Patterns of Growth
Earliest growth which starts with the head and works it way
down the body
Growth that starts at the center of the body and moves outward
to the extremities.
We double in weight and height by our first birth day
Infants are top heavy, meaning their heads are bigger than
Infants are born with all the neurons they will ever have,
These are pruned during development.
Development is more rapid than any other time.
Shaken Baby Syndrome results from damage chased by infants
being shaken very hard. If death does not occur severe cognitive
Piercing the Lobes
Brain is made up of four lobes
Occipital Lobe is at the rear of the head and processes visual
Temporal lobes are located above the ears. They process hearing,
language, and memory as well as some balance
Parietal lobes are at the top of the brain. They have to do with
attention, spatial locations, touch, balance and motor control
Frontal lobe is at the front of the brain. It processes all in the
information from the other lobes and then decides what to do with it.
Emotions, voluntary movements, decisions, and intentions occur
We live in the Left Hemisphere.
The brain also has two hemispheres.
They are divide by the central fissure and connected by the
Lateralization is the specialization of function in one
hemisphere of the cerebral cortex or the other.
Left hemisphere is more analytical in nature
Right hemisphere is more creative in nature
Plasticity is the ability of the brain to move areas specialized
for a function to another area when the specialized area
Neurons are brain or nerve cells.
Intraneural communication Interneural communication
When a message is received Once the electrical message
by a receptor site the message reaches the terminal
is transferred down the buttons,, the message
neuron via electrical becomes chemical.
communication Neurotransmitters are the
Myelin is a substance that chemicals that send a message
encases axons. It increases the from one neuron to the other.
speed of communication.
Myelin forms when neurons
are repeatedly used.
Balm of hurt minds. Shakespeare
Babies spend much of their time asleep up to 21 hours a day, but
REM sleep is dream sequence sleep. It is also the time when
memory is processed and the brain completes myelination and
other developmental functions.
Babies spend most of their sleeping time in REM sleep.
Ah! There’s the rub, for in that sleep
what dreams may come. -- Hamlet
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
Unexplained death occurring during sleep common in infants
up to 3 months of age.
Sleeping in soft bedding
Infants with abnormal serotonin levels
Infants who are exposed to cigarette smoke
Being African-American or Eskimo
Low birth weight or preterm
Sleep on their stomachs
Perceiving a Sensation
The product of the Interpreting the sensation
interaction between Occurs in the different
information and the lobes of the brain.
The information from our
sense organs (taste, touch,
I can see clearly now
Newborn vision is about 20/240.
Preference for faces
Acuity increases to adult clarity by one year.
Newborns are colorblind until about 4 to 8 weeks.
Depth perception develops by 6 months
Visual cliff studies confirm this.
Speak up; these young ears can’t hear
Infant hearing is as acute as adult hearing almost at birth.
Babies recognize their mother’s voice immediately due to
spending the last few months en utero with almost fully
developed sense of hearing
Can recognize father’s voice, but not as well as mother’s
Perception of loudness, pitch, and localization develop over
time, although newborns will orient toward sound.
Extra sensory stuff
Touch is an important sense to newborns. It has much to do
with the bonding instinct.
They also feel pain.
Smell in infants is probably better than that of adults.
Newborns can distinguish and orient toward cotton dipped in
their mother’s breast milk.
Taste is more acute than adult taste.
Important to keep babies from eating spoiled milk and ensures
Dynamic systems theory
To develop motor skills, infants must perceive something in the
environment that motivates them to act and use their
perceptions to fine-tune their movements. (125).
Inborn stereotypical movements to particular stimuli.
A baby will root in the direction of a cheek stroke
Important for finding the mother’s nipple and feeding.
A baby will automatically suck on anything placed in her mouth.
Important for feeding.
Arching of the back, tossing of the head, and flailing of the arms and
legs in response to a loud noise or startle.
A baby will tightly grasp anything placed in it’s palm
Also called the Palmar reflex.
Eeww! Gross Motor Skills
Gross motor skills
These are movements that require the movement of large
muscles and large muscle groups.
Scooting, Crawling, Walking are all gross motor skills.
Swinging arm movements are also gross motor skills.
Bull in a china shop, Fine motor skills
Fine motor skills
Movements that require smaller muscle groups and muscles.
Movements that require better muscle dexterity.
Use of fingers for such things as eating, writing, coloring are
fine motor movements
These develop later in infancy and toddlerhood.
Infancy Nutrition is very important.
Breast feeding seems to be a built in way for infants to get
exactly what is required.
Deterioration of infant muscle mass due to lack of protien and caloric
Swelling of the abdomen and feet of children 1-3 years old due to water
retention brought about by severe protein deficiency
Outcomes of Breast feeding
Decreased chances of Decrease chances of breast
gastrointestinal infections, cancer, ovarian cancer, type
lower respiratory 2 diabetes.
asthma, middle ear