VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 43 POSTED ON: 6/30/2012
A Fisherman’s Tale Group 13 Hilary Graffy Tomos Owens Huw Griffiths Imogen Ptacek Conor McKenna Ellena Wood His Story Details: 77 year old, male, retired plumber PC: Haemoptysis Haemoptysis Haemoptysis Malignancy • Bronchial carcinoma • Metastatic carcinoma Infection • Tuberculosis • Bronchiectasis • Bronchitis • Pneumonia Trauma • Post-intubation Vascular • PE • Vasculitides e.g. Wegener’s His Story Details: 77 year old, male, retired plumber PC: Haemoptysis HxPC: Presented to GP 1 month ago with increasing SOB, he was admitted to AMU for treatment of pseudomonas pneumonia. Discharged home 2 weeks ago. 1st week – coughing up small amounts of blood. 2nd week – coughing greater quantities of brown/bloody sputum, worse at morning and night. On direct questioning he described a 2 month history of 2 stone weight loss with normal appetite. His Story PMHx: Previous Lung Cancer (2002) • Stage IIIB squamous cell carcinoma (Left Upper Lobe) • Treated with 10 fractions of radiotherapy • Aim was palliation – apparent cure achieved DHx: Nil NKDA FHx: Brother died of lung cancer Mother and father died of cancer His Story SHx: Ex-smoker 50 pack years (Quit 2002) Drinks 18 units a week Plumber Asbestos exposure from pipe lagging and bath panels Lives with supportive wife Keen fisher On Examination General: Weak and lethargic Cachectic - Prominent clavicles (more so on left) Left thoracotomy scar Temp: 36.8 oC Pulse: 80 bpm RR: 20 per minute BP: 127/74 O2 Sat: 97% (Room air) Hands: No clubbing or tar staining On Examination Head: No conjunctival pallor No central cyanosis No palpable cervical/axillary lymphadenopathy Tracheal deviation to left Chest: Reduced expansion on left side Abnormal breath sounds over XRT site (bronchial) Left lower zone: Stony dullness Reduced tactile vocal fremitus Reduced breath sounds Reduced vocal resonance Cardiovascular Examination – Normal Neurological Examination – Normal Differential Diagnosis? Differential Diagnosis? • Recurrence of previous lung cancer • New primary lung cancer • Mesothelioma • Metastases from another site • Infection – atypical pneumonia, TB Investigations? Investigations? • Bloods – FBC, LFTs, U&E’s • Sputum culture • Imaging – CXR, CT Thorax Management 08/2/11 Treated by GP and hospital for pseudomonas pneumonia with antibiotics 12/2/11 Discharged from hospital 26/2/11 Re-presents with haemoptysis CXR: • Shadowing on right lung • Changes associated with previous radiotherapy in left upper lobe + fluid filled cavitating lesion – Positive for Aspergillus infection Management 28/2/11 CT scan: • Left sided XRT changes • Mediastinal nodes enlarged • Lung lesion with rib destruction • Enlarged left side axillary nodes found 1/3/11 FNA: • Biopsy of left axillary lymph node • Squamous cell carcinoma found • ? Metastases from new lung primary 3/3/11 Bronchoscopy: • Lesion identified on bronchoscopy in left lower lobe • Biopsies taken - Confirmed SCC lung Future management plan MDT discussion – decision not to treat Aspergillus infection. No chemotherapy as >75 years and no radiotherapy due to previous exposure. Palliative care with symptomatic control only to get him out fishing! Lung Cancer Leading cause of death by cancer in the UK 3% of cancer research funding 38,000 new cases/yr: 35,000 die/yr Only 8% of those diagnosed are cured 27% reduction in deaths in Men 1971-2006 Number of deaths in Women is increasing A Brief history of Lung cancer “You ask me what it is we need to win this war. I answer tobacco as much as bullets” Occupational risk • Asbestos – Those exposed are at 4.9-7.3 times greater risk than those not – Risk enhanced if those exposed also smoke – 93x higher than non-exposed non-smokers • Radioactive isotopes: – miners • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: – foundry workers • Nickel refining • Chromate manufacture • Arsenic industry Large cell Adenocarcinoma 10% 13% Small cell 24% Non Small cell 76% Other 5% Squamous 48% Presentation Late! Symptoms Intrapulmonary Extrapulmonary • Persistent Cough • Weight loss, anorexia • Haemoptysis • Horner’s Syndrome • Chest pain • Hoarseness • Dyspnoea • SVC obstruction • Wheeze/Stridor • Dysphagia • Ipsilateral diaphragm paralysis • Shoulder and inner arm pain Metastatic Paraneoplastic Syndromes 30% of patients present with symptoms • SIADH due to metastases • Ectopic ACTH syndrome •Brain • Hypercalcaemia •Liver • Gynaecomastia and testicular •Bone atrophy •Spinal Cord • Neuromyopathies •Adrenal glands • Finger clubbing •Skin • Hypertrophic pulmonary •Lymph nodes osteoarthropathy When to urgently refer? Persistent heamoptysis in an smoker or ex-smoker > 40 Unexplained or persistent hx. >3/52: • Cough (most common sx.) • Weight loss • Clubbing • Chest pain • Dyspnoea • Hoarseness • Cervical or supraclavicular lymphadenopathy • Suggestion of metastases (bone, liver, brain, skin) • SVC obstruction • Stridor CXR suggestive of lung cancer Diagnosis 1. Confirmation of presence -Chest X-ray -Size -CT Scan -Location -Bronchoscopy -Metastases? -PET scan -Sputum cytology 2. Histopathology Diagnosis -SC -Bronchoscopy -NSSC -Squamous -Percutaneous -adenocarcinoma transthoracic needle -Large cell biopsy -Endobronchial ultrasound- guided 3. Staging transbronchial biopsy -TNM staging -Thoracoscopy or mediastinoscopy TNM staging Non-Small Cell Carcinoma Treatment Surgery Novel therapies Radiotherapy Chemotherapy Prognosis: 50% 2 year survival – without spread 10% 2 year survival – with spread Small Cell Carcinoma Treatment Surgery Chemotherapy Radiotherapy Median Survival: 3 months (without treatment) 1 – 1 ½ years (with treatment) Question Time MCQ 1 A 53 year old woman is diagnosed with lung cancer. Her main symptoms on presentation included breathlessness and haemoptysis. She complained of stretch marks on her abdomen and that her skin bruised easily. On examination you note purple abdominal striae. Which of the following types of lung cancer is she most likely to suffer from? 1. Squamous cell 45% 2. Large cell 32% 3. Adenocarcinoma 4. Alveolar 13% 6% 5. Small cell 3% 1 2 3 4 5 MCQ 2 A 61 year old man with a solitary lung nodule is referred for bronchoscopy. Biopsies from the mass reveal small cell lung cancer. Staging investigations show localised disease with no spread to the mediastinal nodes or involvement of either main bronchus or recurrent laryngeal nerve. What is the next most appropriate step in management? 1. Surgery 61% 2. Radiotherapy 3. Chemotherapy 23% 4. Endoscopic laser therapy 16% 5. Stenting 0% 0% 1 2 3 4 5 EMQ 1 A 71 year old retired electrician presents to his GP with pleuritic chest pains and dyspnoea. After initial investigations a CT scan of the chest demonstrates a right pleural effusion with lobular pleural thickening in the right mid-zone. 1. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 68% 2. Squamous cell carcinoma 3. Mesothelioma 4. Pulmonary abscess 26% 5. Tuberculosis 6. Small cell lung cancer 3% 3% 0% 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 EMQ 2 An 84 year old woman who worked in a munitions factory in WW2 presents to her GP with abdominal pain, constipation, polyuria, cough, haemoptysis and weight loss. A CXR taken 3 years ago shows multiple pleural plaques only. 1. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 32% 2. Squamous cell carcinoma 26% 3. Mesothelioma 16% 4. Pulmonary abscess 13% 10% 5. Tuberculosis 3% 6. Small cell lung cancer 1 2 3 4 5 6 Thank you!
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