The History of Jerusalem
► ~3500 BC: Scholars believe it is at about
this time when the area is first settled.
► 19th Century BC: First recorded mention of
Jerusalem appears in Egyptian texts, listed
► 13th Century BC: Israelite conquest of
Canaan, however Jerusalem remains
The Hyksos Period
► 1004: King David captures the city from the Jebusites
and establishes it as the capital of the United Kingdom of
► 970: King Solomon begins construction of the First
► 931: Split of the Kingdom into Israel (North) and Judah
► 928: Assyrians conquer the North which solidifies the role
► 597-586: Babylonians capture the city, Nebuchadnezzar
destroys the city and the Temple, and the Jews are
forced into exile in Babylonia.
The Persian Period
► 538: After the fall of Babylon, Cyrus of
Persia allows Jews to return to the city.
► 520: Construction on the Second Temple
► 458-397: Ezra the Scribe and Nehemiah
return and revive law, religion, and social
and economic life.
The Hellenistic Period
► 332: Alexander the Great conquers
the city. After his death the
Persians and Syrians are at odds for
Judea, which lies between them.
► 320: Ptolemy I captures Jerusalem,
and Egyptian rule begins.
► 198-167: Syrians take control of the
city, outlaw Jewish practices, and
desecrate the Second Temple.
The Hasmonean Period
► 167-141: Maccabean
War of Liberation, led
by Mattathias, head of
the Hasmonean family.
► Jerusalem is
recaptured and the
Temple is rededicated,
giving birth to the
tradition of Hanukkah.
The Roman Period
► 63: General Pompey conquers Jerusalem, Judea
becomes a vassal-state of Rome.
► 40: Rome appoints Herod King of Judea, he begins
building on to the Temple, which takes nine years
► 66-70 AD: Jewish Revolt, early success but ends in
defeat and the demolishment of the city and
Temple by Titus.
► 132-135: Bar Kochba's War of Freedom; Ends with
the destruction of Jerusalem and it being rebuilt
by Hadrian as Colinia Aelia Capitolina. Jews are
forbidden to enter the city.
The Byzantine Period
► 313: Constantine declares Christianity legal, many
Christian churches are built in the city, but Jews
are still prohibited.
► 438: Empress Eudocia, wife of Emperor Theodisus
II, allows Jews to live in the city.
► 614-628: Persian conquest of Jerusalem, many
churches are destroyed, but Emperor Heraclius
recaptures the city for the Byzantines.
The Early Muslim Period
► 638: Muslim capture of the
city led by Caliph Omar.
► 691: Caliph Abd al-Malik
builds the Dome of the
► 750: Power shift from
Damascus to Baghdad.
► 969-1071: Fatimid
Conquest and Seljuk
The Crusader Period
► 1099: Crusaders, led by
Godfrey de Bouillon,
capture the city. Jews
and Muslims are
slaughtered, and the city
is once again Christian.
► 1187: Kurds take control
of the city, many Jews
and Muslims return.
Ayyubid and Mameluk Period
► 1219: Ayyubid orders destruction of city walls.
► 1229: Treaty returns Jerusalem temporarily to
► 1244-1260: Mamelukes of Egypt take control,
and Jerusalem is ruled from Cairo.
► 1267: Rabbi Moshe Ben Nahmen arrives from
Spain to revive Jewish congregation.
► 1492: Jews arrive after fleeing from the
► 1517: Ottomans effect peaceful takeover
► 1537-1541: Sultan Suleiman the
Magnificent rebuilds the city walls.
► 1838-1849: First British Consulate and
Protestant Church open in city.
► 1898: Visit by Theodore Herzl, the founder
of the World Zionist Organization.
► 1914: WWI begins and Jerusalem
becomes Turkish military center.