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									    Unit 8

Fourteen Steps

  Hal Manwaring
    Lesson 1: Contents

1       Word Study

2       Background

3         Warm-up
         Word Study

Meaning & Use
          Meaning & Use

Split-level Townhouse
           Meaning & Use

Split-level Room
            Meaning & Use

Hobble 跛行
  Tina was ~ing around on
  Johnson was still ~d
   slightly by an ankle injury.

Hobble: <v./n.> walk in an awkward
 way with small steps, esp because
 one’s foot is injured
Cripple: <n./v.>
 a physical disability
 or a serious
 permanent injury
 Crutch T字形拐杖
             Meaning & Use

Gusty winds 阵阵大风
  I don't want to go out
   in this ~ day.
  It is blowing a gale.
  The rain ~ed against
   the window.
  The storm swept the
   region. (席卷全区)
            Meaning & Use

Blowout: a flat tyre
  On the way back home, we had a


         Meaning & Use

Bang            Jerk             急刹
                   The bus ~ed to a stop.
                   The road was ~ with ice.
        Thump
                   A huge wave swept over
Honk               the deck.
                   She is ~ing the light
Clank              switch
         Meaning & Use

Peninsula 半岛
            Word Expansion

        prairie       basin

delta                  s

        gorge       marsh     plateau
               Word Derivation

V.    paralyze           jerk        sweep

N.    paralysis          jerk        sweep
A.   paralytic           jerky       sweeping

V.    slacken         penetrate       gust
N. slackness/slack   penetration      gust
A.     slack         penetrating      gusty
               Word Derivation

V.     slick        disillusion       afflict

N.                                   affliction
     slick/slicker disillusionment
A.     slick       disillusioned
V.    install         slash          thump

N. installation        slash         thump
V.     honk             tilt         fumble

N.     honk             tilt         fumble
             Word Derivation

V.   overflow       cripple       jack
N.    overflow     cripple         jack
N.   peninsula     enormity    indifference
A.   peninsular    enormous     indifferent
N.   prophet        sanity       frailty
A.    prophetic      sane          frail
N.   frustration   awfulness      clank
A. frustrated       awful       <v.> clank
         Word Differentiation

Installation vs. Installment
We agreed to pay for the car in
Do you have to pay extra for _________?
The novel has been serialized for radio in
 five ___________.
The Americans still have several military
 bases and __________ on the island.
 (=military base)
         Word Differentiation

Hobble vs. Cripple
Some of the runners could only manage
 to ________ over the finishing line.
I hurt my foot while getting off the bus,
 and had to __________ home.
The driver ________ around on crutches
 for a month after the accident.
The accident _______ him for life.
         Word Differentiation

Jerk vs. Jack
Once the tourists arrive, the restaurants
 ______ up their prices.
The car made a strange noise and then
 _______ to a halt.
The alarm went off and he woke up with a
You need a car ______ in order to change
 a wheel.
Do you know how to ______ up the car?
         Word Differentiation

Slacken vs. Slash
He stooped to pick it up, without slacken
 his pace.
The pace of trading _______ during the
 winter months.
She tried to commit suicide by _______
 her wrist.
Most people _________ off/up at the end
 of a day’s work.
The museum was broken into last night
 and several paintings were ________.
         Word Differentiation

Thump vs. Thumb
She stood outside his room, her heart
We _________ a lift to London.
He ________ on the door but nobody
If he does that again I’m going to give
 him a _________.
So it’s the ________ up for Brighton’s
 latest night club.
          Word Differentiation

Fumble vs. Tumble
She _______ about in her handbag,
 looking for her key.
I lost my footing andtumbled down the
He lost his balance and _______ over.
They fumbled around/about in the dark,
 trying to find their way out of the cinema.
         Word Differentiation

Honk vs. Horn
The driver sounded his ______ when the
 child stepped in front of the car.
He gave us a ______ on his horn as he
 drove off.
The driver blew/honked (infml.) her
He _______ his ______ as he went past.
     honked        horn
         Word Differentiation

Gusty vs. Ghastly
The forecast was for ______ winds and
Today’s newspaper gives all the _______
 details of the murder.
It was all a _________ mistake.
A sudden gust of wind blew his umbrella
 inside out.
Winds gusting to 50 mph brought down
 power cables.
       Synonyms & Antonyms

inclined (a .) 
  (syn)       likely, apt, prone
 (anto)       disinclined
disillusioned (a.) 
  (syn)      disenchanted
  (anto)        illusioned
        Synonyms & Antonyms
frail (a.)
  (syn)      weak, feeble; fragile, delicate
  (anto)      strong, robust, vigorous
indifference (n.) 
  (syn)     unconcern, disinterest, apathy
 (anto)     interest, concern, empathy
     Synonyms & Antonyms

afflict (v.) 
 (syn)       torture, agitate
sanity (n.) 
  (anto)     insanity
selfish (a.) 
  (anto)      unselfish
             Background Info
Can you name some common disabilities?

失明 Blindness
失聪/听觉障碍 Deafness (hearing impairment)
抑郁症 Depression
Learning Disability 学习障碍
Communication disorders 沟通障碍症
Attention Deficit 注意力缺陷
Hyperactivity Disorder 多动症
        Background Info

Dwarfism 侏儒症
Dyslexia 诵读困难
Epilepsy 癫痫
Motor disabilities 运动机能障碍
Muscular Dystrophy (MD) 肌肉萎缩症
Autism 自闭症
Down Syndrome唐氏综合症
             A Global Picture

1. What is the main idea of the text?

2. What are the writer’s “three lives”? What
 was the turning point of each life?

3. How many parts can Text I be divided into?
 What is each part about?

     Life’s value lies not only in one’s struggle
against adversity, but also in one’s readiness to
help others.
          Structural Analysis

Part 1 (para.1-2): The author’s first life
  Phase 1: a hard struggle
  Phase 2: “a pleasant dream”

Part 2 (para.3-5): The author’s second life—a
 life afflicted by the disease and with the
 yardstick of 14 steps
           Structural Analysis
Part 3 (para.6-8): The beginning of the
 author’s third life—having a flat tire on a stormy
 night taught him a most unforgettable lesson in

Part 4 (para9-10): (conclusion) The author’s
 reflection on the incident and his life philosophy,
 from which he discovered the true value of life.
     We can do no great things,
only small things with great love.

                                       Thank you.
                                     To be continued
Lesson Two: A Close Reading

   1    Comprehension

   2    Language Work

   3   Difficult Sentences

   4     Appreciation
            Part I (para. 1—2)

   “My” first life fell into two phases—a hard struggle
to make a living because of Father’s early death, and
then “a pleasant dream” about happy married life.
        Comprehension Check

1. When was the period of time the author
 considered happiest in his life?

2. When was his first life ended?
               Language Work

1. They say a cat has nine lives, and I am inclined
 to think that possible since I am now living my
 third life and I’m not even a cat. (para. 1)
A cat has nine lives.: Cats can survive things
 that are severe enough to kill them.
be inclined to: to be likely or tend to
   Middle-class victims are more ~d to contact the

                     Idioms about “cat”
let the cat out of the bag: 泄露秘密
like a cat on hot bricks (hot tin roof): 象热锅上的蚂蚁
as weak as a cat: 身体非常虚弱
a cat in the pan: 叛徒
to rain cats and dogs: 倾盆大雨
to agree like cats and dogs: 完全合不来
to see how the cat jumps: 见风使舵, 随机应变
to watch sb. as a cat watches a mouse: 死死盯着某人
to put / set the cat among the pigeons: 引起麻烦
                   Proverbs about “cat”
A cat in gloves catches no mice. 四肢不勤 / 一事无成。
Has the cat got your tongue? 为什么不吭声?
That’s like putting the cat near the goldfish bowl. 引狼入
The cat did it. 不是我干的 (推脱责任)
The cat shuts its eyes when stealing cream. 掩耳盗铃。
The scalded cat fears cold water. 挨过烫的猫连冷水都怕。
When the cat’s away, the mice will play.
There’s more than one way to skin a cat. 有多种途径可
           Sentence Highlight

… and I am inclined to think that possible
 since I am now living my third life and I’m
 not even a cat. (para. 1)

…and I tend to believe that the proverb tells
 the truth, because I’m living my third life now
 even if I am not a cat.
                 Language Work

care for (para.1):
    If you care for someone or something, you
 look after them and keep them in a good state or
     If you care for someone, you feel a lot of affection for
     If you care about something, you feel that it is
  important and are concerned about it.
               Language Work

2. As the children grew up, they married, leaving
 only one sister and myself to support and care for
 Mother, who became paralyzed in her last years
 and died while still in her 60s. (para. 1)
paralyze: to make unable to move or act
   Many of the greatest artists in history were ~d
    from neck below.
   To fear in such circumstances is
    understandable, provided that fear does not ~
    us with inaction.
               Language Work

I had a good job in San Jose and a beautiful home
 up the peninsula in San Carlos. (para.2)
San Jose (/ˌsænhoʊˈzeɪ/) (meaning St. Joseph in
 Spanish) or San José is the third-largest city in
 California and the tenth-largest in the United States.
                 Language Work

I had a good job in San
 Jose and a beautiful home
 up the peninsula in San
 Carlos. (para.2)
San Carlos is a city in
 California, USA on the San
 Francisco Peninsula, about
 halfway between San
 Francisco and San Jose.
Up: towards the north or a more important place
e.g. On Tuesday she’ll be traveling up to Newcastle from
               Language Work
3. I became afflicted with a slowly progressive
 disease of the motor nerves, affecting first my
 right arm and leg, and then my other side. (para. 2)
afflict v.
 --The old man was ~ed with blindness / arthritis /
 gout, etc
progressive: adj.
 --For example, ~ muscular relaxation has been
 shown to help promote sleep.
            Sentence Highlight

3. I became afflicted with a slowly
 progressive disease of the motor nerves,
 affecting first my right arm and leg, and then
 my other side. (para. 2)
I suffered from the disease that affects my
 motor nerves, and is becoming more and more
 severe in slow pace.
            Part II (para. 3—5)

   In “my” second life, “I” fought a hard battle against a
disease progressively damaging “my” motor nerves, and
“my” success was measured by the 14 steps at home.
          Comprehension check

1. What was the author most afraid of after
 he was afflicted with a disease?

2. How did the author view the 14 steps?

3. Why does the writer called himself
 a bitterly disillusioned cripple?
 Do you agree?
               Language Work

1. I managed to keep my health and optimism, to
 a degree, because of 14 steps. (para. 3)
to a degree: to some / a certain extent, in a
 limited way, partly
    In a way, the daily exercise of climbing the 14
 steps helped me retain my physical strength,
 which in turn made me keep my positive outlook
 on life and thus could continue living.
                 Language Work

2. Our home was a split-level affair with 14 steps
 leading up from the garage to the kitchen door. (para.
affair: [C] an object or a contrivance (esp. when you
 want to direct others’ attention to a particular feature)
  --Martin’s bed was an iron affair with brass knobs.
     Our home was a house with floors of different heights
 in different parts. There were 14 steps connecting the
 garage with the kitchen door.

a split-level house
               Language Work

3.Those steps were a gauge of life. (para.4)
Gauge = gage: a device for measuring the amount
 or size of sth
   a fuel/rain/temperature gauge
   The fact that the play has transferred to New York
    is a ~ of its success. (=a way of judging)
                Language Work
They are my yardstick, my challenge to continue living.
  (para. 4)
yardstick: n. a standard for comparison
    --The best ~ was to measure traffic against the 2008
    --He continues to say that is the fundamental ~ of our
  nation's economic success.
    --We don’t have a common ~ by which to compare the
  two cases.
       criterion; standard
                 Language Work

4. I would be through—I could then admit defeat
 and lie down and die. (para. 4)
through: adj. completed, finished (especially applied
 to sth. that you will never do again)
   Training as a marriage counsellor would guarantee
    her some employment once her schooling was
   Sean is happy to announce that he is through with
    his duties in Hong Kong and is now in Beijing to stay.
             Language Work

5. You might think that here walked a man of
 courage and strength. (para. 5)

    You might think I am a courageous and
 strong-minded man.
                 Language Work
6. Here hobbled a bitterly disillusioned cripple, a man
   who held on to his sanity and… (para. 5)
disillusion: v. to free or deprive of illusion 醒悟;幻想
     He has got increasingly ~ed with Brown's stance on
hold on to: to continue to believe in a belief, idea or
   principle even if others try to influence you or
   circumstances cause you to doubt it
     He was imprisoned for 20 years yet held on to his
      belief in his people.
                Language Work

6. Here hobbled a bitterly disillusioned cripple, a man
 who held on to his sanity and… (para. 5)

      Here walked a sad man with little hope for his
  future, and everything he owned at that time (his
  home, his job, his wife and his normal life) depended
  on his painful effort to climb these 14 steps.
           Part III (para. 6—8)

    “I” had a flat tire on a stormy night, and a
blind old man and his granddaughter gave “me”
timely help.
          Comprehension check

1. What had happened on a dark night in
 August 1971?

2. Why did the author dismiss the thought at
 once that anyone would offer help at the

3. How did the writer feel when
 the man and the little girl were
 working in the storm?
         Comprehension check

4. Was there any hint that indicates
 something unusual about the man?

5. Why did the old man refuse to accept the
 writer’s payment?

6. When did the author realize that the old
 man was blind?
                   Language Work
 1. …gusty wind and slashing rain beat down on the car as I
  drove slowly down one of the less-traveled roads. (para. 6)
gusty: adj. (of wind) very strong and irregular
   --Weather forecasts predict more hot weather, ~ winds
 and lightning strikes.
slash: v. to whip viciously, lash
    -- a ~ing hailstorm 猛烈的冰雹
      a ~ing rain 一阵倾盆大雨
steer v. to control (the direction of) 掌舵,控制(方向)
   --I’m an expert on ~ing.
   --She has ~ed the company away from financial ruin.
                 Language Work

1. …gusty wind and slashing rain beat down on the
 car as I drove slowly down one of the less-traveled
 roads. (para. 6)

     The strong wind and dashing rain lashed on the car
  when I drove slowly down one of the roads where traffic
  was light.
                  Language Work
2. I fought the car to stop on the rain-slick shoulder of
  the road and sat there as the enormity of the situation
  swept over me. (para. 6)
enormity n. great wickedness; immense size
    --It’s difficult to grasp the sheer ~ of the tragedy.
slick: adj. slippery
    --the sidewalks ~ with ice
      I managed to pull over the car on the slippery edge of
  the road, gripped by the seriousness and helplessness of
  the situation.

road shoulder     road with a wide shoulder
                Language Work

3. I started the engine and thumped slowly along,
 keeping well over on the shoulder until I came to the
 dirt road. (para. 6)
 thump: If you ~ something somewhere or if it
  ~s there, it makes a loud, dull sound by hitting
  something else.
    She dashed out through the door, her
     stockinged feet ~ing softly as she ran up the
                    Language Work

 4. I rolled down the window and called out that I had a flat tire
  and needed someone to change it form me because I had a
  crutch and couldn’t do it myself. (para. 7)
a flat tire: (Br E: flat tyre) a deflated pneumatic tire
Paraphrase of the underlined part:
    …I shouted that my tire had no enough air and needed


                            a flat tire

crutch (pl. ~es)
              Language Work

I sat there comfortable and dry,… (para.7)
Verb + Adjective
sit; stand; lie (the state sb./sth. is in)
   The principle stands good even in relations
    between organizations.
   The farmer lay quiet in the shadow of the
   The children sat bolt upright, waiting for
    the teacher to dismiss the class.
               Language Work

Verb + Adjective
be; seem; appear; look; sound; taste; feel; smell
 (usu. as link verbs)
   The question appears sudden.
   A question suddenly appeared in the calculation.
   The floor feels rough.
   The butcher felt the edge of the knife carefully.
   The medicine tastes bitter.
   The girl tasted the medicine unwillingly.
              Language Work

Verb + Adjective
become; fall; get; go; turn (the change of the
 subject from one state to another)
   It’s becoming much more expensive to travel
   The room fell quiet all at once.
   He went red with embarrassment.
   Her hair has turned grey.
   Fish soon goes bad in hot weather.
                Language Work

…I rolled down the window all the way to watch
All the way: from the beginning to the end
   Since she is as light as a feather, I had no problem
    in carrying her all the way to the hospital.
   Prices vary all the way from $50 to $500.
   I’m with you all the way.
   He ran like greased lightning all the way from the
    starting gate to the finishing line.
                 Language Work

5. She was answered by the murmur of the man’s
  lower voice and the slow tilting of the car as it was
  jacked up. (para. 7)
tilt: v. to (cause to) slope or slant
    --The dentist ~ed the mirror, inspecting my teeth.
      The old man answered her in a low voice. And then
  the body of the car sloped slowly when it was lifted by a

                 Language Work
6. There followed a long interval of noises, jolts and
 low conversation from the back of the car, but finally
 it was done. (para. 7)
interval: [C] space or time in between
  --The train leaves at an ~ of 30 minutes.
  --It rained at intervals this week.

Paraphrase of the underlined part:
     There was a long time between noise and shaking,
  low voice of talking…
               Language Work

7. He was an old man, stooped and frail-looking
 under his slicker. (para. 8)

    He was an old man, whose back was bowed with age,
 and looked very weak in his raincoat.


               Language Work

8. This is a bad night for car trouble, but you’re all
 set now. (para. 8)
be set: be ready, be prepared
  We are set to leave early tomorrow morning.

Paraphrase of the underlined part:
  …you are ready to move on now.
Part IV (para. 9—10)

             To live a meaningful
         life, a disabled person
         should not only try hard to
         keep his/her own optimism
         but also take pains to help
         others in his/her limited
          Comprehension check

1. How did the writer react to the girl’s

2. What did the author learn from the auto-
 repair incident?

3. How did the writer re-
 evaluate the 14 steps?
                    Language Work
1. In the next few frozen seconds the shame and horror of that
  moment penetrated and I was sick with an intensity I had
  never felt before. (para. 9)
intensity: n. exceptionally great concentration, power
  or force
    --to go mad at the ~ of one’s grief
      In the following few seemingly never-ending seconds,
  I was overwhelmed by shame and horror I’d never
  experienced before. / In the next few seconds I was filled
  with such great shame and horror that I was speechless. I
  had never been so sick about what I had done before.
                   Language Work
2. I realized that I was filled to overflowing with self-
 pity, selfishness, indifference to the needs of others
 and thoughtlessness. (para. 9)
overflow with: to be very full of
   --a heart ~ing with gratitude
   --Kerry handed me a glass ~ing with wine, trying not
 to let it to spill on the carpet.
thoughtlessness: inconsideration, carelessness
    I used to be selfish and lacking in interest in helping
                Language Work

3. …this Scriptural admonition is more than just
  a passage in the Bible. (para. 10)
admonition: mild, kind, yet earnest reproof
 (here an admonishing act)

    This advice from the Bible is no just a chapter in
 the book.
              Language Work

5. Someday, perhaps, I will change a tire for a
 blind man in a car—someone as blind as I had
 been. (para. 10)

      What is your understanding of the two
  “blind” s here?

              Presentation Topic
Do you believe in power of belief? Please
 illustrate your point with examples.
     There is more happiness
in giving than in receiving.

                                Thank you.
                               To be continued.
Lesson Three: Contents

 1    Duty Report

 2     Vocabulary

 3     Translation

4      Exercises
    Proverbs concerning Animals

   Dog doesn’t eat dog. 虎毒不食子。
   To help a lame dog over a stile 雪中送炭。
   A rat in a hole 瓮中之鳖。
   As wet as a drowned rat 湿如落汤鸡。
   To beard the lion in his den. 太岁头上动土。
   A lion in the way 拦路虎
     Proverbs concerning Animals

  Never offer to teach fish to swim 切莫班门弄斧。
  Fish begin to stink at the head. 久住招人嫌。
  To put the cart before the horse. 本末倒置。
  Never swap horse while crossing the stream.
Pig                           渡到河中别换马。
  Pigs love that lie together. 臭味相投。
  Teach a pig to play on a flute. 对牛弹琴。
           Interesting Numbers

It’s a public relations office, a press office
 and a private office all in one. 三位一体
And no, Bill, I wasn’t talking about sex ---
 you’ve got a one-track mind! 单一思维
You can’t put all the blame on him. It takes
 two to make a marriage. 一个巴掌拍不响
Are you sure he’s not two-timing you? 欺骗
Four-letter words are often edited out of
 films before they are shown on television.
The old man gave the thief a bunch of fives.
          Interesting Numbers

“I’m tired!” “That makes two of us!” Me too.
John an Helen make a nice twosome, don’t
 you think?            天生一对
There’s no point worrying about it --- we’ll
 both be six feet under by then. Be buried
He’s in his seventh heaven when he’s
 watching football. 快活似神仙
The characters in his novels are always
 three-dimensional. Lifelike
The doorbell rang and there was Chris, all
 dressed up to the nines. 盛装
Bible and the Scriptural
               The Bible

The Bible is a collection of religious
 writings comprising two parts:
  the Old Testament:
   about God and the Laws of God
  the New Testament
   about the doctrine of Jesus Christ
The word "Testament" means
 "agreement" 一namely,the
 agreement between God and Man.
          The Old Testament

The Old Testament consists of 39 books,
 the oldest and most important of which
 are the first five books,called Pentateuch.
The Pentateuch(五经)
  Genesis 《创世纪》
  Exodus 《出埃及记》
  Leviticus 《利未记》
  Numbers 《民数记》
  Deuteronomy 《申命记》
          Parable from the Bible

A parable is a simple story
 illustrating a moral or
 religious lesson.
Jesus once said:
   You shall not kill.
   You shall not commit adultery.
   You shall not steal.
   You shall not bear false witness.
   Honor your father and mother.
   You shall love your neighbor as yourself.
  Some Parables Told by Jesus Christ

Beware of false prophets, who come to you in
 sheep’s clothing but inwardly are ravenous
Why do you see the speck that is in your
 brother’s eye, but do not notice the log that is in
 your own eye?
A sound tree cannot bear evil fruit, nor can a
 bad tree bear good fruit.
It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of
 a needle than for a rich man to enter the
 kingdom of God.
            Words in Focus: invalid
1. An ________ is someone who needs to be cared for
   because they have an illness or disability. (n.)
2. An _______ argument or conclusion is wrong because it
   is based on a mistake, while a _______ one is based on
   sensible reasoning.
3. If a document is ________, it cannot be accepted,
   because it breaks the law or some official rule.
4. To invalidate a conclusion means to prove that it is
5. The document proved the _________ of the marriage
6. Shocked by the results of the elections, they now want to
   challenge the validity
                 _________ of the vote.
            Words in Focus: incline

1. I ________ to the view that she is right. (v.)
2. I ______________ believe that he supports the plan.
      am inclined to
   (passive form)
3. Young people seem more _______ to save money than
   their parents. (adj.)
4. Someone who is artistically _________ has a natural
   talent for art.
5. The military government has shown little ___________
   to restore democracy. (n.)
6. People with artistic _____________ are encouraged to
   illustrate their writing. (n. a natural tendency to behave
   in a particular way or have a particular interest)
           Words in Focus: paralyze

1. If someone is paralyzed by an accident or an illness,
   they have no feeling in their body, or in part of their
   body, and are unable to move. (v.)
2. If an organization is paralyzed by something, it
   becomes unable to function properly.
3. _________ is the loss of the ability to move and feel in
   all or part of one’s body, or the state of being unable to
   function properly.
4. We were able to reverse _________ disease in
   laboratory animals. (adj. suffering from or related to
         Words in Focus: disillusion
1. If a person or something ___________ you, they make
   you realize that something is not as good as you thought.
2. __________ (or disillusionment ) is the disappointment
   that you feel when you discover that something is not as
   good as you had expected or thought.
3. As she grew older, Laura grew increasingly
   ____________ with politics. (adj.)
4. An ________ is a false idea or belief.
5. Something ________ seems true or possible, but in fact
   is false or impossible.
                  Words in Focus

       pull out       pull in    pull over pull up
                                  pulls in
1. When a vehicle or driver _____________ somewhere,
   the vehicle stops there.
                                 pulls up
2. When a vehicle or driver ____________, the vehicle
   slows down and stops.
                                 pulls over
3. When a vehicle or driver _____________, the vehicle
   moves closer to the side of the road and stops there.
                                 pulls out
4. When a vehicle or driver _____________, the vehicle
   moves out into the road or nearer the centre of the road.

I hate/I’m sorry to ~ you, but traveling in Tibet is not
 always wonderful --- I was sick every day for two
He’s very ~ed at the government’s handling of the
If the king had hoped for peace, he was to be sadly

我实在不愿把实   I hate to disillusion
 情告诉你,但并    you, but not
 非人人都像你那    everyone is as honest
 样诚实。       as you.
我不久便对这个   I soon became
 计划不再抱幻想    disillusioned with the
 了。         plan.
我实在不愿把实    I hate to illusion you,
 情告诉你,但是    but his real reason
 他帮助你的真正    for helping you was
 原因是为了得到    that he was after
 你的钱。       your money.

The dust had ~d to all corners of the room.
She could penetrate what I was thinking.
The sunshine could not penetrate where the
 trees were thickest.
He had a false beard on, but we soon ~d his

雨水透过了她的衣服  The rain had
 渗进皮肤。               penetrated right
                     through her clothes to
战争波及到了全国国           her skin.
 民生活的各个领域。  The war penetrates
今年这家公司一直试           every area of the
 图打入新的海外市场。 nation’s life.
                    This year the company
None of my
                     has been trying to
 advice seems to     penetrate new
 have ~d his thick   overseas markets.
 skull.             他那木瓜脑袋似乎一点也听不

be inclined to
Some people are ~ to jump to hasty
I’m half ~ to believe you.
They’ll be more ~ to listen if you don’t shout.
He writes only when he feels ~ to.

她愿意相信他。   She was inclined to
他喜欢偷懒。     trust him.
我倾向于同意    He is inclined to be
 你的观点。      lazy.
最近物价很可    I’m inclined to agree
 能上涨。       with you.
我倾向于相信    Prices are inclined to
 与传说相反之     rise recently.
 事。        I’m inclined to believe
            the counter of what
            was said.

with the aid of
He was breathing only with the ~ of a
 ventilator/an oxygen mask.
He gets about with the ~ of a walking stick.
The refugees could survive with the ~ of the
 Red Cross charity.
The students from the poverty-stricken area
 could continue their education with the ~ of
 the fund.

to a degree
Most pop music is influenced, to a ~ , by the
I think that’s true to a ~, but the situation is
 not quite so simple.
The boss sometimes follows his instinct to a
 dangerous ~.
To what ~ can parents be held responsible for
 a child’s behavior?

hold on to
Hold onto the rope and don’t let go.
The drowning man struggled to ~ on to a piece of
We should ~ on to the house and sell it later when
 prices are higher.
She took an early lead in the race and held onto it for
 nine laps.
The old lady had only her religion to ~ onto when all
 her family had gone.

It was so windy that I had to ~ on to
 my hat all the way along the street.
Hold on to your ticket --- you’ll need
 it later.
Can I ~ on to this book for another

be all set
I’m all ~, so we can go now.
Are you all ~ for the journey?
She seems ~ on/upon marrying him.
I was all ~ to leave the house when the
 telephone rang.
The starter of a race often says: “On your
 marks --- get set --- go!”

lead up to
A row of lights ~s visitors up to the front door.
His flattering words led up to a request for
The newspapers faithfully reported the events
 that led up to the Minister’s dismissal.
In the months ~ing up to the great ceremony,
 many people took part in the preparations.

What do you suppose he’s ~ing up to?
Which path will ~ us up to the top of
 the hill?
All you have said leads up to the fact
 that the man is an idiot.

peer at / through / into
He ~ed at me over the top of his glasses.
Even after ~ing at the letter, I still could not
 recognize the signature.
Excuse me for ~ing at you, but you are so like my
There’s a hole in the wall where you can ~ through.
The driver was ~ing into the distance trying to read
 the road sign.

overflow with
The streets were ~ing with the crowds.
The pan ~ed with boiling milk.
The room is ~ing with books.
Her heart ~ed with love/gratitude.
They were ~ing with emotion at the birth of
 their baby.

1. 你有义务照顾她 (care)
   You are under obligation to care for her.
2. 他晚年饱受疾病和贫困的折磨。(afflict)
  He was afflicted with the illness and poverty in his
 later years.
3. 我工作一做完就来找你们. (through)
  As soon as I get through with my work I'll join you.
4. 患近视的人不戴眼镜时常常眯起眼睛看人。
   Near-sighted people often peer at you when they
 are not wearing their glasses.

5.他的生意日渐清淡。 (slacken)
  His business begins to slacken.
  Don't slacken your efforts till the work is done.

6. 他们每隔4小时记录一次温度。(interval)
  They recorded the temperature at intervals of 4 hours.
 Rain fell at intervals throughout the night.
           Textbook Exercises

Grammar Exercises (pp. 110—111)

Integrated Skills (II) (pp. 111—112)
  What does the word “but” mean?

I never go past my old school but I think
 of the old schoolmaster.
I could not choose but go. 我不得不去。
Nothing but disaster would come from
 such a plan.
There was never a new theory but
 someone objected to it. 一……总会/就
He is not such a fool but he knows this.
No one is so old but that he may learn.
   What does the word “but” mean?

I don’t doubt but you are surprised. =that
I don’t question but you are correct.
Things will get into a mess but you will go
 there.      只有……才能/除非……否则
He was all but killed. 他几乎被打死。
I have written all my letters but one.只差一封
He is anything but a scholar. 绝非,一点也不
It is nothing but a joke. 不过是
There is no student but like Professor
 Wang. =there is no student that does not like…

torture vs afflict

weak vs frail

enter vs penetrate

jump, leap vs leap
               torture vs afflict
Torture implies the unbearable pain or suffering, either
 physically or mentally.
  -- Shocking and detailed accounts have emerged of how
 the detainee was tortured to death the prison guards.

Afflict applies to the causing of any pain or suffering or
 of acute annoyance, embarrassment, or any distress.
 (anto: comfort)
   --The old man was afflicted with arthritis. (患关节炎)
 -- Severe drought has afflicted the countryside.(受害)
                  weak vs frail
Both adjectives can mean “not strong enough to endure
 strain, pressure, or strenuous effort”.
Weak, the broader one, basically implies a lack or
 inferiority of physical, mental, or moral strength
 --a weak muscle / mind / character/ foundation/ excuse

Frail suggests an inherent or constitutional delicacy or
 weakness, so as to be easily broken or shattered
  --a frail body / conscience
  --It seemed impossible that these frail boats could
 survive in such a storm.
             enter vs penetrate
Enter is the more general of the two. It may imply
 either going in or forcing a way in.
  --I saw him enter the room and unlock the drawer.
Penetrate carries a strong implication of an impelling
 force or compelling power that achieves entrance.
   --This fungus has the ability to penetrate deep into
 the center of large trees.
   --The headlamps penetrated the fog.
   --Nothing we say penetrates his thick skull!
           jump, leap vs hobble
Jump, the most general one, refer to the movement of
 springing or bounding upward from or as if from the
   --The burglar jumped out of the window when he
 heard the footsteps.
If you leap, you jump high in the air or jump a long
   --The salmon leaped out of water and landed on the

   With the invention of the radio, / newspaper publishers
wondered / how broadcasting would affect them. / Many feared /
that the radio as a quick and easy means of keeping people
informed / would displace the newspaper industry altogether. /
   Others hoped / that the brief newscast heard on the air / would
stimulate listeners' interest in the story / so they'd buy the paper to
get more information. / This second idea turned out to be closer to
the truth. / Radio and print actually supported each other. /
However, this is not always the case. / Take television and motion
pictures for example. / With the popularization of TV, / the
motion pictures suffered greatly. / Movie attendance dropped /
when people chose to stay at home and be entertained.

              Presentation Topic
Do you believe in power of belief? Please
 illustrate your point with examples.
     Great opportunities to help
others seldom come, but small ones
surround us every day.

                                     Thank you.

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