; Infancy
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      Chapter 4
Physical Development
Patterns of Growth
 Cephalocaudal pattern
   Earliest growth which starts with the head and works it way
    down the body
 Proximodistal Pattern
   Growth that starts at the center of the body and moves outward
    to the extremities.
 Infantile growth
   We double in weight and height by our first birth day
   Infants are top heavy, meaning their heads are bigger than
    their bodies.
Brains! Brains!
 Infants are born with all the neurons they will ever have,
   These are pruned during development.
   Development is more rapid than any other time.
   Shaken Baby Syndrome results from damage chased by infants
    being shaken very hard. If death does not occur severe cognitive
    impairments will.
Piercing the Lobes
 Brain is made up of four lobes
   Occipital Lobe is at the rear of the head and processes visual
   Temporal lobes are located above the ears. They process hearing,
    language, and memory as well as some balance
   Parietal lobes are at the top of the brain. They have to do with
    attention, spatial locations, touch, balance and motor control
   Frontal lobe is at the front of the brain. It processes all in the
    information from the other lobes and then decides what to do with it.
    Emotions, voluntary movements, decisions, and intentions occur
We live in the Left Hemisphere.
 The brain also has two hemispheres.
   They are divide by the central fissure and connected by the
    corpus collosum.
 Lateralization is the specialization of function in one
  hemisphere of the cerebral cortex or the other.
   Left hemisphere is more analytical in nature
   Right hemisphere is more creative in nature
   Plasticity is the ability of the brain to move areas specialized
    for a function to another area when the specialized area
    becomes damaged.
 Neurons are brain or nerve cells.
 Intraneural communication            Interneural communication
   When a message is received           Once the electrical message
    by a receptor site the message        reaches the terminal
    is transferred down the               buttons,, the message
    neuron via electrical                 becomes chemical.
    communication                          Neurotransmitters are the
   Myelin is a substance that              chemicals that send a message
    encases axons. It increases the         from one neuron to the other.
    speed of communication.
     Myelin forms when neurons
       are repeatedly used.
Balm of hurt minds. Shakespeare
 Sleep
   Babies spend much of their time asleep up to 21 hours a day, but
    normally 18.
   REM sleep is dream sequence sleep. It is also the time when
    memory is processed and the brain completes myelination and
    other developmental functions.
     Babies spend most of their sleeping time in REM sleep.
Ah! There’s the rub, for in that sleep
what dreams may come. -- Hamlet
 Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
   Unexplained death occurring during sleep common in infants
    up to 3 months of age.
   Risk Factors
     Lower SES
     Sleeping in soft bedding
     Infants with abnormal serotonin levels
     Infants who are exposed to cigarette smoke
     Being African-American or Eskimo
     Low birth weight or preterm
     Sleep on their stomachs
Perceiving a Sensation
Sensation                       Perception
 The product of the             Interpreting the sensation
  interaction between              Occurs in the different
  information and the               lobes of the brain.
  sensory receptors
 Huh?
 The information from our
  sense organs (taste, touch,
I can see clearly now
 Newborn vision is about 20/240.
 Preference for faces
 Acuity increases to adult clarity by one year.
 Newborns are colorblind until about 4 to 8 weeks.
 Depth perception develops by 6 months
   Visual cliff studies confirm this.
Speak up; these young ears can’t hear
 Infant hearing is as acute as adult hearing almost at birth.
   Babies recognize their mother’s voice immediately due to
    spending the last few months en utero with almost fully
    developed sense of hearing
   Can recognize father’s voice, but not as well as mother’s
 Perception of loudness, pitch, and localization develop over
  time, although newborns will orient toward sound.
Extra sensory stuff
 Touch is an important sense to newborns. It has much to do
  with the bonding instinct.
   They also feel pain.
 Smell in infants is probably better than that of adults.
   Newborns can distinguish and orient toward cotton dipped in
    their mother’s breast milk.
 Taste is more acute than adult taste.
   Important to keep babies from eating spoiled milk and ensures
 Dynamic systems theory
   To develop motor skills, infants must perceive something in the
    environment that motivates them to act and use their
    perceptions to fine-tune their movements. (125).
 Reflexes
   Inborn stereotypical movements to particular stimuli.
 Rooting reflex
   A baby will root in the direction of a cheek stroke
     Important for finding the mother’s nipple and feeding.
 Sucking reflex
   A baby will automatically suck on anything placed in her mouth.
     Important for feeding.
 Moro reflex
   Arching of the back, tossing of the head, and flailing of the arms and
    legs in response to a loud noise or startle.
 Grasping reflex
   A baby will tightly grasp anything placed in it’s palm
   Also called the Palmar reflex.
Eeww! Gross Motor Skills
 Gross motor skills
   These are movements that require the movement of large
    muscles and large muscle groups.
   Scooting, Crawling, Walking are all gross motor skills.
   Swinging arm movements are also gross motor skills.
Bull in a china shop, Fine motor skills
 Fine motor skills
   Movements that require smaller muscle groups and muscles.
   Movements that require better muscle dexterity.
   Use of fingers for such things as eating, writing, coloring are
    fine motor movements
   These develop later in infancy and toddlerhood.
 Infancy Nutrition is very important.
   Breast feeding seems to be a built in way for infants to get
    exactly what is required.
 Malnutrition
   Marasmus
     Deterioration of infant muscle mass due to lack of protien and caloric
   Kwashiorkor
     Swelling of the abdomen and feet of children 1-3 years old due to water
      retention brought about by severe protein deficiency
Outcomes of Breast feeding
Infant                           Mother
 Decreased chances of            Decrease chances of breast
  gastrointestinal infections,     cancer, ovarian cancer, type
  lower respiratory                2 diabetes.
  infections, allergies,
  asthma, middle ear
  infections, atopic
  dermatitis, obesity,
  diabetes, SIDS

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