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SSI and SSDI Basics - Mass Legal Services

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					     SSI and SSDI Basics


Linda Landry, Esq.
Svetlana Uimenkova, Esq.
Disability Law Center


Basic Benefits
2011

                           1
         Sources Of Law, Policy,
              & Procedure
   Most available online at www.socialsecurity.gov
    other materials at www.masslegalservices.org.

   United States Code (U.S.C.). Contains the federal
    statutes that created the SSI (42 U.S.C. §1381 et.
    seq.) and SSDI (42 U.S.C. §402 et. seq.) programs.
   Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.). Contains
    the federal regulations implementing for the SSI (20
    C.F.R. § 416 et seq.) and SSDI (20 C.F.R. § 404
    et.seq.) Programs.


                                                      2
      Sources Of Law, Policy,
           & Procedure
   Case law. Decisions of the Federal District Courts, U.S. Circuit
    Courts of Appeals, and the U.S. Supreme Court.

   Social Security Rulings (SSR). Statements of policy and
    interpretations adopted by SSA based on federal court and
    administrative decisions, policy statements, and opinions of
    SSA’s Office of General Counsel. Rulings are published in the
    Federal Register and are binding on all components of SSA,
    although they do not have the force of law.

   Acquiescence Rulings explain how SSA will apply decisions of
    the U.S. Circuit Courts of Appeals that are at odds with SSA’s
    national policies.

                                                            3
      Sources Of Law, Policy,
           & Procedure
   Program Operations Manual System (POMS).
    The POMS provides guidelines for day-to-day
    operations in SSA’s district offices and at Disability
    Determination Services (DDS). The POMS does not
    have the force of law and cannot be used where it
    conflicts with the statute or regulations.

   Hearings, Appeals and Litigation Law Manual
    (HALLEX). Published by the SSA Office of Hearings
    and Appeals (OHA), the HALLEX conveys guiding
    principles to OHA staff, defines procedures for
    carrying out policy, and provides guidance for
    processing and adjudicating claims at the ALJ
    hearing, Appeals Council, and federal court levels.
                                                     4
                 The Players
   SSA District Offices (DO) - claims representatives take
    applications and appeals, make decisions on non-disability
    issues.

   Disability Determination Services (DDS) - state agency under
    contract with SSA - lay disability examiners and DDS doctors
    develop evidence and make the disability determination.
    MA DDS is part of Mass. Rehabilitation Commission.

   Office of Disability Adjudication and Review (ODAR) -
    Administrative Law Judges. Boston & Springfield.

   Appeals Council – In Falls Church, VA.

   There are 10 Regional offices which oversee the District Offices.
    Massachusetts is in Region I.
                                                            5
           What is SSDI?
(Social Security Disability Insurance)

   SSDI is a Social Security insurance program
    that pays a monthly cash benefit to people
    who are:
       Disabled = same definition of disability as with
        SSI (for adults), AND

       Insured = worked and earned enough Social
        Security credits by paying FICA taxes. For most
        adults, this means working for about 5 of the last
        10 years before becoming disabled.

   SSDI is not “needs-based and has no income
    or asset limits.
                                                     6
        Earning Credits to Become
            Insured for SSDI
   Earn 1 credit for every $1120 earned in 2011
    - $4480 earned = 4 credits.
   1 credit- $1,130 in 2012 up to $4520/year
   Maximum of 4 credits/year.
   Must pay FICA taxes. No credits for “under
    the table” work.
   Special SSDI Rule for Young Adults:
       To be insured for SSDI, adults under 24 years old
        only need to earn 6 credits in the 3 years before
        they become disabled.

                                                   7
    Social Security Insurance
       Benefits Overview

 Retirement Insurance Benefits (RSI) available to
  insured workers at retirement age.

 Dependents and Survivors benefits are available to
  certain close relatives of insured deceased wage
  earners or of insured wage earners eligible for
  SSDI or RSI.

 Social Security Insurance benefits sometimes called
  Title II benefits.

                                               8
         SSDI – Overview
            Continued
   Medicare will provide health care
    coverage to retired workers upon
    retirement. Disabled beneficiaries will
    begin Medicare coverage in month 25 of
    SSDI eligibility.
   People with ALS or end stage renal
    disease do not have to wait for Medicare
    coverage.
                                      9
          SSDI – Overview
             Continued
   Monthly benefit payment, called Primary
    Insurance Amount (PIA), is dependent on
    work and wage history and is unique to each
    worker. The maximum benefit paid in 2011 is
    $2323 per month.
   Dependent’s benefits totaling up to
    approximately 50% of the worker’s insurance
    payment will be paid to the eligible
    dependents. “Family Maximum” limits total
    payments.
                                         10
         SSDI – Overview
            Continued
   Benefits are payable, after application is
    filed, beginning 5 months after the
    “onset date,” but not more than 1 year
    prior to the date of application.

   Since December 1, 1996, must have
    “lawful presence” status to receive
    SSDI.

                                        11
        What is SSI?
(Supplemental Security Income)

   Called SSI or Title XVI.
   “Needs-based”
   Categorical Eligibility – Aged, Blind, Disabled.
   Low income – Countable income less than the
    maximum SSI payable to that individual.
   Low Resources – Countable resources of less
    than $2000 for an individual and $3000 for a
    married couple.



                                                12
    SSI Eligibility - Overview


   Residence in U.S. for 30 days.

   Citizen and/or alien status
    requirements for benefits payable
    after December 1, 1996.


                                     13
             SSI - Overview
               Continued

SSI pays a monthly cash benefit depending
  upon the recipient’s categorical status and
  living arrangement.
The maximum monthly payment is set each
  January by the Social Security Administration.
Benefit Amount is determined by deducting
  countable income from maximum payment
  for category and living arrangement.
                                            14
           SSI - Overview
             Continued
   Earliest possible payment date is the
    first of the month after the month of
    application.

   Medicaid (MassHealth) coverage is
    awarded automatically upon the award
    of disability and payment status.

                                       15
       SSI Basics - Income

   Income = “anything you receive in
    cash or in kind that you can use to
    meet your needs for food and
    shelter.”
   Income generally counted month of
    receipt.
   Counted towards asset limit if
    retained in subsequent month.
                                  16
           SSI Income Rules

   Types of Income:
       Earned = from employment (favored)
       Unearned = from other sources, e.g.,
        SSDI, alimony, pension, inheritance
       Deeming = counting portion of someone
        else’s (parent, spouse, sponsor) income as
        SSI recipient’s.
       In-kind = shelter or food received free or
        at reduced cost. (capped at 1/3 FBR)
                                               17
     Examples of Income That
         Does Not Count

   Income tax refunds
   Loans (spent in month received)
   Bills paid by 3rd parties for things other
    than food and shelter
   Federal student assistance, including
    work-study and Pell grants
   Gifts of domestic airline tickets
   EITC and Child Tax Credit payments 18
     Examples of Unearned
           Income
   Annuities, pensions, and other periodic
    payments, incl. SSDI and Unemployment
   Alimony, child support (1/3 excluded for kids
    under age 18)
   Dividends, interest
   Gifts, prizes
   Rental income
   Inheritances
   Deemed income
                                            19
           Unearned Income
              Exclusions
   Only a $20 general exclusion is applied
    to total unearned income
   Certain types of unearned income cary
    their own exclusions:
       Gross rental income may be reduced by
        expenses needed to earn it
       Deemed income reduced by exclusions
        included in deeming formulas
                                          20
    Not All Unearned Income
            is Counted
   Examples:
   Free medical care and services
   Income used to replace a resource
    (e.g., insurance proceeds)
   Income tax refunds
   Proceeds of a loan


                                        21
           More
Unearned Income Exclusions
   Bills paid for the recipient – IF paid
    directly to the vendor – for non
    food/shelter related items
   Replacement of income lost or stolen
   Housing assistance such as public
    housing of Section 8 voucher


                                       22
             Earned Income
   Income from work is treated more
    favorably than unearned income.
   Earned income includes:
       Wages
       Net self employment income
       In-kind payment (e.g., free rent for work)
       Royalties and honoraria

                                             23
       SSI and Work – Effect of
               Wages
   For SSI, gross monthly wages count when
    paid/received. 20 CFR 416.1111(a).

   To compute countable monthly wages, deduct $65
    plus ½ of the remainder from gross monthly wages.
    20 CFR 416.1112(c)(5) & (7).

   SSI recipients may also deduct the $20 “general
    income disregard” from wages, if not used on
    “unearned” income. 20 CFR 416.1112(c)(4).

   A good estimate of countable wages is ½ of gross
    monthly wages.

                                                  24
     SSI and Work – Effect of
        Wages Example 1
   Carmen receives $788.39 in SSI
    disability benefits in 2011. She has no
    other income.

   She decides to take a job paying $885
    in gross wages per month.

   What will be the effect on her SSI?
                                          25
      SSI and Work – Effect of
         Wages Example 1
   $400 of Carmen’s gross monthly wages is
    countable [$885 – 85 ($65 + $20) divided by
    2 = $400].

   Carmen’s SSI benefit will be $388.39 ($788.39
    - $400 = $388.39).

   Her total gross monthly income will be
    $1273.39 ($885 + 388.39).

                                             26
      SSI and Work – Effect of
         Wages Example 2

   Joe receives $520 in SSDI and $288.39 in SSI
    disability benefits per month in 2011.

   He also takes a job paying $885 per month in
    gross wages.

   These wages make him SSI ineligible.
                                           27
      SSI and Work – Effect of
         Wages Example 2
   $520 SSDI - $20 = $500 countable SSDI
   $885 gross wages - $65 = $820.
    $820 divided by 2 = $410 countable wages.
   $500 + $410 = $910, more than the SSI
    amount ($288.39) for which Joe is eligible.
   Joe’s total gross monthly income is $1405
    ($520 + $885).
   Will Joe remain eligible for MassHealth?
    Probably.
                                           28
      SSI Benefits and Work
     Self Employment Income

   SSA starts with net self employment to
    calculate the amount of SSI the
    individual would otherwise be eligible to
    receive.
   20 CFR 416.110(b), 416.1111(6).


                                       29
       SSI Benefits and Work
         IRWE Deductions
   Impairment Related Work Expenses
    (IRWEs) may be deducted to determine
    countable gross monthly wages and
    countable net self-employment income.
    20 C.F.R. 416.1112
   IRWE deductions are in addition other
    permitted earned income deductions

                                    30
       SSI Benefits and Work
         IRWE Deductions
   IRWEs are:
      impairment related items and services

      needed in order to work

      out of pocket, i.e., paid by the individual

       and not reimbursed by any source.
      paid in a month when individual worked. 20

       CFR 416.976


                                           31
           IRWE Examples


   Attendant care services provided at
    work or at home to prepare for work.
   Transportation costs required by
    disability.
   Durable medical equipment.
   Service or support animal costs

                                       32
            IRWE Examples
   Residential modifications to permit access, if
    employed outside the home
   If self-employed, modifications to create an
    interior workspace
   Medications/treatment necessary to control a
    condition to permit work.
   Non-medical equipment where necessary to
    control a condition, e.g., air conditioner for
    respiratory condition.

                                            33
       SSI Benefits and Work
          BWE Deductions

   Blind Work Expense (BWE) deductions
    are available to SSI recipients eligible on
    the basis of blindness.
   BWEs are in addition to other permitted
    earned income deductions.
   20 CFR 416.1112(c)(8).


                                         34
       SSI Benefits and Work
          BWE Deductions
   Examples of BWEs (POMS SI 00820.555):
      service animal expenses;

      transportation to and from work;

      taxes;

      attendant care services;

      visual aids;

      translation of materials into Braille;

      lunches;

      professional association dues.



                                           35
    Work SSI and SSI Benefits
        Student Earned Income
              Deduction

   The student earned income
    deduction is for SSI recipients who:
     are under age 22, and
     are regularly attending school.

     20 CFR 416.1112(c)(3).




                                        36
    Work SSI and SSI Benefits
          Student Earned Income
                Deduction
   Regularly attending school means:
       For grades 7-12, attending at least 12 hrs
        per week;
       For college or vocational program,
        attending at least 8 hrs per week.
       20 CFR 416.1861



                                             37
      SSI Benefits and Work
        Student Earned Income
             Deduction
   In 2011, the student earned income
    deduction is $1640 per month, up to a
    maximum of $6600 per year.
   This amount is indexed to the yearly
    cost of living increase.
   This deduction is in addition to other
    permitted earned income deductions.

                                      38
       Federal Educational
           Assistance
   All student financial assistance received
    under Title IV of the Higher Education
    Act of 1965, or under BIA Student
    Assistance Programs, is excluded from
    income and resources, regardless
    of use. Title IV programs include: Pell
    Grants; federal work study programs;
    Upward Bound, and others specified in
    POMS SI 00830.455.
                                       39
          Other Educational
             Assistance
   any portion of a grant, scholarship, or
    fellowship used for paying tuition, fees, or
    other necessary education expenses is not
    countable income. 20 CFR 416.1124(c)(3).
   any grant scholarship, fellowship, or gift for
    the cost of tuition or fees does not count as a
    resource for nine months. 20 CFR
    416.1210(u), 416.1250.


                                             40
    Plan to Achieve Self-Support
               (PASS)
   Set aside income and resources to use to
    achieve an occupational goal.
   Occupational goal must be feasible.
   PASS must be in writing and include budget
    (& business plan if self-employment).
   If PASS is approved by SSA & followed,
    income and resources in PASS don’t count for
    SSI. 20 CFR 416.1112(c)(9), 416.1210(f).

                                          41
            Resources

   SSI limits the amount of countable
    resources an SSI recipient can own.
   An individual recipient can hold only
    $2000 in countable resources.
   A married couple can hold only $3000 in
    countable resources.


                                     42
                   Resources

   A resource is cash on hand, other personal
    property, or real property that an individual:
       owns or has an ownership interest in;
       has the legal right to dispose of and convert to
        cash; and
       is not legally restricted from using for support
   Income remaining after the month received
    becomes a resource.
   20 C.F.R. 416.1201
                                                      43
       Examples of Excluded
           Resources

   The home that the individual lives in.
   Household goods and personal effects.
   An automobile of any value if used for
    work or medical appointments/services.
   Retroactive SSI/SSDI for 9 months.
   Earned Income Tax Credit for 9 mos.
   Federal student aid, including work-study.
                                        44
     Excluded Resources
   PASS protected income and resources
   Income producing property (PESS)
    (limited to $6000)
   Whole life insurance (face value less
    than $1500)
   Burial funds (up to $1500)
   Burial spaces (unlimited value)

                                      45
        Transfer Of Assets

   Any resource that is transferred for
    less than fair market value will
    result in a “transfer of assets
    penalty” causing ineligibility for a
    maximum of 36 months. 20 C.F.R.
    416.1246

                                   46
           Non-Citizen
      SSI Eligibility Criteria
   Prior to 8/26/96 PRUCOL (Permanently
    Residing Under Color of Law) was the
    standard. Now eligibility is much more
    limited.

   Eligibility depends on the immigrant’s
    status and date of entry into the U.S.
    Three basic groups of aliens.

                                       47
    (1) Noncitizens Receiving
         SSI on 8/22/96

   All noncitizens who were "receiving" SSI
    on 8/22/96 are "grandfathered" into the
    SSI program, as long as they meet at
    least PRUCOL and remain otherwise
    eligible.


                                      48
   (2) Noncitizens Who
 Entered Prior to 8/22/96
Eligible for SSI IF they:
 were "lawfully residing" on 8/22/96;
  AND
 are now "qualified aliens;" AND

 are now "disabled" or blind (regardless
  of age)

POMS SI 00502.142

                                     49
     Definition of “Qualified
              Aliens”
   "QUALIFIED ALIENS" include legal permanent
    residents (including Amerasians), asylees, refugees,
    persons granted withholding of deportation (now
    called cancellation of removal), Cuban/Haitian
    entrants, persons granted parole status for a period
    of at least 1 year, and battered spouses with a
    pending or approved spousal visa or petition for relief
    under VAWA and whose need for benefits has a
    substantial connection to the battering and who no
    longer live with their batters.



                                                   50
    Definition of “Lawfully
           Residing”
   A U.S. Resident = establishes residency in
    the U.S. with the intent to continue living
    within the geographic limits of the U.S., AND

   “Lawfully Present" = inspected & admitted
    to U.S. & no violation of terms of admission.
    Includes most legal nonimmigrants.

POMS SI 00502.142B.2

                                           51
          (3) Non-Citizens who
           Enter After 8/22/96
Must meet one of the following to be SSI eligible:

   LPRs, BUT only those with 40 quarters of coverage AND
    after 5 years in the U.S.; OR

   refugees, asylees and persons granted withholding of
    deportation, BUT ONLY for the FIRST 7 YEARS in
    those statuses; OR

   honorably discharged veterans and active duty armed
    services personnel who are "qualified aliens" and their
    spouses and unmarried, dependent children.
                                                      52
            “Fleeing Felon” Rule
   Effective 8/22/96, ineligible for SSI if:
       fleeing to avoid prosecution for a crime, or an attempt
        to commit a crime, which is a felony;

       fleeing to avoid custody or confinement after conviction
        for a crime, or an attempt to commit a crime, which is
        a felony;

       violating a condition of probation or parole imposed
        under federal or state law.

                                                         53
        “Fleeing Felon” Rule –
                Cont.
   Extended to SSDI, effective 1/1/05.
   Appealable; aid pending appeal possible.
   Advocacy issues:
       Intent – e.g., person who doesn’t know about
        warrant can’t have intent to flee to avoid
        prosecution.
       Limited Good Cause criteria
       Factual errors – e.g., SSA relied on incorrect info
        from law enforcement.
       Contact public defender in state where warrant
        issued.
                                                       54
    Martinez Class Settlement
   Martinez et al v. Astrue.
   No further suspensions for warrants other
    than those issued for flight or escape (codes
    4901, 4902, 4999).
   Varying relief for class members.
   Does not apply to warrants for probation
    or parole violations.
   More information: www.NSCLC.org,
    www.masslegalservices.org

                                            55
     Clark Class Settlement
   Clark et al v. Astrue, settlement in the works
   Eff. 5/9/11, no further benefit suspensions
    based solely on outstanding probation or
    parole warrants
   Stay tuned for details on class relief
   More information: www.NSCLC.org.
    www.masslegalservices.org


                                             56
   Definition of Disability
         for Adults
      20 CFR 416.905
The inability to engage in any
 substantial gainful activity (SGA) by
 reason of medically determinable
 physical and/or mental impairment(s)
 which can be expected to last for a
 continuous period of not less than 12
 months or result in death.

                                   57
    5-Step Sequential Analysis
         20 CFR 416.920

   STEP 1. Is the applicant engaging in
    Substantial Gainful Activity (SGA)?

   STEP 2. Does the applicant have a severe
    impairment?

   STEP 3. Does the applicant suffer from an
    impairment which meets or equals the
    severity of a listed impairment?

                                           58
        5-Steps - Continued

   STEP 4. Does claimant have the residual
    functional capacity (RFC) to perform his/her
    past relevant work (work performed in the
    last 15 years)?

   STEP 5. Does the claimant have the RFC to
    perform any other work that exists in
    significant numbers in the national economy?
    Burden of proof shifts to SSA at step 5.

                                            59
Step 1 - Substantial Gainful
       Activity (SGA)
   Substantial = perform significant physical or mental
    duties productive in nature.

   Gainful = work usually done for pay or profit, whether
    or not it's realized.

   Significant duties = have a degree of economic value.
    Work performed in one's own household tasks, and
    non-paying work on hobbies, training, school, clubs,
    social programs, etc. does not = SGA in and of itself.
   20 CFR 416.974 - .976
                                                   60
                    SGA (cont.)

   Look at average gross monthly earnings. If
    countable gross earnings go over threshold, SGA is
    presumed. Part-time work can be SGA.
   SGA threshold changes every year. In 2011, SGA
    threshold is $1000 gross/month. In 2012, SGA is
    $1,010 gross/month.
   SGA threshold for blind SSDI applicants in 2011 is
    $1640. No SGA test for blind SSI applicants at
    application. 2012 SGA-$1,690.
   If self-employed, look at net income after business
    deductions; value of work to business.
                                                   61
        There’s More to SGA
         than the Numbers
   Unsuccessful Work Attempts (UWA) are not SGA.
    UWA if work stops or earnings go below SGA due to
    impairment or removal of special conditions within 3 -
    6 months.

   Countable earnings may be reduced:

   Subsidies and special conditions, and

   Impairment Related Work Expenses

                                                   62
      Step 2 – Severity
    20 CFR 416.921 - .923
   Not severe = a slight abnormality that
    would have no more than a minimal
    effect on an individual’s ability to work
    even if he or she were of advanced age,
    had minimal education, and limited
    work experience.
   McDonald v. Sec’y HHS, 795 F.2d 1118
    (1st Cir. 1986). SSR 96-3p
                                       63
    Step 2 – Severity – cont’d
   “Severity” test is de minimis test
   All impairments must be considered in
    combination to determine whether the
    severity test is met – regardless of
    whether any impairment considered
    alone is severe.


                                     64
               Step 3 –
       Listing of Impairments
   20 CFR Appendix 1 to Subpart P of Part 404.

   14 body systems.

   Medical criteria described that presume
    functional limitations that preclude work.

   If medical documentation that impairments
    meet or equal these criteria, disability finding
    required. No vocational analysis.
                                              65
        Step 3 – Listing of
       Impairments – cont’d
   Medical listings serve to screen in the most severe
    impairments
   Medical criteria presume functional limitations that
    prevent work
   Medical documentation of the listed criteria =
    allowance, without individual consideration of
    functional limitations – except for mental impairments
   20 CFR 416.925 - .926



                                                    66
Step 3 - Proving Claimant Meets
       or Equals a Listing
   Medical records from acceptable medical
    source.
   Narrative letter or detailed, listing-based form
    from doctor. Conclusions must be supported
    by medical findings in records. Psychiatrist &
    therapist can co-sign.
   Send letter to doctor requesting letter, include
    copy of the listings for guidance. Follow up
    with phone call.
                                             67
     Step 4 – Evidence Issues
    20 CFR 416.960(b), .965(a)

   Given medically determinable impairments,
    does claimant have the RFC (Residual
    Functional Capacity) to return to past relevant
    work?
       PRW = work performed at SGA level in 15 years
        before onset of disability.
   Compare skill, strength requirements of past
    work with current RFC.
   Claimant has burden to prove. Don’t forget
    this step at hearing, even if DDS determined
    that claimant could not do past work.
                                                68
         Step 4 - Continued

   If past work done in foreign country, issue is
    whether claimant could perform work as it
    was done there. Language issue, lack of U.S.
    equivalent irrelevant. SSR 82-40
   Irrelevant that past work is now obsolete.
    Barnhart v. Thomas, 540 U.S. 20, 124 S.Ct.
    376 (2003).
   Ability to return to past part-time SGA level
    work = not disabled.
                                            69
    Residual Functional Capacity (RFC)
             20 CFR 416.945

   Maximum ability to do sustained work-related
    physical and mental activities in a work setting, on a
    regular and continuing basis, despite limitations
    caused by their impairment(s) and related symptoms.
    See SSRs 96-8p, 96-9p.

   “Regular and continuing basis” means 8 hours/day 5
    days/week or equivalent.

   Must consider total limiting effects of all impairments,
    even non-severe ones and all relevant evidence in
    the record. Based on medical evidence and other
    evidence re: functional limitations.               70
     Physical RFC Components
        20 CFR 416.945(b)
   Exertional limitations:
       Standing, sitting, walking
       Alternating sitting and standing
       Lifting
       Pushing, pulling

   Postural limitations
       Balancing
       Climbing
       Stooping, bending, kneeling, crouching, crawling

                                                   71
    Physical RFC Components –
              cont’d
   Manipulative limitations
       Reaching
       Handling (gross manipulation)
       Fingering (fine manipulation)
       Feeling (skin receptors)
   Visual limitations
   Communicative limitations
       Speaking, hearing

                                        72
    Physical RFC Components –
    cont’d – 20 CFR 416.945(d)
   Environmental limitations
       Cold, heat
       Wetness, humidity
       Dust
       Noise
       Vibrations
       Fumes, odors
       Heights

                                73
    Measuring Physical RFC

   Occasionally = can do very little, up to
    1/3 of day (up to about 2 hours in 8-hr.
    day)
   Frequently = can do about 2/3 of day
    (about 6 hours in 8-hr. day)
   SSR 96-9p


                                       74
    Exertional Demands of
    Work – 20 CFR 416.967
   Sedentary
   Light
   Medium
   Heavy




                       75
        Physical Demands
of Full Range of Sedentary Work
   Lifting no more than 10 pounds at a time and
    occasionally to lift or carry articles like docket
    files, ledgers, and small tools.

   Occasional walking and standing (no more
    than about 2 hours of an 8-hr. workday).

   Sitting about 6 hours of an 8-hour workday.
   20 CFR 416.967(a)
                                               76
        Mental RFC Components
          20CFR 416.945(c)

   Nonexertional Activities:
       Concentrating
       Remembering
       Understanding
       Carrying out simple instructions
       Responding appropriately to supervision
       Getting along with co-workers

                                            77
      Step 5 Considerations
   Final step in the sequential analysis
   Considers whether the individual can
    perform other work in the economy
   SSA uses “Grids” for exertional
    impairments
   Individual analysis required for solely or
    significant non-exertional impairments.

                                        78
          Step 5 Factors
   Residual functional capacity (mental and
    physical, exertional and nonexertional)
   Age, 20 CFR 416.963
   Education, 20 CFR 416.964
   Past relevant work experience, 20CFR416.967
    - strength requirements
    - skill level
   Transferable skills, 20 CFR 416.968
   Ability to Communicate in English (Step 5
    only)
                                         79
       Step 5 Evidence Issues
         20 CFR 416.960(c)

   If past work precluded, SSA has burden to
    prove there is other work available in
    significant numbers in national economy that
    claimant could do considering RFC, age,
    education & transferable work skills.
   SSA usually needs vocational expert to testify
    to jobs available and skill level and physical
    and mental demands of these jobs.


                                            80
     Step 5 Evidence Issues

   BUT, claimant’s burden to prove claimant’s
    RFC, age, education, work skills, and other
    vocational limitations that erode the
    occupational base.
   ALJ weighs evidence and determines
    claimant’s RFC and other vocational
    limitations. ALJ then matches RFC and
    vocational limitations with jobs identified by
    vocational expert.
                                              81
         Basic Mental Demands of
            Competitive Work

   These mental activities are generally required
    by competitive, remunerative, unskilled work:
       Understanding, remembering, and carrying out
        simple instructions.
       Making judgments that are commensurate with the
        functions of unskilled work--i.e., simple work-
        related decisions.
       Responding appropriately to supervision, co-
        workers and usual work situations.
       Dealing with changes in a routine work setting.
        SSR 96-9p, SSR 85-15, SSR 85-16
                                                82
      Basic Mental Demands of
    Competitive Work - Continued

   A substantial loss of ability to meet any
    one of several basic work-related mental
    activities on a sustained basis will
    substantially erode the unskilled
    sedentary occupational base and would
    justify a finding of disability. SSR 96-9p



                                        83
                     Stress
   No such thing as a “low stress job.”
   Stress “is not a job characteristic, but rather,
    reflects an individual’s subjective response to
    particular situation.” Lancellotta v. Secy HHS,
    806 F.2d 284 (1st Cir. 1986). SSR 85-15
   Need individualized inquiry into what job
    attributes are likely to produce stress in the
    claimant and whether jobs exist in the
    economy that do not possess these attributes.

                                             84
                  Pain
             20 CFR 416.929

   Pain can cause both exertional and
    nonexertional RFC limitations (e.g., inability to
    sit & problems concentrating).

   Must be medically determinable impairment,
    established using medically acceptable clinical
    and laboratory diagnostic techniques, that can
    reasonably be expected to produce the pain
    alleged. Avery v. Secy HHS, 797 F.2d 19 (1st
    Cir.1986). Also SSR 96-3p, 96-4p
                                              85
             Pain - continued

   If the severity of the pain alleged is greater
    than indicated by the objective medical
    evidence, ALJ must then consider all the
    available evidence, medical and other, that
    reflects on the impairment and resulting
    limitations of function.
   "Other" evidence that may be used to show
    the severity of pain includes chiropractors, as
    well as "lay" sources, like family & friends,
    employers, counselors, etc.
                                             86
    Summary - Step Five
Individualized Determination
           Analysis
   If there other work in significant numbers in
    the economy that the claimant can do
    considering her RFC, age, education, work
    history and ability to communicate in English?
   Bottom Line – Does claimant have mental
    and physical RFC to do a sedentary unskilled
    job on a regular and continuing basis?



                                            87
             Drug Abuse and
            Alcoholism (DAA)
   eliminated DAA as a basis of disability
    eligibility for SSI and SSDI when DAA is
    “material” to the disability determination.
    Effective 3/29/96 for new applications; 1/1/97
    for those on benefits.
   Does not automatically disqualify people
    with a substance abuse history or
    current habit, or people with disabilities
    caused by DAA (e.g., organic brain
    damage, liver disease).
                                             88
Disability Analysis for DAA
         EM-96200
   Step 1 - Is claimant disabled, considering all
    impairments, including any DAA?

   Step 2 - Is there medical evidence of a DAA
    condition?

   Step 3 - Is DAA material to the disability
    determination? I.E. Would the claimant still be
    disabled without consideration of DAA impairments
    and limitations?

                                                     89
     Definition of Disability
          for Children
   The child must have a medically
    determinable physical or mental
    impairment or combination of
    impairments that results in marked and
    severe functional limitations and which
    can be expected to last in death or
    which has lasted or can be expected to
    last for at least 12 months.
                                      90
      Disability Analysis for
          Children (1)
   Medical (MD) documentation of mental and/or
    physical conditions or illness,

   That have lasted or expected to last at least
    one year, and

   That result in marked and severe limitations
    in age appropriate function (mental and/or
    physical)

                                            91
         Sequential Disability
         Analysis for Children
   Is the child performing SGA?
   Does the child have an impairment or
    combination of impairments that are more
    than non-severe (de minimis test)?
   Do the child’s impairments meet or equal the
    severity of a listed impairment?
       medically meet a listed impairment?
       medical equivalence to a listed impairment? or
       functional equivalence to the listings.

                                                   92
            Children’s Listed
             Impairments
  Does the child's condition manifest the specific findings
   described in the medical and functional criteria of one of the
   SSA listed impairments?
  Example - 107.05 Sickle cell disease. With:
A. Recent, recurrent severe vaso-occlusive crises; or
B. A major visceral complication in the 12 months prior to
   application; or
C. A hyperhemolytic or aplastic crisis within 12 months prior to
   application; or
D. Chronic, severe anemia with persistence of hernatocrit of 26
   percent or less; or
E. Congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular damage, or emotional
   disorder as described under the criteria in 104.02, 111.00ff, or
   112.00ff.
                                                              93
     Domains of Function for
     Functional Equivalence
   Acquiring and using information
   Attending and completing tasks
   Interacting and relating with others
   Caring for oneself
   Moving about and manipulating objects
   Health and physical well-being
   See SSRs 09-1p – 09-8p
                                    94
    Severity Level Required
   Eligibility requires marked level functional
    limitations in 2 domains or extreme functional
    limitation in 1 domain.
   “Marked” means that the impairment(s)
    seriously affect the child’s ability to function
    in a domain.
   “Extreme” means that the impairment(s) very
    seriously affect the child’s ability to function in
    a domain.
                                                95
    Other Factors to Consider
   Symptoms such such as pain, fatigue,
    decreased energy, anxiety;
   Age appropriate functioning;
   Combined effects of multiple impairments
   Ability to initiate, sustain and complete
    activities;
   Amount of help or adaptations needed;
   Effects of structured or supportive settings;
                                             96
Other Factors to Consider
   Unusual settings, i,e. testing settings;
   Participation in early intervention and
    other school programs;
   Impact of chronic illness and limitations
    that interfere with activities over time;
   Effects of treatment, including
    medications and therapies.

                                        97
       Proving Your Case –
         Evidence Issues
   To establish a diagnosis, need evidence
    from acceptable medical source:
   BUT other evidence, especially from
    professional sources is very important,
    especially as to nature & severity of
    functional limitations.
   20 CFR 416.913

                                      98
      Treating Physician Rule
          20 CFR 416.927

   If medical opinion is from acceptable treating
    source (M.D. or Ph.D.), and

   Opinion is well-supported by medically
    acceptable clinical and laboratory diagnostic
    techniques, and

   Opinion is not inconsistent with other
    substantial evidence in the record

   Then, treating source opinion is given
    controlling weight.                      99
      Evidence Issues – Cont.
Other Sources of Evidence:
 Therapists

 Nurse practitioners

 Teachers

 Early intervention providers

 Counselors

 Rehabilitation specialists

 Lay sources:

     Family, friends
                                 100
         Evidence Issues:
         The Bottom Line
All evidence should be considered
 and weighed.
Weight given depends on
     Credibility, and
     Support.

     20 CFR 416.913, .927, SSR 06-3p




                                  101
Provider Role in Disability
     Determinations
   Providers are an important resource in
    the disability determination process.
   Provider information is necessary to
    establish a diagnosis.
   Provider information is also key in
    establishing the degree of disability, i.e.,
    the severity of functional limitations.


                                         102
 Where Providers Go Wrong
on Disability Determinations
   Do not respond (timely or at all)
   Do not understand their role
    (information provider – not the decision
    maker)
   Do not understand the SSA standard
    (e.g. say patient can do sedentary work
    without knowing SSA definition of term)

                                      103
 Where Providers Go Wrong
on Disability Determinations
   Respond without enough knowledge of
    the facts (e.g., how pain affects daily
    life of patient)
   Respond as to other clinicians – and
    SSA does not fully understand the
    import
   Do not document functional limitations

                                      104
 Where Providers Go Wrong
on Disability Determinations
   Say “patient doing well” without
    explaining the specific circumstances of
    the patient, e.g., is “well under the
    circumstances” what is meant ?
   Do not fully document symptoms such
    as pain and fatigue.


                                       105
    Age 18 Redeterminations
   Children must be redetermined under the adult
    disability standard within one year from the date they
    attain age 18.

   SSA will notify a recipient that a review has begun
    and will invite the recipient to submit evidence of
    continuing disability.

   This NOT a CDR – it is a determination as to whether
    the young person is eligible under the adult disability
    standard.
                                                   106
           Other Reviews of
        Eligibility for Benefits

   Continuing Disability Reviews:
       SSA must review disability eligibility of most SSI/DI
        recipients at least every 3 years.
       Recipients deemed likely to medically improve may
        be reviewed more frequently.
       Recipients deemed permanently disabled are
        reviewed less frequently, usually every 7 yrs.




                                                     107
      CDR Standard for Adults
   Has there been medical improvement in the
    impairment(s) present when benefits approved? If
    no, benefits continue. If yes…
   Is medical improvement related to the ability to
    work? Compare RFC now with RFC at time of
    approval. If no, benefits continue. If yes…
   Does the person meet the disability eligibility
    standard, considering current impairments?
   BUT – benefits can be terminated if fraud,
    noncooperation with review, inability to locate, failure
    to follow prescribed treatment.
                                                       108
         CDR Standard for
         Children Under 18
   Same as for adults except does not
    consider the ability to work and does
    not include a functional capacity
    assessment below the severity level of
    the listings of impairments listings level,
    i.e., one “extreme” or two “marked”-
    level limitations in areas of function.


                                         109
    CDR and Age 18 Review
       Appeal Process


   Terminations are appealable and continuing benefits
    available through ALJ hearing if appeal filed within 10
    days and continuing benefits requested at each step
    of appeal. Otherwise, appeal period is 60 days.

   If lose on appeal, no collection overpayment if good
    faith belief that individual was still disabled and
    eligible for benefits and cooperated with the process.
    Must file Request for Waiver form.
                                                   110
             SSI Nondisability
             Eligibility Review
   Is recipient still eligible for SSI and getting the
    correct amount of SSI considering:
       Financial eligibility – income, resources
       Living arrangement
       Immigration status
   Periodically scheduled according to likelihood
    of error; unscheduled based on information
    received.


                                                    111
       SSA’s Administrative
         Appeals Process
   In Massachusetts and the other N.E.
    states, the administrative appeals
    process is in a state of flux.
   SSA has been trying out a revised
    administrative appeals process for
    certain cases.
   Disability Service Improvements (DSI).

                                     112
        SSA’s Administrative Appeal
                 Process
   Levels of appeal:

       Reconsideration -to appeal application decision

       Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) Hearing - to appeal
        Reconsideration

       Appeals Council Review - to appeal ALJ decision

       Federal Court


   20 CFR 404.900 et seq., 416.1400 et seq.
                                                          113
        DSI Appeals Process
   Applies to only to initial disability
    applications filed in the N.E. states on or
    after 8/1/2006.
   Does not apply to initial disability applications
    filed before 8/1/2006 or filed in other states,
    even if the applicant moves into a DSI state.
   Does not apply to cases other than initial
    disability applications.

                                              114
        DSI Appeals Process
       20 CFR 405.000 et seq.
   Federal Reviewing Official (FedRO) –
    suspended for new appeals eff. 3/23/08.
    Reconsideration reinstated.
   ALJ hearing – includes restrictive evidence
    submission rules. 20 CFR 405.331
   Decision Review Board (DRB) – no claimant
    right of appeal. Reviewed ALJ decisions pre
    effectuation. 90 days to complete review. DRB
    eliminated eff. 6/13/11. Appeals Council
    reinstated. HALLEX Rule I-5-3-18
   Federal Court
                                          115
          What’s Left of DSI?
   Some differences at ALJ level
       75 day advance notice
       5 business day pre hearing evidence rule, with
        restrictive rules for later submissions
       Some differences in timing of other requests
   Some differences at the AC
       Record closed after ALJ decision
       New restrictions on submitting evidence at AC
   Final Regs-76 Fed. Reg. 24802 (5/3/11)
                                                  116
        What’s Left of DSI?
           continued
   ALJ DSI Rules – 20 CFR 405.301 – 405.383,
    as pub’d at 76 Fed. Reg. 24802 (5/3/11).
   Appeals Council DSI Rules – 20 CFR 405.401 -
    .510, as pub’d at 76 Fed. Reg. 24802.
   These differences apply only to initial
    disability applications filed after 8/1/06 in a
    N.E. state.
   The rules at 20 CFR 404.900 et seq.,
    416.1400 et seq., in non-DSI cases.

                                            117
              Appeals - Time
   60-day deadline for filing appeals; SSA
    assumes notices received within 5 days of
    date on notice.

   Can get aid pending appeal if request it
    and file within 10 days of receipt of notice if
    SSI termination, reduction or suspension;
    medical termination of SSI/DI after CDR. For
    CDRs can also get aid pending through ALJ
    level appeal.
                                              118
       Appeals - continued
   Good cause (really good reason) for late
    filing an appeal. POMS DI 03101.020

   File appeals online at local SSA office;
    get date stamped and keep copy.

   Appeal forms online at
    www.socialsecurity.gov/online/forms

                                        119
         Useful Websites
   www.socialsecurity.gov
   www.mass.gov/MassHealth
   www.masslegalservices.org
   www.cms.hhs.gov/home/medicare.asp




                                 120

				
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