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					            09
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT




               Budgeting for the
               Future
               Math Money Management
               This Unit of Instruction is intended for high school students taking a finance or
               mathematical money course. It was designed for ED TECH 506: Instructional
               Message Design a graduate level course at Boise State University.




                                                                              Luke Wiggs
                                                                    Boise State University
                                                                                       09
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT



                 Table of Contents:

I.   Unit of Instruction (pg. 3-7)

II. Lesson 1: Occupation and Net Income

     (pg. 8-13)

III. Lesson 2: Housing (pg. 14-19)

IV. Lesson 3: Transportation (pg. 20-25)

V. Lesson 4: Investments (pg. 26-31)

VI. Lesson 5: Miscellaneous Costs

     (pg. 32-37)

VII. Justification Paper (pg. 39-50)
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT




I.      UNIT OF INSTRUCTION
   BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


                                     Budgeting for the Future


1. Unit Goals (long range-how does this unity fit with year long goals?)

In order to prepare high school aged students for post-secondary life this course investigates
many real life financial situations. During this course students will learn about gross and net
income, checking and savings accounts, cash purchases, credit cards, loans and borrowing,
automobile transportation, housing costs, personnel finances, production, purchasing, sales,
marketing and service costs. During our unit on personal budgets students will learn and create a
personal budget for the future. In this unit students will pick on occupation they want to do
when they get older. Once they have picked an occupation they have to find out what the
schooling requirements our how much their gross and net income is after taxes. Once they have
figured out their net income they will learn how to pick a house, automobile, health and life
insurance, investments and many more intangibles they go into a personal budget. This unit will
piece together all the units from the entire year and help guide them into creating their final
budget project. In conclusion to this unit students will be able to draw conclusions from the
occupation they have chosen and whether or not they make enough money to enjoy the riches of
life they envision having.



2. Specific ways to relate goal(s) to curriculum:


   The goals of this unit are directly related to the Math Money Management QCC Standards
   set by the state of Georgia and by Henry County. In Unit 1 we learn about gross and net
   income. The prerequisite skills come from Algebra 1 which all of these students passed in
   order to take this course. In order for the students to determine their income they will need to
   use skills they mastered in Unit 1 of this course. In Unit 2 of this course the students
   mastered concepts related to checking and savings accounts and in this unit the students will
   be required to find a savings account to open in order to save money for their personal
   budget. In Unit 5 of the course students will have mastered concepts of loans and borrowing
   money they will have to use these skills to find a house and determine their mortgage
   payment for their budget. When finding a house they will have to use skills they mastered in
   Unit 7 about housing costs to help set up their personal budget. Unit 6 of this course in about
   Automobile purchases and in their budget project the students will have to buy a car within
   their pre-determined means. They will also have to find car insurance as well as maintenance
   costs of owning a car. This entire unit combines all of the concepts and QCC’s mastered in
   this class to wrap up the entire year and generalize these skills to real world situations to set
   up a personal budget related to their occupational goals of the future.

Standards that will be met:

   Course: Mathematical Money Management QCC Stanards
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


3   Topic: Earning Money

    Standard: Computes net pay, taking into account federal, state, and local taxes, social
    security, and any miscellaneous deductions.

4 Topic: Budgeting

    Standard: Prepares a budget for a given income on a weekly, monthly, and annual
    basis.

5   Topic: Budgeting

    Standard: Identifies and compares various pay periods

6 Topic: Budgeting

    Standard: Explores and compares various methods of personal record keeping.

7   Topic: Budgeting

    Standard: Demonstrates an awareness of how income and personal goals affect
    financial planning and decisions.

11 Topic: Housing

    Standard: Determines the percentage of income available for monthly rent or
    mortgage payment.

13 Topic: Housing

    Standard: Computes the amount of down payment required to purchase a
    house/condominium and the price that can be afforded for a given income.

14 Topic: Housing

    Standard: Calculates monthly mortgage payment

37 Topic: Purchasing

    Standard: Calculates costs related to buying and owning a car, including various types
    of insurance.



39 Topic: Savings and Investments

    Standard: Compares and contrasts savings accounts, money market accounts,
    certificates of deposit, savings bonds, stocks, and IRA’s.

42 Topic: Savings and Investments

    Standard: Calculates simple and compound interst
  BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


  54 Topic: Travel, Recreation, and Vacations

     Standard: Compares costs of various forms of transportation and lodging.

  55 Topic: Travel, Recreation, and Vacations

     Standard: Selects a leisure-time activity and investigates related expenses.



  3. Characteristics of the students for whom this unity is intended:
  The students who will be completing this course are in a resource environment. These
  students have an IEP for one or two of the following disabilities; specific learning disability,
  other health impaired, emotional disturbed and medium to high functioning autism. All of
  these students have average to good social skills and function effectively in the everyday
  school environment. Most of these will go straight into the work force out of high school or
  two a two year technical school.

4. Introductory procedures:

  To introduce the unit I will have to students fill out a survey on the different types of riches
  they want in life (i.e. house, type of vehicle, where they want to live, etc.). I will then use a
  video or presentation on personal budgeting. I will introduce the entire project with an
  example project and give them a rubric with how they will be graded and how each sub
  section meets the curriculum standards.



5. Materials and media:

  During this unit I will use video projector in a computer lab to introduce them to the project
  through videos, Power Points and examples. To set up their budget the students will use
  Microsoft Excel to set up a budget spreadsheet to help guide them through the entire unit.
  They will also have to use Microsoft Power Point to design their final budget presentation.
  To obtain and gather information the students will spends several days in the computer lab
  using search engines to gather information for each sub section of the project. They will
  have to find out their occupational requirements and information, find a car either online or
  using newspaper adds. They will also use reality websites to find out housing information
  and costs and many other websites to gather information to complete each requirement of the
  unit.
   BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


6. Visuals

   I used Adobe Fireworks to create several visuals that will help me teach the concepts and
   standards in each lesson. These visuals will help learners visualize a procedure, concept,
   facts, processes and principles. In order to reach the course goals and standards I will use
   graphics that direct attention and also activate prior knowledge to the content. I will use
   visuals to accommodate learner difference during my unit. In addition I will use graphics
   that help learners build mental models and that minimize memory load for the learner.

7. Assessment and evaluation of learner understanding:

      • Upon completion of each lesson each student will:
      1. Have completed PowerPoint slides containing required information and data
      2. Budget Spread Sheet with correct calculations

   (see individual lesson for more details)



      •   Will have a completed Budget PowerPoint Presentation Project and Budget Spread
          Sheet. They will also present this to class and write a short conclusion paper about
          budgets.
      •   This will count for 3 test grades.



8. Relate assessment instruments to the outcomes stated in the goals.


       The final assessment which will be their spreadsheet and Power Point will ensure that
   they have mastered all the goals related to the QCC’s determined by the state for this course.
   They will be able to determine net and gross income, buy a house and calculate mortgage
   payments, buy a car and calculate car note payments and insurance payments, determine how
   much money will be put into savings and how much money they will save per month,
   calculate how miscellaneous costs as well as life and health insurance.




   Adapted from Unit Plan at http://edtech.tennessee.edu/~bobannon/unit_plans.html
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT




II. Lesson 1: Occupation and
    Net Income
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT




                         Budgeting for the Future Unit

    1. Lesson Author: Luke Wiggs


    2. Lesson Title: Occupation and Net Income


    3. Grade Level: 11th and 12th grade


    4. Subject Area: Math Money Management


    5. Time allotted for the lesson: 3 to 4 class meetings approximately 200 – 250
       minutes


    6. Short description of lesson
        a. In this lesson, the students…
            Throughout the lesson the students will explore the educational requirements for
            a desired occupation. In addition they will define specific information about their
            occupation and determine the net income of their occupation.


    7. State Curriculum Standards met in this lesson:

Course: Mathematical Money Management QCC Stanards

3    Topic: Earning Money

     Standard: Computes net pay, taking into account federal, state, and local taxes, social
     security, and any miscellaneous deductions.

4 Topic: Budgeting

     Standard: Prepares a budget for a given income on a weekly, monthly, and annual
     basis.

5    Topic: Budgeting

     Standard: Identifies and compares various pay periods

6 Topic: Budgeting
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


     Standard: Explores and compares various methods of personal record keeping.

7    Topic: Budgeting

     Standard: Demonstrates an awareness of how income and personal goals affect
     financial planning and decisions.


    8. National Educational Technology Standards for Students (NETS-S)
       met in this lesson:
     1. Creativity and Innovation
        Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop
     innovative products and processes using technology. Students create original works as a
     means of personal or group expression.

     3. Research and Information Fluency
        Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information. Students locate,
     organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of
     sources and media.

        5. Digital Citizenship
         Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and
     practice legal and ethical behavior. Students:

         a. advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and
     technology.
         b. exhibit a positive attitude toward using technology that supports collaboration,
     learning, and productivity.

     6. Technology Operations and Concepts
        Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems, and
     operations. Students select and use applications effectively and productively.


    9. Instructional Objectives:
        a. Students will determine and explore the requirements of a chosen occupation and
           how it impacts their post secondary outcomes.
        b. Students will calculate their annual and monthly salary.
        c. Students will calculate their gross and net monthly income.


    10. Instructional Procedures
         a. Lesson Set:

             To introduce the lesson I will be begin by showing the students a PowerPoint
        (click on PowerPoint) to engage the students in the lesson. After I have showed the
        student the PowerPoint I will explain the importance of choosing a career and
        knowing the requirements to obtain a job in their desired field.
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT



     b. Techniques and activities:

             I.     Show PowerPoint to engage students and start lesson
             II.    Classroom discussion about the importance of choosing a career and
                    knowing the requirements to obtain a job in their desired field.
             III.   Using LCD projector hooked up to screen I will show the students
                    how to get to Occupational Outlook Handbook
             IV.    Once they are on the correct web site I will verbally direct them to
                    start looking for the career they are interested in.
             V.     While the students are looking for their careers I will circulate
                    through the room to make sure students are on task.
             VI.    Once the student has found their desired career they should record
                    the following information and put into several PowerPoint slides.
                    This will be their first step in creating their Personal Budget Project.
                    They include information on the following:
                  1. Nature of the Work
                  2. Training and Qualifications
                  3. Employment
                  4. Job Outlook
                  5. Earnings
             VII.   After the students determine how much they will make annually we
                    will review how to calculate monthly income. Then each student will
                    calculate their monthly income
             VIII. After determining their monthly income the students will then find
                    their net income. I will use the following Visual Aid Net Income
                    (Attention Visual) to help scaffold previous taught material.
             IX.    I will review what net income is and explain to the students how
                    they will find their net income.
             X.     Once the student finds their net income they will need to put this in
                    the budget spreadsheet and PowerPoint Presentation for the Budget
                    Project




     c. Lesson Closure:
            After all the students have completed the lesson I will lead a classroom
        discussion on Income and setting a budget. I will talk about how your net income
        will impact the decisions you make regarding your budget and being successful in
        the future. I will use the following Visual Mental Models to show the students
        that all pieces of their budget matter. This will also give them a visual that they
        will use throughout the unit when making financial decisions. I then will tell
        them now that they have a job it’s time to find a house.

 11. Adaptations for special learners:
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT



       Since this unit of instruction is designed for students in a resource setting the pace of
   the unit is already at a slower pace so that the students are successful. The tasks are also
   modified so that the students can master the concept. Each student will have their own
   computer and also be able to view and students with vision or hearing impairments they
   will be placed in the front of the room.

 12. Supplemental Activities: Extension and remediation

    The following links are links to different Visuals that will help the student during each
lesson while working on their project throughout the entire unit.

   Tips for Budgeting for the Future (Principles Image) Click on this link to see tips for
budgeting for the future. Worksheet must be completed before turning in final project.

   Pie Chart for Budget (Mental Models and Near Transfer) Refer to this pie chart to make
sure that you are using the correct percentages for each topic of your budget.

    Steps to Saving Calculations Sheet (Procedures) Students can view this image to see the
steps to access and save their Budget Calculations Sheet

   How to Create PowerPoint Slide (Process) Students can view this image to help them
with creating PowerPoint slides if they are unfamiliar with the program.



 13. Assessment/Evaluation:

    Students work during this lesson will be observed formally and informally through two
different types of grades.

    Daily- Students will be observed informally on a daily basis, if the student is working
and on task each day of the lesson the student will receive 20 points daily. At the end of the
lesson the students will receive a daily grade in the computer based on how many daily
points they received out of how many they could have earned.

   Quiz Grade- At the end of this lesson the students will be formally assessed for a Quiz
grade based on the following criteria:

   a. Student chose a career and found out the required information about the career.
      40%
   b. Student correctly calculated annual, monthly and net monthly income. 40 %
   c. Student input information into a PowerPoint presentation. 20%


 14. Student Products:

    At the end of the lesson each student should have PowerPoint slides containing the
following information:
   BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


         a. Slide stating what occupation they chose.
         b. Slide containing the required information about occupation.
                  I.      Nature of Work
                  II.     Training and Qualifications
                  III.    Employment
                  IV.     Job Outlook
                  V.      Earnings
         c. Slide containing annual salary and monthly gross salary
         d. Slide containing net income and the calculations used to determine net income




   * Note for students: This lesson plan template is adapted from the model that is

recommended in the book Preparing to Use Technology: A Practical Guide for

Technology Integration.
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT




III. Lesson 2: Housing
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT




                       Budgeting for the Future Unit

1. Lesson Author: Luke Wiggs


2. Lesson Title: Housing


3. Grade Level: 11th and 12th grade


4. Subject Area: Math Money Management


5. Time allotted for the lesson: 2 to 3 class meetings approximately 100 – 150
   minutes


6. Short description of lesson
     a. In this lesson, the students…
              Throughout the lesson the students will find their dream house and
          determine the percentage of income available for monthly rent or mortgage
          payment. In addition the students will continue the on going process of building
          their budget project.


7. State Curriculum Standards met in this lesson:

Course: Mathematical Money Management QCC Stanards


11 Topic: Housing

   Standard: Determines the percentage of income available for monthly rent or
   mortgage payment.

13 Topic: Housing

   Standard: Computes the amount of down payment required to purchase a
   house/condominium and the price that can be afforded for a given income.

14 Topic: Housing
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


Standard: Calculates monthly mortgage payment

4 Topic: Budgeting

    Standard: Prepares a budget for a given income on a weekly, monthly, and annual
    basis.

5   Topic: Budgeting

    Standard: Identifies and compares various pay periods

6 Topic: Budgeting

    Standard: Explores and compares various methods of personal record keeping.

7   Topic: Budgeting

    Standard: Demonstrates an awareness of how income and personal goals affect
    financial planning and decisions.



8. National Educational Technology Standards for Students (NETS-S)
   met in this lesson:
    1. Creativity and Innovation
       Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop
    innovative products and processes using technology. Students create original works as a
    means of personal or group expression.

    3. Research and Information Fluency
       Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information. Students locate,
    organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of
    sources and media.

       5. Digital Citizenship
        Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and
    practice legal and ethical behavior. Students:

        a. advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and
    technology.
        b. exhibit a positive attitude toward using technology that supports collaboration,
    learning, and productivity.

    6. Technology Operations and Concepts
       Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems, and
    operations. Students select and use applications effectively and productively.


9. Instructional Objectives:
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


     a. Students will use the internet and resources available to them to find their dream
        home.
     b. Students will use their monthly income to determine how much money they can
        afford to spend on a house.
     c. Students will calculate their monthly mortgage or rent payment.
     d. Students will continue to build final budget project.


10. Instructional Procedures
       a. Lesson Set:

          To introduce the lesson I will be begin by showing the students a Movie to
     engage the students in the lesson. After I have showed the students the movie I will
     talk about the importance of not living outside of your means. I will explain to the
     students that while we all want to live in a mansion that we must live inside our
     means.


     b. Techniques and activities:

              I.      Show Movie to engage students and start lesson using LCD Projector
              II.     Classroom discussion about the importance of not living outside of
                      your means.
              III.    Before the student start looking for their house I will review the
                      Percents of Budget Pie Chart
              IV.     Using the chart I will then explain to the students that their
                      mortgage or monthly rent payment can’t exceed 28% of their
                      income.
              V.      I will then show several examples of finding 28% of monthly income
                      on the white board.
              VI.     The students will now 28% of their monthly income which will be
                      the maximum they can spend each month on housing cost.
              VII.    Using LCD projector hooked up to screen I will show the students
                      steps to choosing house (Memory Load and Far Transfer). The
                      students will be provided a list of web sites that will help them find a
                      house.
              VIII.   Once the student has chosen a house they will now need to calculate
                      their monthly payment. They will use the Mortgage Calculator to
                      find out monthly payment. To help my student understand what to
                      input in the mortgage calculator I will provide them access to the
                      graphic Using Mortgage Calculator (Facts) to accommodate them
                      in using the mortgage calculator.
              IX.     Once the student finds their mortgage payment they need to make
                      sure that it is not more than 28% of their income. If it is more than
                      28% of their income they need to find another house. The students
                      will most likely choose a house that is way more than 28% and this
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


                        will help the students generalize their monthly income to their living
                        expectations.
                 X.     Once the student has found their house they should record the
                        following information and put into several PowerPoint slides. This
                        will be the next step in creating their Personal Budget Project. They
                        include information on the following:
                      1. Down Payment
                      2. Principal / total amount financed
                      3. APR
                      4. Term length of loan
                      5. Monthly Payment
                      6. All calculations
                 XI.    They need to make sure that they get several pictures of their house
                        and or apartment and make sure this is included in their
                        PowerPoint.
                 XII.   The final step of the lesson is to make sure that they are inputting
                        the information into their Budget Project Spread Sheet. This will be
                        teacher led and checked.


       c. Lesson Closure:
               After all the students have completed their lesson I will lead a class discussion
           that will allow the students to reflect on what they have learned. The following
           will be the guided questions I will ask to lead the discussion:

                   •   Did you get the size house you originally set out to get?
                   •   When choosing a house what factors did you consider?
                   •   What factors played a role in choosing a house? (would like to say
                       income and relate past lesson)
                   •   Now that you have a job and house what do you think is the next part
                       of setting your budget? (transportation)

11. Adaptations for special learners:

       Since this unit of instruction is designed for students in a resource setting the pace of
   the unit is already at a slower pace so that the students are successful. The tasks are also
   modified so that the students can master the concept. Each student will have their own
   computer and also be able to view and students with vision or hearing impairments they
   will be placed in the front of the room.

12. Supplemental Activities: Extension and remediation

    The following links are links to different Visuals that will help the student during each
lesson while working on their project throughout the entire unit.

   Tips for Budgeting for the Future (Principles Image) Click on this link to see tips for
budgeting for the future. Worksheet must be completed before turning in final project.
   BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


      Pie Chart for Budget (Mental Models and Near Transfer) Refer to this pie chart to make
   sure that you are using the correct percentages for each topic of your budget.

       Steps to Saving Calculations Sheet (Procedures) Students can view this image to see the
   steps to access and save their Budget Calculations Sheet

      How to Create PowerPoint Slide (Process) Students can view this image to help them
   with creating PowerPoint slides if they are unfamiliar with the program.



   13. Assessment/Evaluation:

       Students work during this lesson will be observed formally and informally through two
   different types of grades.

       Daily- Students will be observed informally on a daily basis, if the student is working
   and on task each day of the lesson the student will receive 20 points daily. At the end of the
   lesson the students will receive a daily grade in the computer based on how many daily
   points they received out of how many they could have earned.

      Quiz Grade- At the end of this lesson the students will be formally assessed for a Quiz
   grade based on the following criteria:

      d. Student found a house or apartment and found out the required information about
         the house. 40%
      e. Student correctly calculated mortgage payment or rent and was 28% or below
         monthly income. 40 %
      f. Student input information into a PowerPoint presentation. 20%




   14. Student Products:

       At the end of the lesson each student should have PowerPoint slides containing the
   following information:

          a.   Slide stating where they will live.
          b.   Slide containing the required information about house or apartment.
          c.   Pictures of house or apartment.
          d.   Slide containing the mortgage payment and calculations.
* Note for students: This lesson plan template is adapted from the model that is

recommended in the book Preparing to Use Technology: A Practical Guide for

Technology Integration.
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT




IV. Lesson 3: Transportation
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


                        Budgeting for the Future Unit

1. Lesson Author: Luke Wiggs


2. Lesson Title: Transportation


3. Grade Level: 11th and 12th grade


4. Subject Area: Math Money Management


5. Time allotted for the lesson: 2 class meetings approximately 100


6. Short description of lesson
     a. In this lesson, the students…
             Throughout the lesson the students will find a vehicle to purchase. They must
           make sure that the cost of the vehicle fits into the framework of their budget.


7. State Curriculum Standards met in this lesson:

Course: Mathematical Money Management QCC Stanards


37 Topic: Purchasing

    Standard: Calculates costs related to buying and owning a car, including various types
    of insurance.

4 Topic: Budgeting

    Standard: Prepares a budget for a given income on a weekly, monthly, and annual
    basis.

5   Topic: Budgeting

    Standard: Identifies and compares various pay periods

6 Topic: Budgeting

    Standard: Explores and compares various methods of personal record keeping.

7   Topic: Budgeting
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


  Standard: Demonstrates an awareness of how income and personal goals affect
  financial planning and decisions.



8. National Educational Technology Standards for Students (NETS-S)
   met in this lesson:
  1. Creativity and Innovation
     Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop
  innovative products and processes using technology. Students create original works as a
  means of personal or group expression.

  3. Research and Information Fluency
     Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information. Students locate,
  organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of
  sources and media.

     5. Digital Citizenship
      Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and
  practice legal and ethical behavior. Students:

      a. advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and
  technology.
      b. exhibit a positive attitude toward using technology that supports collaboration,
  learning, and productivity.

  6. Technology Operations and Concepts
     Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems, and
  operations. Students select and use applications effectively and productively.


9. Instructional Objectives:
     a. Students will explore the factors and costs of buying a car.
     b. Students will use the internet and resources available to them to find a vehicle to
        purchase.
     c. Students will use their monthly income to determine how much money they can
        afford to spend on a vehicle.
     d. Students will calculate their car payment.
     e. Students will continue to build final budget project.


10. Instructional Procedures
       a. Lesson Set:

         High school students are really obsessed with transportation and vehicles at
     their age so to start this lesson I am going to have the Which is Best for You
     (Motivation) visual displayed on the LCD screen to gain the attention of the
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


     students. Once the students have entered the class I will ask them the following
     questions to engage them in the lesson:

                I.        What is your dream vehicle?
                II.       What factors should you consider when purchasing a car?


     b. Techniques and activities:

                I.     After my introduction and while the students are engaged we will
                       make a list of factors you should consider when buying a car and I
                       will display this list on the white board.
                II.    The next thing I will do is review the Percents of the Budget
                       (Mental Models and Near Transfer) by pulling up the graphic
                       on the LCD screen.
                III.   After establishing that they can’t spend more than 10% of their
                       monthly income on their vehicle each student will now calculate and
                       determine how much 10% of the monthly income is.
                IV.    Using the computer hooked up to the LCD screen I will walk the
                       students through the process of searching for a vehicle on the
                       internet. I will provide them with a list of appropriate websites that
                       are not blocked at school where they could purchase a vehicle.
                V.     After walking the students through the process of finding a car, I will
                       show them how to calculate their monthly car payment using the
                       Car Loan Calculator.
                VI.    Now the students will use their computers to find a vehicle and
                       determine their monthly auto payment.
                VII. When using the Car Loan Calculator the students will punch in the
                       total cost of car use 10% down payment and 5 years loan to
                       find your monthly payment.
                VIII. Once the students have found their monthly payment they will put
                       this information into their continued PowerPoint presentation for
                       their budget project. Things to include in the PowerPoint:
                     1. Type of vehicle bought
                     2. Justification on why you bought the particular car
                     3. Detailed information and pictures of the car
                     4. Car Payment and Calculations
                     5. Where they purchased the vehicle from.
     c. Lesson Closure:
            After all the students have completed their lesson I will lead a class discussion
        that will allow the students to reflect on what they have learned. The following
        will be the guided questions I will ask to lead the discussion:

            •        Could you afford the vehicle you wanted? Why or Why not?
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


               •   When choosing a vehicle what factors came into play that were important
                   for you?
               •   What other important areas should we consider when make a budget for
                   the future?

11. Adaptations for special learners:

       Since this unit of instruction is designed for students in a resource setting the pace of
   the unit is already at a slower pace so that the students are successful. The tasks are also
   modified so that the students can master the concept. Each student will have their own
   computer and also be able to view and students with vision or hearing impairments they
   will be placed in the front of the room.

12. Supplemental Activities: Extension and remediation

    The following links are links to different Visuals that will help the student during each
lesson while working on their project throughout the entire unit.

   Tips for Budgeting for the Future (Principles Image) Click on this link to see tips for
budgeting for the future. Worksheet must be completed before turning in final project.

   Pie Chart for Budget (Mental Models and Near Transfer) Refer to this pie chart to make
sure that you are using the correct percentages for each topic of your budget.

    Steps to Saving Calculations Sheet (Procedures) Students can view this image to see the
steps to access and save their Budget Calculations Sheet

   How to Create PowerPoint Slide (Process) Students can view this image to help them
with creating PowerPoint slides if they are unfamiliar with the program.



13. Assessment/Evaluation:

    Students work during this lesson will be observed formally and informally through two
different types of grades.

    Daily- Students will be observed informally on a daily basis, if the student is working
and on task each day of the lesson the student will receive 20 points daily. At the end of the
lesson the students will receive a daily grade in the computer based on how many daily
points they received out of how many they could have earned.

   Quiz Grade- At the end of this lesson the students will be formally assessed for a Quiz
grade based on the following criteria:

   g. Student found a vehicle and the required information about the vehicle. 40%
   h. Student correctly calculated auto payment and was 10% or below monthly income.
      40 %
   i. Student input information into a PowerPoint presentation. 20%
   BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


   14. Student Products:

       At the end of the lesson each student should have PowerPoint slides containing the
   following information:

          a.   Slide stating what kind of vehicle they purchased.
          b.   Slide containing the required information about the vehicle.
          c.   Pictures of vehicle.
          d.   Slide containing the mortgage payment and calculations.



   * Note for students: This lesson plan template is adapted from the model that is

recommended in the book Preparing to Use Technology: A Practical Guide for

Technology Integration.
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT




V. Lesson 4: Investments
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


                       Budgeting for the Future Unit

1. Lesson Author: Luke Wiggs


2. Lesson Title: Investments


3. Grade Level: 11th and 12th grade


4. Subject Area: Math Money Management


5. Time allotted for the lesson: 2 class meetings approximately 100


6. Short description of lesson
     a. In this lesson, the students…
              Throughout the lesson the students will search the internet and find a bank to
          open a saving account at. This is part of their on-going budget project and during
          this lesson the students will compare and contrast savings accounts and calculate
          simple interest.


7. State Curriculum Standards met in this lesson:

Course: Mathematical Money Management QCC Standards


39 Topic: Savings and Investments

    Standard: Compares and contrasts savings accounts, money market accounts,
    certificates of deposit, savings bonds, stocks, and IRA’s.

42 Topic: Savings and Investments

    Standard: Calculates simple and compound interest

4 Topic: Budgeting

    Standard: Prepares a budget for a given income on a weekly, monthly, and annual
    basis.

5   Topic: Budgeting

    Standard: Identifies and compares various pay periods
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


6 Topic: Budgeting

    Standard: Explores and compares various methods of personal record keeping.

7   Topic: Budgeting

    Standard: Demonstrates an awareness of how income and personal goals affect
    financial planning and decisions.



8. National Educational Technology Standards for Students (NETS-S)
   met in this lesson:
     1. Creativity and Innovation
        Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop
    innovative products and processes using technology. Students create original works as a
    means of personal or group expression.

    3. Research and Information Fluency
       Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information. Students locate,
    organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of
    sources and media.

       5. Digital Citizenship
        Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and
    practice legal and ethical behavior. Students:

        a. advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and
    technology.
        b. exhibit a positive attitude toward using technology that supports collaboration,
    learning, and productivity.

    6. Technology Operations and Concepts
       Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems, and
    operations. Students select and use applications effectively and productively.


9. Instructional Objectives:
       a. Students will calculate simple interest.
       b. Students will use the internet to search for a savings account and they will
          compare and contrast several savings accounts.
       c. Students will calculate how much interest their selected savings account will yield
          yearly.
       d. Students will continue to build final budget project.


10. Instructional Procedures
       a. Lesson Set:
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


         In order to gain the attention of the students I will show them the POWER
     POINT. (click on PowerPoint) This will spark a classroom discussion that will
     lead us into the lesson on Investments.

     b. Techniques and activities:

             I.     After the PowerPoint we will discuss the importance of savings.
             II.    We then will discuss what a savings account is and how you make
                    money through a savings account.
             III.   We will review Simple Interest to help scaffold what the students
                    have already learned about savings account and simple Interest I
                    will show them this Simple Interest Practice (Concept) graphic.
             IV.    After reviewing simple interest the students will be required to
                    complete a few practice problems on simple interest.
             V.     The next thing I will do is review the Percents of the Budget
                    (Mental Models and Near Transfer) by pulling up the graphic
                    on the LCD screen.
             VI.    After establishing that they must invest 10% of their monthly
                    income into a saving account.
             VII.   Using the computer hooked up to the LCD screen I will walk the
                    students through the process of searching for a bank to open a
                    savings account at.
             VIII. The students will now use their computer and the Internet to search
                    for a Bank to open a Savings Account at.
             IX.    Once the student has found a Savings Account to open the students
                    will record important information about the savings account such
                    as:
                  1. APR or Interest Rate on Account
                  2. Monthly Fee
                  3. Minimum Requirements
                  4. Incentives the account may have
                  5. What bank the account is with etc . . .
             X.     Next the student will use their simple interest formula to figure out
                    how much they will make on their account each year.
             XI.    Once the students have found how much their account will yield
                    each year and how much each month they will be putting into
                    savings the students will input the information into their Budget
                    Project PowerPoint presentation.
             XII.   Lastly the students will make sure they input this information in the
                    Calculations Spread Sheet.
     c. Lesson Closure:
            After all the students have completed the lesson I will have them on a note
        card list the importance of saving and investing and what they learned from the
        lesson. I will also have them list things that they think we have not account for
        yet in our budget.
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


11. Adaptations for special learners:

       Since this unit of instruction is designed for students in a resource setting the pace of
   the unit is already at a slower pace so that the students are successful. The tasks are also
   modified so that the students can master the concept. Each student will have their own
   computer and also be able to view and students with vision or hearing impairments they
   will be placed in the front of the room.

12. Supplemental Activities: Extension and remediation

    The following links are links to different Visuals that will help the student during each
lesson while working on their project throughout the entire unit.

   Tips for Budgeting for the Future (Principles Image) Click on this link to see tips for
budgeting for the future. Worksheet must be completed before turning in final project.

  Pie Chart for Budget (Mental Models and Near Transfer) Refer to this pie chart to
make sure that you are using the correct percentages for each topic of your budget.

    Steps to Saving Calculations Sheet (Procedures) Students can view this image to see
the steps to access and save their Budget Calculations Sheet

   How to Create PowerPoint Slide (Process) Students can view this image to help them
with creating PowerPoint slides if they are unfamiliar with the program.



13. Assessment/Evaluation:

    Students work during this lesson will be observed formally and informally through two
different types of grades.

    Daily- Students will be observed informally on a daily basis, if the student is working
and on task each day of the lesson the student will receive 20 points daily. At the end of the
lesson the students will receive a daily grade in the computer based on how many daily
points they received out of how many they could have earned.

   Quiz Grade- At the end of this lesson the students will be formally assessed for a Quiz
grade based on the following criteria:

   j. Student found a savings account and all the required information about the account.
      40%
   k. Student correctly calculated how much they would put into savings each month and
      how much the account would yield each year. 40 %
   l. Student input information into a PowerPoint presentation. 20%

14. Student Products:

    At the end of the lesson each student should have PowerPoint slides containing the
following information:
   BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT



         a. Slide stating where they opened a savings account at.
         b. Slide containing all the information about the savings account.
         c. Pictures of the bank.
         d. Slide containing how much would be put into savings each month with
            calculations.
         e. Slide containing how much the account would yield each year.



   * Note for students: This lesson plan template is adapted from the model that is

recommended in the book Preparing to Use Technology: A Practical Guide for

Technology Integration.
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT




VI. Lesson 5: Miscellaneous
    Costs
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


                      Budgeting for the Future Unit

 1. Lesson Author: Luke Wiggs


 2. Lesson Title: Miscellaneous cost and Finishing the Budget


 3. Grade Level: 11th and 12th grade


 4. Subject Area: Math Money Management


 5. Time allotted for the lesson: 3 to 4 class meetings approximately 150 – 200
     minutes.


 6. Short description of lesson
     a. In this lesson, the students…
              Throughout the lesson the students will explore what miscellaneous cost that
          that will financially impact them each month. The students will finish the
          remaining pieces of their budget by determining miscellaneous cost, food cost,
          entertainment cost and utilities.


 7. State Curriculum Standards met in this lesson:

Course: Mathematical Money Management QCC Standards


17 Topic: Housing

   Standard: Computes utility costs.

54 Topic: Travel, Recreation, and Vacations

   Standard: Compares costs of various forms of transportation and lodging.

55 Topic: Travel, Recreation, and Vacations

   Standard: Selects a leisure-time activity and investigates related expenses.

4 Topic: Budgeting

   Standard: Prepares a budget for a given income on a weekly, monthly, and annual
   basis.
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


5    Topic: Budgeting

     Standard: Identifies and compares various pay periods

6 Topic: Budgeting

     Standard: Explores and compares various methods of personal record keeping.

7    Topic: Budgeting

     Standard: Demonstrates an awareness of how income and personal goals affect
     financial planning and decisions.



    8. National Educational Technology Standards for Students (NETS-S)
       met in this lesson:
      1. Creativity and Innovation
         Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop
     innovative products and processes using technology. Students create original works as a
     means of personal or group expression.

     3. Research and Information Fluency
        Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information. Students locate,
     organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of
     sources and media.

        5. Digital Citizenship
         Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and
     practice legal and ethical behavior. Students:

         a. advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and
     technology.
         b. exhibit a positive attitude toward using technology that supports collaboration,
     learning, and productivity.

     6. Technology Operations and Concepts
        Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems, and
     operations. Students select and use applications effectively and productively.


    9. Instructional Objectives:
        a.   Students will determine what miscellaneous cost they have each month.
        b.   Students will determine how much they will spend on food each month.
        c.   Students will calculate how much they will spend on entertainment each month.
        d.   Students will calculate how much they will spend on utilities each month.
        e.   Students will continue and finish their Final Budget PowerPoint Presentations.
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


 10. Instructional Procedures
      a. Lesson Set:

          To begin the lesson I will start out with an informal discussion in class about
     what we have not included in the students budget projects yet. This discussion will
     be led by the students and each student will come up and write on the board
     something that we have not taken into consideration. After we have completed our
     list we will place each item into 1 of 4 groups:
                      1. Miscellaneous
                      2. Food Costs
                      3. Entertainment
                      4. Utilities

     b. Techniques and activities:

              I.    After we have grouped our remaining items into 1 of the 4 groups we
                    will now discuss the effects each group could have on our monthly
                    budget.
              II.   Explain to the students that if we do not put a limit on our spending
                    each month we will grow bankrupt. For example if we go out and
                    buy a new TV each week then we couldn’t afford to eat. Generalize
                    this to the real world with examples.
              III.  Next the students will need to determine how much they can spend
                    on food, miscellaneous costs, utilities and entertainment each
                    month.
              IV.   The students will use the same formula to determine how much
                    their budget will allow them to spend on each of the four areas. To
                    teach them this formula I will use the Food Cost Formula (Learner
                    Differences) graphic to help the students see the formula.
              V.    The next thing I will do is review the Percents of the Budget
                    (Mental Models and Near Transfer) by pulling up the graphic
                    on the LCD screen.
              VI.   After establishing the percent of their income they can spend on;
                    food, miscellaneous costs, utilities and entertainment. Each student
                    should use the Food Cost Formula to find out how much to budget
                    each month for the respective area.
              VII. The only thing that will change in the formula each time is the
                    percent.
              VIII. Once the student has calculated how much they can spend in each
                    area they should list examples of things that might fall into each
                    category. In addition they should include pictures of their examples.
              IX.   While the students are working at their computers I will circulate
                    the room and guide the students through the process and answer
                    any questions that might arise.
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


                 X.      Lastly the students will make sure they input this information in the
                         Calculations Spread Sheet.
       c. Lesson Closure:
               After all the students have completed the lesson they will get into pairs and
           work with a peer and revise each other’s presentations. They will provide
           feedback to each other and make final corrections before submitting the
           PowerPoint.

 11. Adaptations for special learners:

       Since this unit of instruction is designed for students in a resource setting the pace of
   the unit is already at a slower pace so that the students are successful. The tasks are also
   modified so that the students can master the concept. Each student will have their own
   computer and also be able to view and students with vision or hearing impairments they
   will be placed in the front of the room.

 12. Supplemental Activities: Extension and remediation

    The following links are links to different Visuals that will help the student during each
lesson while working on their project throughout the entire unit.

   Tips for Budgeting for the Future (Principles Image) Click on this link to see tips for
budgeting for the future. Worksheet must be completed before turning in final project.

  Pie Chart for Budget (Mental Models and Near Transfer) Refer to this pie chart to
make sure that you are using the correct percentages for each topic of your budget.

    Steps to Saving Calculations Sheet (Procedures) Students can view this image to see
the steps to access and save their Budget Calculations Sheet

   How to Create PowerPoint Slide (Process) Students can view this image to help them
with creating PowerPoint slides if they are unfamiliar with the program.



 13. Assessment/Evaluation:

    Students work during this lesson will be observed formally and informally through two
different types of grades.

    Daily- Students will be observed informally on a daily basis, if the student is working
and on task each day of the lesson the student will receive 20 points daily. At the end of the
lesson the students will receive a daily grade in the computer based on how many daily
points they received out of how many they could have earned.

   Quiz Grade- At the end of this lesson the students will be formally assessed for a Quiz
grade based on the following criteria:

   m. Student found a savings account and all the required information about the account.
      40%
   BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


      n. Student correctly calculated how much they would put into savings each month and
         how much the account would yield each year. 40 %
      o. Student input information into a PowerPoint presentation. 20%

    14. Student Products:

       At the end of the lesson each student should have PowerPoint slides containing the
   following information:

                 A PowerPoint Slide for each of the following:

                 •   Miscellaneous Costs – Pictures of examples of miscellaneous costs and
                     the calculations determining how much of your monthly budget will go to
                     the purchase of miscellaneous items
                 •   Food Cost- Pictures of examples of food cost and calculations determining
                     how much of your monthly budget will go to food cost
                 •   Utilities Cost- Pictures of example of Utilities Cost and calculations
                     determining how much of your monthly budget will go to the cost of
                     utilities.
                 •   Entertainment Cost- Pictures and examples of entertainment cost and the
                     calculations determining how much of your monthly budget will go to
                     entertainment cost.



   * Note for students: This lesson plan template is adapted from the model that is

recommended in the book Preparing to Use Technology: A Practical Guide for

Technology Integration.
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT




VII. Justification Paper
BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT




                        Budgeting for the Future Unit


                                Luke Wiggs


                 ED TECH 506: Instructional Message Design


                           Boise State University
   BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


                                               Abstract


   Throughout the last 4 or 5 months I have been designing a unit of instruction for a master’s

level course at Boise State University called ED TECH 506: Instructional Message Design. This

is a required core class that I must complete to earn my Masters in Educational Technology.

Throughout the course we have been studying about the principles of Instructional Message

Design. In addition to learning about these principles, we have applied them to graphics we have

designed for our unit of instruction. In the following pages I will discuss and review several

topics. I will start my exploring the visual context of my Unit of Instruction. Next, I will

describe how I visualized using each individual graphic in my unit. Once I have discussed in

depth each individual graphic I will talk about how my project meets my program standards.
   BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT




       Before starting the course I was curious what Instructional Message Design entailed. I

quickly learned that Instructional Message Design was the process of designing digital graphics

to enhance and supplement the delivery of instruction. As an educator I know that not all

individuals learn the same and not all methods of delivery will be effective. In order for my unit

to be effective with my students it was very important to define the visual context of the unit.

According to Ruth Colvin Clark and Chopeta Lyons the authors of Graphics for Learning it is

very important to assess the learning environment before getting started. Clark and Lyons

(2004), go on to explain that, “ . . . understanding the questions to ask at the beginning can help

you develop graphics that will work in the learning environment,” (Clark & Lyons, 2004, p.

331). To start defining the visual context of my unit I started by analyzing the profile of the

learners. The students that will be completing this unit of instruction are English male and

female students ranging from sixteen years old to twenty. This unit is designed for students who

are getting ready to obtain their High School Diploma. The students I will be working with

socio-economic backgrounds range from the working class through the upper middle class.

Before designing the unit I had to determine if the students had any prior knowledge to the

material being taught. Since this unit is designed as part of a cumulating activity for a Math

Money Management class the students will be asked to explore how income and personal goals

affect their financial planning and decisions. A very important thing to consider when looking at

the learners profile is if there will be any accessibility issues. Since I will be implementing this

lesson to a resource class where every student has an Individual Education Plan I have planned

for more time to complete the unit. Another thing I have done to accommodate the disabilities of
   BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


my students is to simplify the content to an extent. In a regular education setting you would

want to require the students to complete more difficult calculations and tasks involved with

creating a personal budget.


       After I evaluated the learners profile I turned my attention to the environment which the

materials that will be used. My unit is designed to be taught in the classroom setting where each

student has their own computer and visual access to a LCD screen and white board. I will be

using a computer lab at my school that contains thirty computers set up on tables with two

computers on each table. The computer lab also has an LCD projector and white board that will

be used during instructional times. The room lighting will be dark so that the students have a

better view of the LCD projection screen, since the largest group that I will be implementing this

unit to is 10 students the farthest any student will be from the screen is twenty feet. When

designing instructional media it is important you know how your media will be viewed and make

sure that the media will be effective on each platform that will be used for viewing. In my

classroom setting the students will view the images and material on a personal computer and an

LCD projector. When projected on the LCD screen the farthest distance a student will be from

the screen is 20 feet, the lighting will be dark assuring that there are no glares on the screen.

Since I work at a brand new school the computer lab is only a couple years old and the

computers have great displays and resolutions. Our computers have maximum and minimum

display resolutions of 1024 x 768 and a 16 bit color card. Each computer in the lab is connected

to broadband internet access and the speed of our network is very fast and will be more than

sufficient for the implementation of this unit. The only boundary that I might face during the

unit is the firewall at school is very strong. Access, too many website are blocked but the

students will have access to all recommended sites to use for completion of the unit.
   BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


       Lastly and most importantly I had to determine if there were any obstacles that I would

face related to the file formats that I will be using for my designs. All of my designs were

designed using Adobe Fireworks. According to Clark and Lyons (2004), “vector graphics – such

as corporate logos to be used in different sizes – are scalable; they can be stretched without

losing detail. Raster graphics – such as photos or software screen captures – also can be scaled,

but will lose detail and may get distorted,” (Clark & Lyons, 2004, p. 343). Adobe Fireworks

allowed me to import all different types of files and images and work with them as a .png file

and then export them to either .jpeg or .gif whichever was more appropriate. By doing this I

hope to eliminate any file format problems that might arise during implementation of the unit. I

have also created a couple of PowerPoint slide shows to use during my lesson and the graphic

file formats I used for the slide show are .jpg since these type of files are best. Now that I have

discussed the visual context of my lesson I will now describe how I visualized each individual

graphic in my lesson.


       The first graphic I created for my unit of instruction was an Advance Organizer. The

purpose of this design was to provide my students with a graphic that grabs the attention of the

students and provides them with all the topics that their budget will include. It should also

activate prior knowledge of content they have already mastered. I used a picture of a globe in a

set of hands as the background of the image. I really thought this picture related to the

assignment in the since that their future is in their hands. I originally had all of the topics in a

vertical line flowing down the page. After receiving feedback on the image I decided to turn

each topic of the unit into a small “globe” and I placed them inside the hands around the globe

(see graphic). Another change I made to this image was to change the color of the text, originally

the text was white and did not stand out very well. I changed all the text to a darker and more
    BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


defiant color to draw attention to each visual. In my unit I will use this graphic when I introduce

the unit.


        The second visual I created for my unit of instruction was my Attention Visual. Clark

and Lyons state that when, “ . . . directed to focus on something, most people can ignore

distractions and attend . . . the use of signals and cues is most relevant to use of graphics to direct

attention,” (71). I knew that it was important to draw attention to my design Clark and Lyons

suggest several guidelines to direct attention through graphics. Through feedback from my peers

and instructor I followed Guideline 1 and changed the title to a bold red to match the stroke

around each graphic in the net income equation. By doing this I grabbed the viewer’s attention

with the title and straight to the equation for net income. Another guideline I followed from

Clark and Lyons was guideline 4; I made sure that I placed my text close to my visuals so that

each visual was clearly defined. This graphic is used in Lesson 1: Occupation and Net Income of

my unit. The visual was created to help scaffold the student’s memory about net income and

also review it so they can determine their net income for their budget.


               The next graphic I created for my unit of instruction was my Memory Load and

Far Transfer image. This image will be used in Lesson 2: Housing in my unit, the idea of the

image is to provide the students the steps to purchasing a house. Clark and Lyons state that,

“[m]ental load, which is the amount of work required of working memory, can be reduced by

replacing text with visuals,” (105). For this design I originally tried to follow the guidelines by

completely replacing all text with graphics. While the goal was to reduce cognitive load my first

draft came out a little confusing. It was suggested that I add a small amount of each text to help

define each step to purchasing a house. I decided to use a roll over technique to add meaning to
   BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


each step in the design. Another guideline I followed was that I used plan graphics throughout

the entire design that were very low in complexity.


       For the Mental Models and Near Transfer design I created a pie graph. This pie graph

gives the students a visual to use throughout the entire unit to make sure they are using the

correct percentages in each area of their budget. According table 7.1 in Clark and Lyons pie

charts are best to show relational graphics that visualize quantitative relationships. Dr. Beck

suggested that I reduce the brightness of the pizza in my original design because it was taking

away from the percentages and importance of the relationships being shown. I decided to adjust

the color contrast and blur of the pizza and was very pleased with the end result. By doing this I

was able to use the principle color and line in my design to show the importance of each slice.


       When designing my unit I decided to use my Motivation design in conjuncture with

Lesson 3: Transportation. Clark and Lyons explain that, “[m]otivation is what prompts a learner

to initiate an instructional goal and invest the effort required to complete it,” (174). High school

students are extremely interested in vehicles and different types of cars. Many times in resource

classes the students are not really motivated to complete the work or task required of them. I

plan to display this image on the LCD screen when my students enter the room, I hope to create

emotional interest by arousing the curiosity of the students when they see all different types of

vehicles. I also used color and line by creating bright yellow lines between the vehicles to look

like a road. The only change I made in my design was to center the “o” in the word “you” in the

middle of my design. Through feedback it was suggested that I change the color of the stroke

around the word “you” to orange but after experimenting with this I didn’t think that orange

grabbed the attention of the viewer as well as red.
    BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


        For my Learner Differences design the learner type my design focuses on is the learner

with low prior knowledge. In Graphics for Learning Clark and Lyons explain that, “. . . adding

relevant visuals to text was most helpful for learners with no prior knowledge,” (195). I choose

this design because for Lesson 5: Miscellaneous Cost the students are going to have to make

several different calculations and one of them is food cost. My students have no prior

knowledge of how much of their monthly salary they will spend on food cost. This is why I

choose to use graphic symbols and text in my design. I will use this design in the middle of my

lesson to teach the students the formula for finding the miscellaneous cost. The pictures of the

restaurant and grocery store will help trigger their memory that they need to figure how much

money they will budget each month for eating out and groceries. When I originally designed this

image I had the equation going vertical and it didn’t completely fit on the page. Upon reviewing

and experimenting with feedback I decided to turn the equation horizontally and was very

satisfied with the end result.


        When deciding on what procedure I should use for my Procedures design I found it very

important to teach the students how to access and download their calculations spreadsheet that

they will be using in every lesson of my unit while completing their final budget project. Clark

and Lyons have several guidelines for designing procedures and explain that, “ . . . a

transformational visual that incorporates representational visuals of the actual equipment or

computer interface should serve as the main graphic element of any demonstration or

performance guide,” (229). While I thought I had a good design originally, it turned out there

was way too much going on. The text and steps were very distracting and unclear. I decided to

change the size of my design allowing it to be wider; I also used a rollover technique on each

screen shot that gives written directions on what to do in the process. By using the rollover
   BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


technique I was also able to hide the text which allowed for each screen shot to be bigger.

Another suggestion I decided to implement in the final product of this design was to put step

numbers next to each step to help the flow from step to step.


       When designing an image for Lesson 4 on Investments I decided to design a Concept

image. This was a perfect image to create because it allowed me to create an image for

calculating simple interest, which the students will have to do in Lesson 4. Clark and Lyons

suggest, “to help learners build an effective concept mental model, create practice exercises,”

(251). To help the students remember and study the formula for simple interest I used a rollover

technique that defines what each letter of the formula means. I also provided practice problems

and when you rollover the problems it shows you how to work out the problem and the correct

answer. Dr. Beck suggested that I great a graphic to represent the formula and I went back and

forth on the idea. I decided not to do this since the students were taught this formula before I

didn’t want to confuse them.


       When deciding what lesson to use for my Facts design I decided to use my lesson on

housing. The students are required to use a home loan calculator to figure out their mortgage

payment. I provide the students with a link to the home loan calculator and I thought it was very

important for the students to know what they were inputting in the calculator so that they came

out with the right payment. Clark and Lyons (2004), explain that it is good to use

representational visuals to illustrate concrete facts. I took a screen shot of the home loan

calculator and use arrows and text with a rollover technique to define what each term meant. In

my original design my text was white with a red stroke and the blue background made it very

hard to see. One of my peers suggested that I change the text to a bright red with a thin black
   BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


stroke. Another change I made was I changed the justification of the text to align on the far left

and this looked a lot better.


       When creating a Process design for my unit I decided to create a process which reviews

how to create a PowerPoint slide. In 2004 Clark and Lyons state that, “ . . . processes such as

how a computer program works are more abstract. These processes will benefit from

explanatory visuals such as interpretive analogies and models,” (289). To illustrate the process

of creating a PowerPoint I decided to take a screen shot of a blank slide. I used text and arrows

with line and color to explain what should be input in each area of the slide. I also used a

rollover technique to show what a completed slide would look like. It was suggested that I use

audio to help narrate the slide. While this is a good idea I decided against this because I want to

use the LCD screen to show the students while talking them through each step of the process. I

will use this image with a small group of students at any point during the unit to review how to

create a PowerPoint slide. Since I teach resource students and their working memory is very

short I thought this was a good design to create for my unit.


       When evaluating all of my designs and looking back on them my Principles design was

my favorite I created. I’m going to use this visual as I wrap up the entire unit and to provide

them with tips for budgeting for the future. I found a really good video on YouTube that gave

tips for budgeting. I incorporated this video as well as a video questionnaire for the students to

fill out while watching the video with my Principles design. The video and questionnaire help

maximize what I want the students to get out of the design and the five tips for budgeting listed

on the fingers. I decided to take the advice from some of my classmates and change the color of

the text on the fingers as well as to add red stroke around the video and worksheet hyperlinks.
   BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


          Throughout the design of this unit of instruction I have met the following Association for

Educational Communications and Technology Standards. Standard 1, I have designed many

graphics that apply principles of instructional systems design, message design, and instructional

strategies. I also performed standard 2 throughout this semester, by demonstrating the knowledge

and skills to develop an instructional unit using technology. I utilized the principles taught by

Dr. Beck throughout the semester to visualize and develop my designs and unit of instruction. It

is Boise State’s goal to develop educator’s that prepare learners to be citizens and prepare them

for the real world. Through my unit Budgeting for the Future I will be preparing my students to

understand the importance of making sound financial decisions upon graduating from high

school.

                                         Professional Biography

   In 2007 I graduated from Auburn University with a B.S. in Rehabilitation and Special

Education. I took my first teaching job in August 2007 at Woodland High School a brand new

school in Stockbridge, GA. I have been at Woodland for the last three years teaching special

education and math. In addition to teaching I coach varsity football and golf. I am currently

pursuing my master’s degree in Educational Technology from Boise State University.
   BUDGETING FOR THE FUTURE UNIT


                                          Works Cited



Clark, R. C., & Lyons, C. (2004). Graphics for Learning . San Francisco: Pfeiffer.

				
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