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					     Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence. Common elements of music are pitch (which
         governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation),
μ;ekisuom( ήκισυομdynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. The word derives from Greek
                                                                                             μ]1[.)"sehμk μhtmμoisms"
     The creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of music vary according to culture and
    social context. Music ranges from strictly organized compositions (and their recreation in performance),
           through improvisational music to aleatoric forms. Music can be divided into genres and subgenres,
   although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are often subtle, sometimes open to
     individual interpretation, and occasionally controversial. Within "the arts", music may be classified as a
              performing art, a fine art, and auditory art. There is also a strong connection between music and
   To many people in many cultures, music is an important part of their way of life. Greek philosophers and
       ancient Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as
    harmonies. Common sayings such as "the harmony of the spheres" and "it is music to my ears" point to
      the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to. However, 20th-century composer John
         Cage thought that any sound can be music, saying, for example, "There is no noise, only sound."[2]
            Musicologist Jean-Jacques Nattiez summarizes the relativist, post-modern viewpoint: "The border
     between music and noise is always culturally defined—which implies that, even within a single society,
    this border does not always pass through the same place; in short, there is rarely a consensus ... By all
                  accounts there is no single and intercultural universal concept defining what music might be
                                                                                                     μPrehistoric eras
                                                                                    μMain article: Prehistoric music
    Prehistoric music can only be theorized based on findings from paleolithic archaeology sites. Flutes are
 often discovered, carved from bones in which lateral holes have been pierced; these are thought to have
        been blown at one end like the Japanese shakuhachi. The Divje Babe flute, carved from a cave bear
   femur, is thought to be at least 40,000 years old. Instruments, such as the seven-holed flute and various
         types of stringed instruments have been recovered from the Indus Valley Civilization archaeological
    sites.[4] India has one of the oldest musical traditions in the world—references to Indian classical music
          (marga) can be found in the ancient scriptures of the Hindu tradition, the Vedas.[5] The earliest and
  largest collection of prehistoric musical instruments was found in China and dates back to between 7000
 and 6600 BC.[6] The Hurrian song, found on clay tablets that date back to the approximately 1400 BC, is
                                                                      μ.the oldest surviving notated work of music
                                                                                           μReferences in the Bible
     Music and theatre scholars studying the history and anthropology of Semitic and early Judeo-Christian
           culture, have also discovered common links between theatrical and musical activity in the classical
  cultures of the Hebrews with those of the later cultures of the Greeks and Romans. The common area of
       performance is found in a "social phenomenon called litany," a form of prayer consisting of a series of
   invocations or supplications. The Journal of Religion and Theatre notes that among the earliest forms of
                                          μ]litany, "Hebrew litany was accompanied by a rich musical tradition:"[7
            While Genesis 4.21 identifies Jubal as the “father of all such as handle the harp and pipe,” the "μμμμ
  Pentateuch is nearly silent about the practice and instruction of music in the early life of Israel. Then, in I
 Samuel 10 and the texts that follow, a curious thing happens. “One finds in the biblical text,” writes Alfred
       Sendrey, “a sudden and unexplained upsurge of large choirs and orchestras, consisting of thoroughly
 organized and trained musical groups, which would be virtually inconceivable without lengthy, methodical
           preparation.” This has led some scholars to believe that the prophet Samuel was the patriarch of a
     school, which taught not only prophets and holy men, but also sacred-rite musicians. This public music
    school, perhaps the earliest in recorded history, was not restricted to a priestly class—which is how the
                                                         μshepherd boy David appears on the scene as a minstrel
            The music of Greece was a major part of ancient Greek theater. In Ancient Greece, mixed-gender
            choruses performed for entertainment, celebration and spiritual reasons. Instruments included the
 double-reed aulos and the plucked string instrument, the lyre, especially the special kind called a kithara.
  Music was an important part of education in ancient Greece, and boys were taught music starting at age
   six. Greek musical literacy created a flowering of development; Greek music theory included the Greek
      musical modes, eventually became the basis for Western religious music and classical music. Later,
   μ.influences from the Roman Empire, Eastern Europe and the Byzantine Empire changed Greek music
 During the Medieval music era (500–1400), the only European repertory that survives from before about
   800 is the monophonic liturgical plainsong of the Roman Catholic Church, the central tradition of which
was called Gregorian chant. Alongside these traditions of sacred and church music there existed a vibrant
 tradition of secular song. Examples of composers from this period are Léonin, Pérotin and Guillaume de
    Machaut. From the Renaissance music era (1400–1600), much of the surviving music of 14th century
   Europe is secular. By the middle of the 15th century, composers and singers used a smooth polyphony
  for sacred musical compositions. The introduction of commercial printing helped to disseminate musical
                                                             μ.styles more quickly and across a larger area

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