab                          10
Intro   12 Sector       23 Sector                13 Sector         Mass   Summary


                                Kamland

 Use n e + p  e + + n in 1000 tons of liquid
 scintillator to measure disappearance of ne
 produced by large number of Japanese reactors




                                                     Clear evidence for oscillation
                                                     not merely disappearance

                        S. Enomoto WIN05

 EPS HEP 2007                      Steve Brice          Fermilab               11
Intro   12 Sector                      23 Sector            13 Sector            Mass   Summary


                                   State of 12 Sector


                  Dm221 [eV2]
                                10-4




                                10-5


                                                               Schwetz hep/ph 0606060
                                                   sin2q12     Dashed = 90% CL
                                                               Solid and shaded = 99.73% CL

Crucial input also from the Chlorine, Super-K, SAGE, and GALLEX solar n experiments

 EPS HEP 2007                                 Steve Brice           Fermilab                12
Intro      12 Sector          23 Sector             13 Sector         Mass     Summary

           Upcoming 12 Sector Measurements

 • SNO
        – Phase 3 (NCDs) results expected soon
 • Kamland II (Solar Neutrino Phase)
        – Scintillator purification ongoing
 • Borexino                                                             Shimizu DBD07

        – Detector complete
        – Data taking started May 16
 • Kamland and Borexino plan to use neutrino scattering from
   electrons to measure Ev~1-2 MeV
        – See the change in    P(n e  n e ) from MSW effect

 • Other efforts to measure 1-2 MeV solar neutrinos
        – SNO+, LENA
 • Several collaborations looking to measure solar neutrinos below
   ~1 MeV using inverse beta decay
        – LENS(115In), MOON(100Mo), SIREN(160Gd)
 EPS HEP 2007                         Steve Brice          Fermilab                     13
Intro      12 Sector                        23 Sector                 13 Sector             Mass         Summary

                                             The 23 Sector
 ν e   c12            s12      01         0     0   c13          0   s13eiδ   1     0          0       ν1 
                                                                                                      
 ν μ  =  -s12       c12        00      c 23    s 23   0          1     0 0        e iα/2       0   ν2 
ν   0                          10                   
                                                    c 23   -s13e-iδ        c13   0              e iα/2+iβ   ν 3 
 τ                   0                 -s 23                      0                  0                 

                                                                         3s Ranges
  Normal hierarchy                             Inverted hierarchy
                               (m3)2   (m2)2
                                                         Dm221
                                                                         Dm221   : (7.0 - 9.1) × 10-5 eV2
                                       (m1)2
                                                                         TAN2q12 : 0.34 – 0.62

                                       ne                                Dm232   : (1.9 – 2.98) × 10-3 eV2
           Dm2   32                                                      TAN2q23 : 0.49 – 2.2
                                       nm
                                                        Dm231
                                       nt                                SIN2q13 ≤ 0.045
                                                                         d unknown
                               (m2)2
                                                                         Hierarchy unknown
            Dm2   21

                               (m1)2   (m3)2                             mlightest < 2.2 eV
                                                                         Dirac or Majorana unknown
            m2lightest                                   m2lightest
                                                                               [updated from Gonzalez-Garcia PASI 2006]

 EPS HEP 2007                                          Steve Brice             Fermilab                            14
Intro   12 Sector           23 Sector               13 Sector         Mass   Summary


                How to Measure the 23 Sector

Probed by measuring muon neutrino disappearance
in atmospheric neutrino experiments

            P(n m n m )  1  sin2 2q23 sin 2 (1.27Dm223 L / E)
                                              L(km), E(GeV), m(eV)
The same oscillations can also be measured by measuring
muon neutrino disappearance from beam created at accelerators




 EPS HEP 2007                         Steve Brice          Fermilab              15
Intro    12 Sector             23 Sector            13 Sector         Mass      Summary


            Atmospheric Neutrinos at SuperK
   “Atmospheric Neutrino Anomaly”
   caused by muon neutrinos oscillating
   away. Presumably into tau neutrinos

   SuperK has some evidence for tau
   neutrino appearance – Need CNGS
   confirmation
   K. Kaneyuki parallel talk Fri AM
                                                                        Kajita NuSS 2007




 EPS HEP 2007                         Steve Brice          Fermilab                        16
Intro   12 Sector      23 Sector             13 Sector             Mass        Summary


   K2K: Confirming Atmospheric Oscilllations
                                                                     Nskobs    Nskpred
                                                    All                112      155.9
                                                    1 ring                67     99.0
                                                          m-like          58     90.8
                                                          e-like           9      8.2
                                                    multi-ring            45     56.8




  First accelerator confirmation
  of atmospheric neutrino
  oscillations came from K2K


 EPS HEP 2007                  Steve Brice          Fermilab                             17
Intro   12 Sector        23 Sector               13 Sector          Mass   Summary


                                   MINOS
                    Far detector            Far Detector:
                                            Soudan, Minnesota, 735 km from target
                                            5.4 kton mass
                                            484 steel/scintillator planes, 8x8x30 m3




                                                 Near Detector:
                                                 Fermilab, 1km from target
                                                 1 kton mass
                                                 282 steel planes
                     Near detector               153 scintillator planes, 3.8x4.8x15 m3
 EPS HEP 2007                      Steve Brice           Fermilab                 18
Intro    12 Sector               23 Sector            13 Sector         Mass       Summary


            New MINOS Result Last Thursday
   2.50 POT analyzed ≈ 2x statistics of 2006 result
   Also improved modeling, reconstruction, and PID
                                                              Dm23 = 2.38+0..20 103 eV 2
                                                                2
                                                                          0 16

                                                         sin 2 2 23 = 1.000.08
                                                               2      41.2
                                                                     =
                                                             N DoF      32




                                 Comparison of
                                 new and old
                                 MINOS results
 A. Weber parallel talk Thu PM
 EPS HEP 2007                           Steve Brice          Fermilab                    19
Intro   12 Sector    23 Sector            13 Sector         Mass   Summary


                Current State of 23 Sector




 EPS HEP 2007               Steve Brice          Fermilab              20
Intro      12 Sector              23 Sector                 13 Sector          Mass              Summary

                                              Opera
A hybrid emulsion                      m spectrometer: Dipolar magnet + RPC chambers
and tracking detector
                             n                Hall B
                                                                      Precision tracker: Drift tubes
                                                                                     brick
                                                                                    (56 Pb/Em. “cells”)
Goal: Verify that the nm
are oscillating into nt


                                                                                              8
Pb target 1.8 kton                                                         module            cm
                                                                                             (10X
                                                                                               0)


CNGS:                                  Target Trackers
Beam <En> ≈ 17 GeV
Baseline 732 km                        Pb/Em. target                       brick wall
                                                                           scintillator strips
Expected event rate:
~3600 n NC+CC /kton/year
~16 nt CC /kton/year

(for sin22q23=1, Dm322=2.5x10-3 eV2)            G. Wilquet parallel talk Thu PM

                                 A. Murst Guler parallel talk Thu PM (Assoc. Charm Prod.)

 EPS HEP 2007                                 Steve Brice          Fermilab                               21
Intro   12 Sector      23 Sector            13 Sector         Mass   Summary


                         Opera Latest

 Tracking tested with CNGS runs in Aug and Oct 2006

 Brick installation started Sep 2006 (~20000 currently stored)

 May 2007 cosmic ray test with 15000 bricks.
        Tested chain:
        Prediction / Brick Extraction / Development / Scanning
        Worked well

 Sep 2007 CNGS neutrino beam on 50000-60000 bricks.

 Full (170,000 Bricks) planned for Mar 2008.


                                                                     Sato DBD07




 EPS HEP 2007                 Steve Brice          Fermilab                  22
Intro      12 Sector                        23 Sector                 13 Sector             Mass         Summary

                                             The 13 Sector
 ν e   c12            s12      01         0     0   c13          0   s13eiδ   1     0          0      ν1 
                                                                                                     
 ν μ  =  -s12       c12        00      c 23    s 23   0          1     0 0        e iα/2      0   ν2 
ν   0                0            
                                  10      -s 23        
                                                    c 23   -s13e-iδ                
                                                                             c13   0       0                
                                                                                                    eiα/2+iβ   ν 3 
 τ                                                                 0          

                                                                         3s Ranges
  Normal hierarchy                             Inverted hierarchy
                               (m3)2   (m2)2
                                                         Dm221
                                                                         Dm221   : (7.0 - 9.1) × 10-5 eV2
                                       (m1)2
                                                                         TAN2q12 : 0.34 – 0.62

                                       ne                                Dm232   : (1.9 – 2.98) × 10-3 eV2
           Dm2   32                                                      TAN2q23 : 0.49 – 2.2
                                       nm
                                                        Dm231
                                       nt                                SIN2q13 ≤ 0.045
                                                                         d unknown
                               (m2)2
                                                                         Hierarchy unknown
            Dm2   21

                               (m1)2   (m3)2                             mlightest < 2.2 eV
                                                                         Dirac or Majorana unknown
            m2lightest                                   m2lightest
                                                                               [updated from Gonzalez-Garcia PASI 2006]

 EPS HEP 2007                                          Steve Brice             Fermilab                            23
Intro      12 Sector            23 Sector                13 Sector         Mass     Summary


                 How to Measure the 13 Sector
   Probed by measuring the
   disappearance of reactor produced
   electron anti-neutrinos.

   Need to work at an L/E matched to
   the atmospheric Dm2
   (C.F. Kamland measurement at solar
   Dm2)


        P(n e  n e ) = 1  cos 4 q13 sin 2 2q12 sin 2 D 21
                         sin 2 2q13 (cos 2 q12 sin 2 D31 + sin 2 q12 sin 2 D32 )

 Dij  1.27Dm2ij L / E
 L(km), E(MeV), m(10-3eV)
 EPS HEP 2007                              Steve Brice          Fermilab                24
Intro    12 Sector                23 Sector                  13 Sector               Mass            Summary


        How to Measure the 13 Sector (cont)
  Also probed by measuring electron neutrino appearance from
  accelerator produced muon neutrinos
  Need to have an L and E such that interference between solar and
  atmospheric scales can bee seen
                                     sin 2 (D 31 aL) 2
  P (n m  n e ) = sin q 23 sin 2q13
                     2       2
                                                    D 31
                                       (D 31 aL) 2
                                   sin 2 (aL) 2
               + cos q 23 sin 2q12
                     2        2
                                           2
                                             D 21
                                     (aL)
                                                             sin(D 31 aL)        sin(aL)      
               + cos d sin 2q 23 sin 2q12 sin 2q13 cos D 32               D 31           D 21 
                                                             (D 31 aL)           ( aL)        
                                                             sin(D 31 aL)        sin(aL)      
               + sin d sin 2q 23 sin 2q12 sin 2q13 sin D 32               D 31           D 21 
                                                             (D 31 aL)           (aL)         

  P(n m  n e ) : sin d   sin d , a   a                                  Dij  1.27Dm2ij L / E
  Matter effect a  GF Ne / 2  (4000 km)1                                L(km), E(GeV), m(eV)
 EPS HEP 2007                                  Steve Brice              Fermilab                         25
Intro   12 Sector                  23 Sector            13 Sector         Mass       Summary


                              Current State of q13 Sector
                          10-2
                Dm231 [eV2]




                          10-3



                                          sin2q13
                                                                          Schwetz hep/ph 0606060

 EPS HEP 2007                             Steve Brice          Fermilab                       26
Intro     12 Sector           23 Sector            13 Sector         Mass   Summary


                    How to Improve on Chooz
 • Increase statistics:
        – Use more powerful nuclear reactors
        – Utilize larger target mass, hence larger detectors
 • Suppress background:
        – Go deeper underground to gain overburden for reducing cosmogenic
          background
 • Reduce systematic uncertainties:
        – Reactor-related:
           • Optimize baseline for best sensitivity and smaller reactor-related
             errors
           • Near and far detectors to minimize reactor-related errors
        – Detector-related:
           • Use “Identical” pairs of detectors to do relative measurement
           • Comprehensive program in calibration/monitoring of detectors
           • Interchange near and far detectors (optional)

                                                                            Peng DBD07
G. Mention parallel talk Thu AM

 EPS HEP 2007                        Steve Brice          Fermilab                  27
Intro   12 Sector   23 Sector            13 Sector            Mass        Summary

                     Double Chooz




                                         0.28 km                          1.05 km




    Near Far

                                                               Suekane DBD07

                                    I. Gil Botella parallel talk Thu AM


 EPS HEP 2007              Steve Brice             Fermilab                     28
Intro   12 Sector   23 Sector            13 Sector          Mass       Summary

                        Daya Bay




                                             V. Vorobel parallel talk Thu AM
 EPS HEP 2007              Steve Brice           Fermilab                      29
Intro    12 Sector            23 Sector               13 Sector         Mass     Summary

                          Double Chooz Latest
 •   Final stages of R&D
 •   Detector construction starts this year
 •   First data taking expected to start in 2008 with far detector
      – Get down to sin22q13 < 0.06 in 1.5 years
 •   Start taking data with both detectors in 2010
      – Get down to sin22q13 < 0.025 in 3 years                                Suekane DBD07




                              Daya Bay Latest
 •   Oct 2006: Passed DOE scientific review
 •   Apr 2007
      – Passed DOE CD-1 review
      – Passed final nuclear safety review in China
      – Began to receive 3 year project funding from Chinese agencies
 •   Jun 2007: Began civil construction
 •   Oct 2007: Anticipate DOE CD-2/3a review
 •   May 2009: Start data taking with 2 detectors at Daya Bay near hall
 •   Apr 2010: Start data taking with 8 detector final configuration            Peng DBD07


Other reactor efforts ongoing: Angra (Brazil), RENO (Korea)
 EPS HEP 2007                           Steve Brice          Fermilab                     30
Intro           12 Sector              23 Sector                13 Sector         Mass    Summary


                                        Off Axis Beams

                                         Far
                         Near          Detector                                   Dm2=3x10-3eV2
                        Detector                                                  L=295km
               Decay Pipe
Target Horns
                                   q

                                                                                         nm
• Increases flux on osc. max.
• Reduces high-E tail, and                                                               OA2°
  thus NC backgrounds
• Reduces ne contamination
  from K and m decay



  EPS HEP 2007                                    Steve Brice          Fermilab                   31
Intro       12 Sector   23 Sector            13 Sector         Mass   Summary

                               NOnA
Far detector:
18 kton, fully active segmented detector
12 km off NuMI beamline axis
810 km baseline




  optical
  fibre




 EPS HEP 2007                  Steve Brice          Fermilab              32
Intro     12 Sector          23 Sector               13 Sector         Mass   Summary


                         NOnA Near Detector

186 liquid scintillator planes in target
10 in muon ranger, 1m steel

Same cell size as far detector
Readout from one side per plane
with APDs plus faster electronics
than far detector




                                            Requires some additional excavation in
                                            NuMI tunnel in order for detector to be at
                                            proper 14 mrad angle



  EPS HEP 2007                         Steve Brice          Fermilab              33
Intro   12 Sector   23 Sector              13 Sector         Mass       Summary

                               T2K
 Beam from JPARC to SuperK




                                               M. Zito parallel talk Thu AM


 EPS HEP 2007                Steve Brice          Fermilab                    34
Intro   12 Sector    23 Sector            13 Sector          Mass     Summary


        T2K Near Detector (@280m Offaxis)

                                   Magnet                          FGDs
                            Magnet coils                    TPCs
                                         ECAL
                            yoke
Near Detector @ 280m
   Built inside UA1/NOMAD magnet
      for pm measurement
   Sandwich calorimeters/trackers
      and TPCs for precision beam
      spectrum and composition
      measurement.
   Particular attention paid to
      measuring p0 from neutral
      current interactions
                                                                   tracker
                                               p0 detector


 EPS HEP 2007               Steve Brice          Fermilab                    35
Intro   12 Sector      23 Sector            13 Sector         Mass   Summary


                          NOnA Latest
 • Accelerator upgrades merged with NOnA detector project Dec 20
   2006 (upgrades for a 700kW source)
 • Cap on total project cost of $260M put in place late Dec 2006
 • DOE CD1 approval announced May 11
 • Currently working to get cost below $260M
 • Hoping to start detector construction in 2010 and have 700kW
   source on same timescale

                           T2K Latest
 •   JPARC Linac beam commissioning Dec 2006
 •   First horn prototype operated successfully with 8.5x105 pulses
 •   JPARC Rapid Cycling Synchrotron Beam Commissioning Sep 2007
 •   JPARC Main Ring Beam Commissioning: May, 2008
 •   Hoping for first data April 2009
 •   Ramp up to 750kW source by 2012
 EPS HEP 2007                 Steve Brice          Fermilab              36
Intro    12 Sector                23 Sector            13 Sector         Mass   Summary


     An Aside on GeV Neutrino Cross Sections
                              Compilation of nm CC Quasi-Elastic Cross-Section Measurements
  The CCQE xsec is
  the best known!!

  Background xsecs
  for NOna and T2K
  are known much
  more poorly

  If NOnA and T2K
  are to perform as
  we hope then the
  xsecs need to be
  better constrained

  A. Bodek parallel talk Thu PM

 EPS HEP 2007                            Steve Brice          Fermilab                 37
Intro     12 Sector             23 Sector                13 Sector          Mass      Summary


                Cross-Sections with MiniBooNE
By almost 2 orders of magnitude
MiniBooNE has the largest ~1 GeV
neutrino data set ever taken.

A range of Cross-Section measurements
are planned:-
•CC Quasi-elastic (MA, osc signal channel)
•NC elastic (compare to CC QE)
•CC p+ (disapp. osc. bkgd, coh. prod.)
•NC p0 (osc bkgd., coh. prod.)
•CC p0 (compare to NC channel)

 First CCQE paper completed (arXiv:0706.0926 [hep-ex])


Cross-Sections are also being                        A. Blondel parallel talk Thu PM (HARP)
published by the K2K collaboration                   M. Wascko/B. Roe parallel talk Fri AM

 EPS HEP 2007                              Steve Brice           Fermilab                     38
Intro     12 Sector             23 Sector               13 Sector          Mass   Summary


                 Cross-Sections with SciBooNE
Idea: Put well developed
K2K SciBar detector into
the well understood FNAL
Booster Neutrino Beamline

•Precision measurement of xsecs for T2K
•BNB beam well matched to T2K beam
•Low cost (<$1M)
 SciBooNE Timeline
 • 2005, Summer - Collaboration formed
 • 2005, Dec - Proposal
 • 2006, Jul - Detectors move to FNAL
 • 2006, Sep - Groundbreaking
 • 2006, Nov - EC Assembly
 • 2007, Feb - SciBar Assembly
 • 2007, Mar - MRD Assembly
 • 2007, Mar - Cosmic Ray Data
 • 2007, Apr - Detector Installation
 • 2007, May - Commissioning
 • 2007, Jun - Neutrino Data Run
                                   M. Wascko parallel talk Fri AM
 EPS HEP 2007                             Steve Brice           Fermilab              39
Intro    12 Sector            23 Sector               13 Sector         Mass      Summary


                Cross-Sections with MINERnA
   High granularity detector in NuMI beamline
   Large physics program including xsec measurements at a few GeV




    “Chewy center (active target), with a crunchy shell of muon, hadron, and EM absorbers”


 The nSNS experiment is planning to measure cross-sections of 10-50 MeV neutrinos
 produced by stopped pions and muons at SNS. Necessary input to supernova calculations
 EPS HEP 2007                           Steve Brice          Fermilab                    40
Intro      12 Sector                        23 Sector                 13 Sector             Mass         Summary

                                                   The Masses
 ν e   c12            s12      01         0     0   c13          0   s13e iδ   1    0          0      ν1 
                                                                                                     
 ν μ  =  -s12      c12         00      c 23    s 23   0          1     0 0         eiα/2      0   ν2 
ν   0               0          10      -s 23   c 23   -s13e-iδ        c13   0
                                                                                                  eiα/2+iβ   ν 3 
 τ                                                               0                    0                

                                                                         3s Ranges
  Normal hierarchy                             Inverted hierarchy
                               (m3)2   (m2)2
                                                         Dm221
                                                                         Dm221   : (7.0 - 9.1) × 10-5 eV2
                                       (m1)2
                                                                         TAN2q12 : 0.34 – 0.62

                                       ne                                Dm232   : (1.9 – 2.98) × 10-3 eV2
           Dm2   32                                                      TAN2q23 : 0.49 – 2.2
                                       nm
                                                        Dm231
                                       nt                                SIN2q13 ≤ 0.045
                                                                         d unknown
                               (m2)2
                                                                         Hierarchy unknown
           Dm2   21

                               (m1)2   (m3)2                             mlightest < 2.2 eV
                                                                         Dirac or Majorana unknown
            m2lightest                                   m2lightest
                                                                               [updated from Gonzalez-Garcia PASI 2006]

 EPS HEP 2007                                          Steve Brice             Fermilab                            41
Intro   12 Sector              23 Sector                 13 Sector            Mass         Summary


                 How to Measure the Masses
 Direct kinematic search: Look for a distortion at the end-point
 of a b decay spectrum.
                                                                      1
         dN
            = C F ( Z , E ) pE ( E0  E ) | U ei | [( E0  E )  mi ] ( E0  E  mi )
                                                   2                2 2

         dE                              i




Low endpoint energy optimal therefore use tritium (18.6keV)
         (Also an effort to use   187Re   with 7x lower endpoint)
Existing limit from tritium endpoint measurement: mn < 2.2eV 95% CL
                                                                               (Mainz and Troitsk groups)
 EPS HEP 2007                              Steve Brice            Fermilab                            42
Intro     12 Sector                 23 Sector                    13 Sector            Mass    Summary


                                                  Katrin
                                                                          Main spectrometer


         Gaseous tritium source   Transport section   Pre-spectrometer                            Detector




  Improve mn by x10 (2.2                   0.2 eV)
  •Stronger Tritium source (x80)
  •Longer measuring peroid (100     1000 days)
  •Better spectrometer (DE=0.93eV)
  •Smaller systematics, reduced energy losses


                                                      2005 vacuum tests of pre-spectrometer
                                                      2006 electromagn. tests of pre-spectrometer,
                                                      main spectrometer on site
                                                      2007 source demonstrator, inner electrode
                                                      mounting
                                                      2008 commissioning of WGTS, tritium loops,
                                                      em. test of spectrometers
                                                      2009 system integration & first tritium runs
                                                      regular data taking for 5-6 years

  Spectrometer being transported Nov 2006
                                                                                              G. Drexlin
 EPS HEP 2007                                     Steve Brice            Fermilab                          43
Intro   12 Sector       23 Sector             13 Sector              Mass        Summary


          How to Measure the Masses (cont)
 Search for 0n double b decay:                                               0νββ
 In many even-even nuclei, b decay
 is energetically forbidden.This leaves
 bb as the allowed decay mode.                             2νββ
 2nbb decay has been observed in
 several nuclei, but 0nbb has not yet.
                                                                              (Te1+Te2 ) / Qββ
 If observed it would imply a massive Majorana neutrino

                                               0n = G0v | M0n |2 mbb 2

                                    G0n = phase space factor (~Q5)
                                    M0n = nuclear matrix element
                                     mbb  | Ue1 |2 m1 + eib | U e 2 |2 m2 + eia | U e3 |2 m3
                                    a,b are the Majorana phases
 EPS HEP 2007                   Steve Brice             Fermilab                           44
Intro    12 Sector           23 Sector              13 Sector             Mass          Summary


                   0nbb Decay Measurements
Survey of some past and present experiments




                                                                A. Nucciotti arXiv:0707.2216 [nucl-ex]

 Timescales:         t1/2(U,Th) ~ Tuniverse
                     t1/2(2nbb) ~ 1010Tuniverse
                     t1/2(0nbb) ~ 1017Tuniverse

  Soldner-Rembold parallel talk Thu AM (NEMO-3)

 EPS HEP 2007                         Steve Brice          Fermilab                               45
Intro   12 Sector          23 Sector               13 Sector         Mass   Summary


                                  Ge Claim


 Heidelberg-Moscow (in Gran Sasso)
 • Enriched Ge detectors
 • Operating 1990-2003
 • Total exposure ~71.7 kg·y
 • Longest running 0nbb expt. by far
 • Part of collaboration claim:
 • T1/2 = (0.7 – 4.2)·1025 y (3 σ)
 • mbb ≈ 0.44 eV




 EPS HEP 2007                        Steve Brice          Fermilab              46
Intro   12 Sector            23 Sector            13 Sector         Mass   Summary


   Combining 0nbb and Oscillation Knowledge
 Switch “bases” from (m1,m2,m3) to (Dm212,Dm322,mlightest)

 Dm212,Dm322 come from oscillation experiments
 Majorana phases a,b completely unknown
 mlightest could be constrained by 0nbb decay
                                                        Ge claim
 Very interesting distinction
 between the normal and
 inverted mass hierarchies

 Normal hierarchy:
 At least one neutrino has
 mi>√(Dm322)≈0.05eV

 Inverted hierarchy:
 At least two neutrinos have
 mi>√(Dm322)≈0.05eV

 EPS HEP 2007                       Steve Brice          Fermilab              47
Intro   12 Sector     23 Sector            13 Sector             Mass          Summary


                    Future 0nbb Prospects
  A sample of the proposed experiments




                                                    A. Nucciotti arXiv:0707.2216 [nucl-ex]




                                  I. Bandac parallel talk Thu AM (CUORE)
                                  K. Kroeninger parallel talk Thu AM (GERDA)

 EPS HEP 2007                Steve Brice           Fermilab                                  48
Intro   12 Sector     23 Sector             13 Sector         Mass   Summary


                           Summary

 • The last decade has been revolutionary in neutrino physics

 • The next decade promises an even more rapid development of our
   understanding

 • The masses and mixings are giving us hints of physics well
   beyond the Standard Model

 • Can we develop these hints?

 • In the upcoming era of LHC physics the neutrino realm will
   provide a unique and independent source of knowledge



 EPS HEP 2007                 Steve Brice          Fermilab              49

				
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