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Nisrine Mansour


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									     Advocacy part 3
Improving your advocacy campaign
         Nisrine Mansour
           YWLA 2009
      Session Objectives
• Ethical issues of advocacy
• Accountability in advocacy campaigns
• Managing finances in advocacy
• Managing advocacy human resources
• Monitoring, evaluation, learning
Why are accountability and
    ethics important?
• Legitimacy at stake
• Representativeness claims
• Long term vs. short term goals better
  met through accountable behaviour
• To prevent doing harm
Ethical issues in advocacy for
      social issues and
     humanitarian relief

   ‘Doing Good’ or ‘Do No Harm’?
   Parts v. whole
   Collaboration and cooperation
   Funding
   Campaigners’ safety and wellbeing
    Accountability: definitions
•       Accountability is about the obligations to give
        account for performance rendered
•       Four dimensions of accountability (Kumar 1996)
        Fiscal/financial accountability – demonstrating money
         has been spent where it was supposed to be spent
        Legal accountability – actions are within the laws of the
         state where programme is implemented
        Programme accountability – effectiveness of the
         programme in achieving objectives
        Process accountability – efficiency and process of
Multiple accountabilities
      trustees           donors        government




 partners        Concerned          Staff/     supporters
                 populations      volunteers
  Accountability to Donors
• Fiscal Accountability –
  – To spend money for designated purposes
  – Account monies spent
• Programme Accountability
  – Demonstrate effectiveness and impact
Accountability to the State
 • Legal accountability
   – Are the advocacy activities within the legal
     framework? Can they always be? How to
     counter this challenge?
 • Fiscal accountability
   – Are any applicable taxes paid accordingly?
 • Programme accountability
   – How does it fit/clash with the larger
     planning goals and policies of the state?
     Accountability to own
• Programme accountability
  – Are campaign objectives being met?
  – Promoting self evaluation and learning
• Process accountability
  – Is the process appropriate to the group’s
    resources and capabilities?
  – Is learning occurring?
  – Is archiving occurring? - organisational and
    institutional memory
       Accountability to the
      concerned populations
• Do advocacy actors have accountability to the
  concerned populations on all levels – fiscal,
  legal, programme and process?
• How can vulnerable populations hold
  advocates accountable?
  –   Children
  –   Disabled
  –   IDP/Refugees
  –   If not, who can? Donors? The media? the state??
 Representation of the
concerned populations
– Ethics of using images of starving poor,
  women as victims etc. - e.g. ‘Pornography
  of poverty’ (Plewes and Stuart)
– Populations are portrayed as helpless
  victims and dependent; at times reinforce
  racist stereotypes
  • E.g. Save the Children’s switch to using of
    positive images – smiling children, village
    pump, etc.
Accountability and Funding
• Funding, integrity, and reputation
• Should certain sources be rejected?
  – Government funding
  – Corporate funding – e.g., arms
    manufacturers, companies with poor
    human rights records?
  => Defending your choice of funding sources
• Autonomy and resource dependency
    Tips for Raising funds & Maintaining
   Scan the external environment (knowledge may lay
    dormant in various parts of organisation itself)
   Loosen dependencies through diversification;
    horizontal and vertical mergers. But: often
    exchanges one kind of dependency for another
   Decentralise control, sub-managers will be better
    at responsive and discretionary management
Advocacy Management

Human Resource Management
      Five Human Resource
•    All interdependent:
1.   Recruiting
2.   Training
3.   Managing teams
4.   Voice and representation
5.   Compensation
                                Hunter (1997)
  Campaigners’ safety and
• Clashes with opponents can have
  serious consequences
• => need to put a plan of action for
  protecting and publicising abuse
Monitoring and evaluation 1
• Advocacy objective:
  – Moving smoothly? Obstacles?
  – Moving forward? Stuck?
  – Achievable? Needs adjusting?
 Monitoring & Evaluation 2
• With every decision making cycle:
  – How does the policy change relate your
  – Has your objective been achieved entirely
    or partially?
  – Would you carry on with your objective or
    change it as a result?
  – How does the policy change affect the
    problem that the campaign is addressing?
 Monitoring & Evaluation 3
• Message delivery/communications:
  assess effectiveness of:
  – Reaching audiences
  – Positive response
  – Delivery formats
  – Media coverage
 Monitoring & Evaluation 4
• Use of data and research:
• Usefulness to advocacy efforts
• Presentation of data - how persuasive
  were they?
• Are there any new research questions?
  Is new data needed to back your
  Monitoring & Evaluation 5
• Decision making process:
• Is the process more open as a result of the
• Is it easier to reach decision makers in the
• How many actors were involved before and
  after your campaign?
• How to improve the decision making
  Monitoring & Evaluation 6
• Coalition building:
• Success of coalition in raising attention and getting
• Timely delivery of information to coalition?
• Cooperation? Information exchange? Any unresolved
• Retaining coalition members?
• Leadership opportunities?
• Maintaining and expanding your network?
    Monitoring & Evaluation 7
•   Overall management issues:
•   Financial viability? More fundraising?
•   Accurate accounting system?
•   Wise use of financial resources?
•   Logistics of events?
•   Staff motivation and workload?
    Summary & Conclusion
•   Define the issue, have a clear objective!!!
•   Map out allies, competitors, opponents
•   sharpen the message content and output
•   Draw an action strategy
•   Manage your team
•   Manage accountabilities
•   Account for legitimacy and representation

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