PowerPoint Presentation - The History of Jerusalem Through 1914

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					The History of Jerusalem
     Through 1914

        John Watts
            Early Jerusalem
► ~3500   BC: Scholars believe it is at about
  this time when the area is first settled.
► 19th Century BC: First recorded mention of
  Jerusalem appears in Egyptian texts, listed
  as Rusalimum.
► 13th Century BC: Israelite conquest of
  Canaan, however Jerusalem remains
  Jebusite city.
               The Hyksos Period
►   1004: King David captures the city from the Jebusites
    and establishes it as the capital of the United Kingdom of
►   970: King Solomon begins construction of the First
►   931: Split of the Kingdom into Israel (North) and Judah
►   928: Assyrians conquer the North which solidifies the role
    of Jerusalem.
►   597-586: Babylonians capture the city, Nebuchadnezzar
    destroys the city and the Temple, and the Jews are
    forced into exile in Babylonia.
          The Persian Period
► 538: After the fall of Babylon, Cyrus of
  Persia allows Jews to return to the city.
► 520: Construction on the Second Temple
► 458-397: Ezra the Scribe and Nehemiah
  return and revive law, religion, and social
  and economic life.
         The Hellenistic Period
► 332:  Alexander the Great conquers
  the city. After his death the
  Persians and Syrians are at odds for
  Judea, which lies between them.
► 320: Ptolemy I captures Jerusalem,
  and Egyptian rule begins.
► 198-167: Syrians take control of the
  city, outlaw Jewish practices, and
  desecrate the Second Temple.
       The Hasmonean Period
► 167-141:   Maccabean
  War of Liberation, led
  by Mattathias, head of
  the Hasmonean family.
► Jerusalem is
  recaptured and the
  Temple is rededicated,
  giving birth to the
  tradition of Hanukkah.
           The Roman Period
► 63: General Pompey conquers Jerusalem, Judea
  becomes a vassal-state of Rome.
► 40: Rome appoints Herod King of Judea, he begins
  building on to the Temple, which takes nine years
  to complete.
► 66-70 AD: Jewish Revolt, early success but ends in
  defeat and the demolishment of the city and
  Temple by Titus.
► 132-135: Bar Kochba's War of Freedom; Ends with
  the destruction of Jerusalem and it being rebuilt
  by Hadrian as Colinia Aelia Capitolina. Jews are
  forbidden to enter the city.
          The Byzantine Period
► 313:   Constantine declares Christianity legal, many
  Christian churches are built in the city, but Jews
  are still prohibited.
► 438: Empress Eudocia, wife of Emperor Theodisus
  II, allows Jews to live in the city.
► 614-628: Persian conquest of Jerusalem, many
  churches are destroyed, but Emperor Heraclius
  recaptures the city for the Byzantines.
          The Early Muslim Period
►   638: Muslim capture of the
    city led by Caliph Omar.
►   691: Caliph Abd al-Malik
    builds the Dome of the
►   750: Power shift from
    Damascus to Baghdad.
►   969-1071: Fatimid
    Conquest and Seljuk
          The Crusader Period
► 1099:  Crusaders, led by
  Godfrey de Bouillon,
  capture the city. Jews
  and Muslims are
  slaughtered, and the city
  is once again Christian.
► 1187: Kurds take control
  of the city, many Jews
  and Muslims return.
   Ayyubid and Mameluk Period
► 1219: Ayyubid orders destruction of city walls.
► 1229: Treaty returns Jerusalem temporarily to
  the Crusaders.
► 1244-1260: Mamelukes of Egypt take control,
  and Jerusalem is ruled from Cairo.
► 1267: Rabbi Moshe Ben Nahmen arrives from
  Spain to revive Jewish congregation.
► 1492: Jews arrive after fleeing from the
  Spanish Inquisition.
              Ottoman Period
► 1517:  Ottomans effect peaceful takeover
  of Jerusalem.
► 1537-1541: Sultan Suleiman the
  Magnificent rebuilds the city walls.
► 1838-1849: First British Consulate and
  Protestant Church open in city.
► 1898: Visit by Theodore Herzl, the founder
  of the World Zionist Organization.
► 1914: WWI begins and Jerusalem
  becomes Turkish military center.

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