Tobacco by rupiah18


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                                                          Tobacco is one of the most addictive drugs known to
                                                          humans and is the second leading cause of
                                                          Tobacco use is associated with lung, esophageal, and
                                                          multiple other cancers, cardiovascular disease, and
                                                          pulmonary diseases such as pneumonia, chronic
                                                          obstructive pulmonary disease, and bronchitis. Tobacco is
                                                          available in many forms: cigarettes, hookahs, cigars,
                                                          kreteks or ‘clove cigarettes,’ pipes, bidis, and smokeless
                                                          varieties. WHOestimates that of the 300 million young
                                                          people who currently smoke, half will die of smoking-
                                                          related causes later in life, the vast majority of these
                                                          deaths occurring in the developing world (WHO, 2005).
                                                          Women who smoke during pregnancy are more likely to
                                                          have infantswho are premature and small for their age.
                                                          The hundreds of millions of children exposed to
                                                          secondhand smoke are more likely to die from sudden
                                                          infant death syndrome and suffer from ear infections,
                                                          upper respiratory infections, asthma, pneumonia, and
                                                          malignancies. Children are most likely to be exposed to
                                                          secondhand smoke in areas in South and East Asia.
Although many of the adverse health effects do not become evident until adulthood, tobacco use is in many ways a
disease of adolescence. The vast majority of adult smokers started their habit during adolescence. The Global Youth
Tobacco Survey of young people at nearly 400 different sites found that 17.3% currently use tobacco,
with the highest use among males in the Americas and Europe (Figure 6). Young people who desire peer acceptance
or to appear mature or rebellious may try smoking. Harmful health effects may be unknown to a young person, or
may seem a lifetime away. In the United States, having a peer group that smokes is the most important predictor of
smoking in adolescence. Teenagers whose parents smoke are also more likely to use tobacco. Teenagers who smoke
are more likely to become addicted than adults, often becoming addicted within the first few weeks after trying their
first cigarette.

For these reasons, tobacco companies target young people, especially those living in developing countries using ‘teen-
friendly’ campaigns such as ‘‘Joe Camel,’’ flavored tobacco, individually sold cheap tobacco ‘sticks,’ and promotions
where teenagers can win tobaccobranded items. Media campaigns generally portray people who smoke as attractive,
energetic, and healthy. In developing regions, regulations against marketing and sales to minors are more relaxed,
and tobacco is cheaper and readily available. Some economically disadvantaged adolescents may choose to purchase
tobacco instead of food as it acts as an appetite suppressant; girls in industrialized countries may also smoke for this
reason. Even in industrialized countries, cigarette use is associated with lower socioeconomic status.

Although most adolescent smokers want to quit, this act is very challenging for those who are not only addicted but
also surrounded by peers, movie stars, and even their own physicians using tobacco. Pharmacotherapy and
behavioral therapy have been shown to help adults stop smoking, but are not as well studied in teenagers. Young
women are often worried about the potential for weight gain associated with smoking cessation. All youth are at
risk to suffer nicotine withdrawal, which causes mood changes, insomnia, and restlessness.
Increasing the price of tobacco through taxation has been shown to prevent some young people from smoking,
since they tend to be more sensitive to price than adults. Banning tobacco vending machines, enforcing a minimum
age to purchase tobacco, and establishing smoke-free areas has also been effective in reducing smoking initiation in
young people. Nearly 200 countries have signed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), a treaty
designed to control tobacco use. The FCTC recommends that governments ban tobacco advertising and marketing
toward children under 18 years of age. Many mass public health campaigns designed to educate young people on the
dangers of tobacco use have been launched across the globe, some of which have been demonstrated to be effective.

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