File by leader6


									Java File Structure
 File class which is defined by does not
  operate on streams
     deals directly with files and the file system
File class describes the properties of a file
      it does not specify how information is retrieved from or
      stored in files.
File object is used to obtain the information,
 associated with a disk file, such as permission,
 time ,data, and directory path
There are three constructor methods in
     Each takes some variation of a filename as an
File Constructors
The simplest is File constructor is:
        public File(String directoryPath)
     directorypath is simply a String with either a full or relative pathname
      to the file which can be understood by the host operating system.
            File f1 = new File ("25.html");
            File f2 = new File ("/etc/passwd");
We can separate the path and the filename using the
 following constructor:
     public File (String directoryPath, String filename)
          File f2 = new File ("/etc", "passwd");
The third constructor is:
     public File (File dirObj, String filename)
     File object itself instead of a String.
         File f3= new File (f1, “passwd”)
File Methods
       public String getName()

The most basic question which is asked a file is
 "What is your name?"
 This is done with the getName() method which
 takes no arguments and returns a String.
The String returned is just the name of the file.
It does not include any piece of the directory or
 directories that contain this file.
In other words we get back "file1" instead of
 "/java/users/file1" .
             public String getPath()
 getPath() returns a String that contains the path being used for
  this File.
 It will be relative or absolute depending on how the File object
  was created.

            public String getAbsolutePath()
 getAbsolutePath() returns the complete, non-relative path to the

     public String getCanonicalPath() throws IOException
 getCanonicalPath() returns the canonical form of this File
  object's pathname. This is system-dependent.

          public String getParent()
 getParent() returns a String that contains the name of the single directory
  which contains this file in the hierarchy.
 It does not return a full path all the way back up to the root. If the file is at
  the top level of the disk then it has no parent directory and null is returned.
   public boolean exists() throws Security Exception
 The exists() method indicates whether or not a particular file
  exists where you expect it to be.

public boolean canWrite() throws SecurityException
 The canWrite() method indicates whether you have write
  access to this file. It's not a bad idea to check canWrite()
  before trying to put data in a file.

public boolean canRead() throws SecurityException
 The canRead() method indicates whether we have read
  access to this file. It a good idea to check canRead() before
  trying to read data out of a file.
      public boolean isFile() throws SecurityException
 The isFile() method indicates whether this is file exists and is
  a normal file, in other words not a directory.

 public boolean isDirectory() throws SecurityException
 The isDirectory() returns true if this file exists and is a

         public boolean isAbsolute()
 isAbsolute() returns true if the file name is an absolute path
  and false if it's a relative path.

   public long lastModified() throws SecurityException
 lastModified() returns the last modification time. Since the
  conversion between this long and a real date is platform
  dependent, you should only use this to compare modification
  dates of different files.
public boolean renameTo(File destination) throws

 f1.renameTo(f2) tries to change the name of f1 to f2.
 This may involve a move to a different directory if the filenames
  so indicate.
 If f2 already exists, then it is overwritten by f1 (permissions
 If f1 is renamed, the method returns true. Otherwise it returns

        pubic String[] list() throws SecurityException

 The list() method returns an array of Strings initialized to the
  names of each file in directory f
 It's useful for processing all the files in a directory.
    Class SecurityException
     public long length() throws SecurityException
 f.length() is the length of the file in bytes.

            public boolean mkdir()
 f.mkdir() tries to create a directory with the given name.
 If the directory is created, the method returns true.
 Otherwise it returns false.

public boolean delete() throws SecurityException
 f.delete() tries to delete the file f.
 This method returns true if the file existed and was deleted.
  (You can't delete a file that doesn't exist).
 Otherwise it returns false.

 The File class also contains the usual equals(), hashCode() and
  toString() methods which behave exactly as you would expect.
  It does not contain a clone() method.
   Complete The Following Java
There are many methods that allow us to
 examine the properties of a simple file
The following Java program output
 demonstrates several File methods
Write Java code according to that program
Path: /java/COPYRIGHT
Parent: /java
is writeable
is readable
is not a directory
is normal file
is absolute
File last modified:812465204000
File size: 695 Bytes
  class FileDemo {
       static void p (String s) {
               System.out.println (s);
public static void main (String args[ ]) {
       File f1= new File (“/java/COPYRIGHT”);
    p (“Parent: “ +f1.getParent());
    p(f1.canWrite() ? ”is writeable” : “is not writeable”);
    p (f1.isAbsolute() ? “is absolute” : “is not absolute”);
     } }
             The ? Operator
The ? operator is a special ternary (three-way)
 operator that can replace certain types of if-then-
 else statements
  expression1 ? Expression2 : expression3
expression1 can be any expression that evaluates
 to a boolean value.
If expression1 is true, then expression2 is
 evaluated; otherwise expression3 is evaluated.
The result of ? operation is that of the expression
Both expression2 and expression3 are required to
 return the same type, which can not be void
ratio = denom == 0 ? 0 : num /denom;

 If denom equals zero, then expression between
 the question mark and colon is evaluated and
 used as the value of the entire ? expression
If denom is not equal zero, then the expression
 after the colon is evaluated and used for the
 value of the entire ? expression.
The result produces by the ? operator is
 assigned to ratio.
Write the Java code by using the ? operator
 for the following program output:
Absolute value of 20 is 20
Absolute value of -10 is 10

Hint: assign the values 20 and -10 before
  writing the ? operator.
              Try and catch example
                 (The homework on 5 December)
import java.util.Random;
class A {
 public static void main (String args[ ]) {
   int a=0, b=0, c=0;
   Random r = new Random();
       for ( int i=0; i<320; i++ {
           try {
                b= r.nextInt();
                a=12345 / ( b/c);
       } catch       (ArithmeticException e) {
              System.out.println (“Division by zero.”);
                 a=0; //set a zero and continue
    System.out.println ( “a: “ +a);
     }        }        }
Explaining the Different Java
 Codes with Object Oriented

  A Payroll System Using Polymorphism
public abstract class Employee { //abstract class cannot be instantiated
      private String firstName;
//abstract class can have instance data and nonabstract methods for subclasses
     private String lastName;            // constructor

public Employee( String first, String last ) {
// abstract class can have constructors for subclasses to initialize inherited data
       firstName = first;
       lastName = last;        }

public String getFirstName() {            // get first name
//abstract class can have instance data and nonabstract methods for subclasses
        return firstName;       }

public String getLastName()      {       // get last name
//abstract class can have instance data and nonabstract methods for subclasses
return lastName;                     }

   public String toString()          {
//abstract class can have instance data and nonabstract methods for subclasses
   return firstName + ' ' + lastName;        }
 // Boss class derived from Employee.
     public final class Boss extends Employee {
/*Boss is an Employee subclass and Boss inherits Employee’s public methods except
   for constuctor*/
       private double weeklySalary;
       public Boss( String first, String last, double salary )
       // constructor for class Boss
             super( first, last ); // call superclass constructor
// Explicit call to Employee constructor using super
 setWeeklySalary( salary );
public void setWeeklySalary( double salary ) // set Boss's salary {
         weeklySalary = ( salary > 0 ? salary : 0 );               }

public double earnings()           {       // get Boss's pay
//Required to implement Employee’s method earnings (polymorphism
       return weeklySalary;            }

public String toString() {
 // get String representation of Boss's name
return "Boss: " + super.toString();    }

 } // end class Boss
 // CommissionWorker class derived from Employee
     public final class CommissionWorker extends Employee {
//CommissionWorker is an Employee subclass
        private double salary;    // base salary per week
        private double commission; // amount per item sold
        private int quantity;  // total items sold for week

     // constructor for class CommissionWorker
   public CommissionWorker (String first, String last, double salary, double
                                                    commission, int quantity ) {
   super( first, last ); // call superclass constructor
//Explicit call to Employee constructor using super
            setSalary( salary );
            setCommission( commission );
            setQuantity( quantity );
     // set CommissionWorker's weekly base salary
   public void setSalary( double weeklySalary ) {
         salary = ( weeklySalary > 0 ? weeklySalary : 0 );   }

  // set CommissionWorker's commission
  public void setCommission( double itemCommission )  {
     commission = ( itemCommission > 0 ? itemCommission : 0 );           }
/*Subclasses must implement abstract method.Abstract method that must be
  implemented for each derived class of Employee from which objects are

  instantiated */

     public abstract double earnings()   ;
//Subclasses must implement abstract method

 } // end class Employee

The codes will continue about this problem

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