Question of the Day
What Do You Think Makes
Develop a definition on your own
Pair up with the person you are sitting beside and each
share your definition
Develop a combined definition that incorporates BOTH
Share with the class
bipedal primate mammal
Do you think this is sufficient??
Using the definitions from class, what would you add
to this definition?
Venn Diagram – Animal vs Human
Definitions for Anthropology, Sociology & Psychology
Simplest terms: the study of humanity
Includes: culture, behaviours, language, physiology
Branches: physical, cultural, linguistic, archaeology
Examples of Questions:
What are the cultural norms in treatment of males and
What are the cultural patterns that help define these
What were the values of this particular culture?
Simplest terms: studying society and human actions/interactions
Includes: patterns, institutions, organizations, characteristics of
Branches: broken into schools of thought instead of branches –
functionalism, conflict, & symbolic interaction
Examples of Sociological Questions:
What are the functions of the various groups in a particular
What common factors are there in the lives of people who have
completed the same action in the same type of situation?
What was his/her economic background?
Were there any factors, such as cultural background, religion, or
sexual orientation that might have seriously affected this person’s
relationship(s) with other individuals?
Simplest terms: studying our mind, brain and behaviour
– the connection between them
Includes: HUGE range – depends on area of focus
Branches: abnormal, cognitive, social, developmental,
Examples of Psychological Questions:What is going on
inside a person’s mind?
What factors in the individual’s personality led him/her
to make this decision?
What is the family history related to this
What was the nature of this person’s relationships?
Pierre LeBrun Case Study
Read page 10
Fill in the chart below with examples of questions that
each discipline might ask about Pierre LeBrun, his
actions and motives found on pages 11-13
Psychology Sociology Anthropology
Find a newspaper, magazine or online article that fits
into one of the 3 disciplines.
Bring a copy of the article and a short written response
that identifies the discipline, evidence to support your
choice from the article and an extension question you
could ask (what else could you investigate based on the
information in the article)
http://classroomclipart.com/images/gallery/Clipart/Children/magnifying_glass.jpg, www.wpclipart.com , www.lejeune.usmc.mil
Find a partner that you haven’t worked with yet and
share your article with them
Discuss what you found interesting
Hand in article with your written summary
Please answer the following questions:
1. How happy are you to be back at school?
a) Completely Depressed b) Slightly Depressed c) Could be Worse
a) 10% b)36.7 % c)30% d) 10% e) 0%
2. Where would you be if you weren't at school right now?
a) In bed b) At work c) With friends
d)On the computer/In front of the tv e) Other
a) 20% b)6.7% c) 36.7% d) 23.3% e) 6.7%
3. Do you think that school is worthwhile
a) Not at all b) Only if you are going to go to college/university
c) Yeah d) Absolutely, what would we do without education?!
a) 0% b) 16.7% c) 43.3% d)40%
4. Do you think that North Americans are too relaxed about
education? No Yes
1. a) 20% b) 40%
Are these “good” results? Do you think this information is typical of
the students at FMSS?
Although we are studying human behaviour, we must
remember that it is a Science.
In order to answer questions about human behaviour
thoroughly and accurately, we must follow the Social
Science Inquiry Method
1) Identify a problem or question
2) Develop a hypothesis
3) Gather data
4) Analyze the data
5) Draw conclusions
This is the reason for the inquiry, and it indicates a plan of
Questions that you should ask yourself before formulating your
problem into a question:
Does it affect a significant number of people? (i.e., is it more
than a mere pet peeve for you)
Is it something that can actually be solved through some form
of action? (i.e., drunk driving?)
Do students who read more books, achieve higher marks in
This affects a large group of people, students.
Can result in higher academic performance in English through
activities like READING
When you are defining your question, you must
identify the following two variables:
Independent Variable – what causes the change
Dependent Variable – what is affected by the change
Does uniform colour affect the level of aggression?
Students were randomly assigned to wear either
yellow or orange uniforms. Those who wore the
orange jerseys preferred more aggressive games. So,
on average, wearing orange affected level of
aggression on the field.
1. Independent Variable: The colour of the jersey
(because it changes the dependent variable)
2. Dependent Variable: Aggression
Checklist for Research Question/ Problem:
Does it affect a significant number of people?
Can it be solved through some form of action?
Does it have an independent and a dependent variable?
A hypothesis is an educated guess to the answer to
It is important in order to focus one’s research
It can be changed if you find your research does
not support it. This is not a bad thing, in fact it www.lifeprint.com
makes what you have researched more relevant and
Example: “owning or having regular access to a car has
a negative effect on school grades”
The method used to gather data, will depend on the
There are various methods (p.8-13):
Surveys / Questionnaires
Method Description Pros Cons
Below is a list of possible poll questions. In your opinion, are the questions worded in a
balanced and unbiased manner? If you disagree, how might they influence people’s
answers? How would you rewrite them to get more honest answers?
Do you condone the cruel practice of using animals in scientific
Are you planning to keep up with modern technology by buying a
Do you approve of the new law to save lives by confiscating the cars of
Would you support or oppose a new gun law in order to restrict
children’s access to guns?
Dichotomous Questions: When a question has two
Ex. Gender - Male □ Female□
Do you believe that the death penalty is ever
justified? Yes / No
Questions Based on Level Of Measurement:
Ex. The death penalty is justifiable under some
circumstances. 1= Strongly Agree, 5 = Strongly
Sometimes you have to ask the respondent one question in order to
determine if they are qualified or experienced enough to answer a
subsequent one. This requires using a filter or contingency question.
For instance, you may want to ask one question if the respondent has
ever smoked marijuana and a different question if they have not. in
this case, you would have to construct a filter question to determine
whether they've ever smoked marijuana:
Can the Question be misunderstood?
Does the question contain difficult or unclear
Does the question make each alternative explicit?
Is the wording objectionable?
Is the wording loaded or biased?
Is the answer start with easy, non-threatening questions
influenced by prior
questions? put more difficult, threatening questions near
end and follow chronological order
Does question come
too early or too late ask about one topic at a time
to arouse interest?
when switching topics, use a transition
Does the question
receive sufficient reduce response set (the tendency of
attention? respondent to just keep checking the same
for filter or contingency questions, make a
1) Is the Question Necessary/Useful?: Examine each question to see if you need
to ask it at all and if you need to ask it at the level of detail you currently have.
2) Are Several Questions Needed? You should think about splitting each of the
following questions into two separate ones. You can often spot these kinds of
problems by looking for the conjunction "and" in your question.
Ex. What do you think of proposed changes in benefits and hours?
3. Do Respondents Have the Needed Information? Look at each question in your
survey to see whether the respondent is likely to have the necessary information
to be able to answer the question. For example, let's say you want to ask the
Ex. Do you think Dean Rusk acted correctly in the Bay of Pigs crisis?
4) Does the Question Need to be More Specific?
5) Is Question Biased or Loaded?
A. Statistics: For each question (where possible), turn results into
a (whole number) percentage.
B. Graphs & Visual Representation of Data: Once you have
percentages, you can make bar graphs, circle graphs or other
visual representations of the data.
C. Relevancy: For each piece of data, indicate how it supports or
negates the hypothesis.
D. Identification of Correlations & Trends
E. Statement of Correlations and Trends
For each question (where possible), turn results into a (whole number)
How many hours a week do you work?
Total Respondants: 30
0 hours: 20 students - 66%
1-2 hours: 5 students - 16%
3-4 hours: 3 students - 10%
4-5 hours: 1 student - 0.3%
5 or more: 1 student - 0.3%
Once you have percentages, you can make bar graphs,
circle graphs or other visual representations of the
data. Each question has its own set of data, so you can
make several graphs, etc. However, it is most useful to
have a graph that represents many different pieces of
data, so that comparisons can be made. There are
different ways to represent the data.
* MAKE SURE TO INCLUDE A LEGEND for all
Bar Graph: In a bar graph, the Y axis (vertical) should be the
dependent variable, and the X axis should represent the
This method will help to show impact of the independent variable
on the dependent variable.
This method works with questions using levels of measurement.
You can show different types of data on the same bar graph by
overlapping the bars and using different colours.
You can also include a line graph ( ) in your bar graph to show
different pieces of information.
Circle Graph: You can use a circle graph to represent the division of
types of responses. This works best with questions that have 3 or more
After turning your data into percentages and making a
visual representation, you should now be able to
analyze data in terms of whether it supports, or fails to
support your hypothesis. For each piece of data,
indicate how it supports or negates the hypothesis.
Based on the hypothesis, conclusions can be divided
into four categories:
1. Supports hypothesis (+51%)
2. Some support of hypothesis (30-50%)
3. Does not support hypothesis (0-15%)
4. Supports an alternative hypothesis
Supports How? Negates How? Neither
Hypothesis Hypothesis supports nor
66% of The average 16% of These Amount of
students participant did students work students all hours spent
don’t work not have a part- 1-2 hours a had honour on homework
time job. The day roll standing. was similar/
average student This may equal among
also had an demonstrate all survey
academic that hours respondents.
average of worked does
78%. This may not impact
help to prove academic
the hypothesis achievement.
that students It depends on
who work have the student.
By examining and inputting all data that either supports or
negates the hypothesis into chart format, you should be able to
notice correlations, or trends, between various factors. These
correlations, or trends, should help to either support or negate
The data showed that the more hours a student worked, the
lower their average. There appears to be a correlation between
hours worked and academic performance.
Also, there is a correlation between hours worked and hours
spent on homework. There was a negative correlation.
Once you have identified all statements and trends,
write 1 -2 sentences for each correlation seen, as
exemplified in the previous slide.
* Make sure that you DO NOT make correlations that
aren’t really there. That would be manipulating the
information to say what you want it to say. Any
evidence of this receives a ‘0' (zero). As this is a (social)
scientific inquiry into a social science question, you are
looking to find the truth, not to make the truth.
To draw a conclusion in a social science inquiry, you must
answer the question posed at the beginning of the
inquiry. To answer this question, follow the steps below:
State the question/purpose for the inquiry (as an introductory sentence)
Identify the independent and dependent variables
State the context within which the question was developed
State what was your plan of action - how you went about trying to answer the
State, in a few sentences, a summary of all data gathered that was relevant to
answering your question (this includes information that both supports and
negates your hypothesis)
State all correlations/ trends that were observed
Now, answer the question with insight and maturity, based on your data.
Identify if the hypothesis was supported or negated. If it was negated, provide
possible reasons why.
Provide a statement outlining possible avenues for further inquiry into your
question, as a concluding sentence
1. OBJECTIVITY – the findings must not be coloured by the
personal opinions of the researcher.
2. RELEVANT – the findings must relate directly to the
3. VALID – all results must be accurate and reliable.