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					Question of the Day
  What Do You Think Makes
       Us HUMAN?
Develop a definition on your own

Pair up with the person you are sitting beside and each
    share your definition

Develop a combined definition that incorporates BOTH

Share with the class
     Dictionary Definition
bipedal primate mammal

Do you think this is sufficient??

Using the definitions from class, what would you add
to this definition?

Venn Diagram – Animal vs Human
Definitions for Anthropology, Sociology & Psychology
   Simplest terms: the study of humanity

   Includes: culture, behaviours, language, physiology

   Branches: physical, cultural, linguistic, archaeology

    Examples of Questions:

    What are the cultural norms in treatment of males and

    What are the cultural patterns that help define these

    What were the values of this particular culture?
   Simplest terms: studying society and human actions/interactions
   Includes: patterns, institutions, organizations, characteristics of
   Branches: broken into schools of thought instead of branches –
    functionalism, conflict, & symbolic interaction
    Examples of Sociological Questions:
     What are the functions of the various groups in a particular
    What common factors are there in the lives of people who have
    completed the same action in the same type of situation?
    What was his/her economic background?
    Were there any factors, such as cultural background, religion, or
    sexual orientation that might have seriously affected this person’s
    relationship(s) with other individuals?
   Simplest terms: studying our mind, brain and behaviour
    – the connection between them
   Includes: HUGE range – depends on area of focus
   Branches: abnormal, cognitive, social, developmental,
    Examples of Psychological Questions:What is going on
    inside a person’s mind?
    What factors in the individual’s personality led him/her
    to make this decision?
    What is the family history related to this
    What was the nature of this person’s relationships?
            Pierre LeBrun Case Study
           Read page 10

           Fill in the chart below with examples of questions that
           each discipline might ask about Pierre LeBrun, his
           actions and motives found on pages 11-13

                     Psychology       Sociology        Anthropology



Find a newspaper, magazine or online article that fits
into one of the 3 disciplines.

Bring a copy of the article and a short written response
that identifies the discipline, evidence to support your
choice from the article and an extension question you
could ask (what else could you investigate based on the
information in the article), ,
Find a partner that you haven’t worked with yet and
share your article with them

Discuss what you found interesting

Hand in article with your written summary
                       Introductory Survey
Please answer the following questions:
1.   How happy are you to be back at school?
a) Completely Depressed b) Slightly Depressed c) Could be Worse
                             d)Happy              e)Ecstatic
a) 10%              b)36.7 %           c)30%               d) 10%            e) 0%

2. Where would you be if you weren't at school right now?
a) In bed                    b) At work                    c) With friends
            d)On the computer/In front of the tv           e) Other
a) 20%              b)6.7%             c) 36.7%            d) 23.3%           e) 6.7%
                      Survey Results
3. Do you think that school is worthwhile
a) Not at all     b) Only if you are going to go to college/university
    c) Yeah     d) Absolutely, what would we do without education?!

a) 0%                  b) 16.7%       c) 43.3%        d)40%

4. Do you think that North Americans are too relaxed about
    education? No Yes

1. a) 20%              b) 40%

Are these “good” results? Do you think this information is typical of
   the students at FMSS?
Although we are studying human behaviour, we must
    remember that it is a Science.

In order to answer questions about human behaviour
    thoroughly and accurately, we must follow the Social
   Science Inquiry Method
1)   Identify a problem or question

2)   Develop a hypothesis

3)   Gather data

4)   Analyze the data

5)   Draw conclusions


This is the reason for the inquiry, and it indicates a plan of

Questions that you should ask yourself before formulating your
problem into a question:
    Does it affect a significant number of people? (i.e., is it more
    than a mere pet peeve for you)
    Is it something that can actually be solved through some form
    of action? (i.e., drunk driving?)
Do students who read more books, achieve higher marks in

    This affects a large group of people, students.
    Can result in higher academic performance in English through
    activities like READING
When you are defining your question, you must
identify the following two variables:

   Independent Variable – what causes the change

   Dependent Variable – what is affected by the change
Does uniform colour affect the level of aggression?
     Students were randomly assigned to wear either
     yellow or orange uniforms. Those who wore the
     orange jerseys preferred more aggressive games. So,
     on average, wearing orange affected level of
     aggression on the field.
 1. Independent Variable: The colour of the jersey
     (because it changes the dependent variable)
 2. Dependent Variable: Aggression
Checklist for Research Question/ Problem:

   Does it affect a significant number of people?

   Can it be solved through some form of action?

   Does it have an independent and a dependent variable?
   A hypothesis is an educated guess to the answer to
   the question

   It is important in order to focus one’s research

   It can be changed if you find your research does
   not support it. This is not a bad thing, in fact it

   makes what you have researched more relevant and
   more accurate.

Example: “owning or having regular access to a car has
   a negative effect on school grades”
The method used to gather data, will depend on the

There are various methods (p.8-13):
   Case studies
   Surveys / Questionnaires
Method          Description   Pros   Cons

Case Study
onnaire (63)
Below is a list of possible poll questions. In your opinion, are the questions worded in a
    balanced and unbiased manner? If you disagree, how might they influence people’s
    answers? How would you rewrite them to get more honest answers?

    Do you condone the cruel practice of using animals in scientific

    Are you planning to keep up with modern technology by buying a

    Do you approve of the new law to save lives by confiscating the cars of
     intoxicated drivers?

    Would you support or oppose a new gun law in order to restrict
     children’s access to guns?
           Dichotomous Questions: When a question has two
           possible responses.

                        Ex. Gender - Male □ Female□

                        Do you believe that the death penalty is ever
                        justified? Yes / No
Questions Based on Level Of Measurement:
      Ex. The death penalty is justifiable under some
      circumstances. 1= Strongly Agree, 5 = Strongly

Sometimes you have to ask the respondent one question in order to
   determine if they are qualified or experienced enough to answer a
   subsequent one. This requires using a filter or contingency question.
   For instance, you may want to ask one question if the respondent has
   ever smoked marijuana and a different question if they have not. in
   this case, you would have to construct a filter question to determine
   whether they've ever smoked marijuana:
Can the Question be misunderstood?

Does the question contain difficult or unclear

Does the question make each alternative explicit?

Is the wording objectionable?

Is the wording loaded or biased?
Is the answer           start with easy, non-threatening questions
influenced by prior
questions?              put more difficult, threatening questions near
                        end and follow chronological order
Does question come
too early or too late   ask about one topic at a time
to arouse interest?
                        when switching topics, use a transition
Does the question
receive sufficient      reduce response set (the tendency of
attention?              respondent to just keep checking the same

                         for filter or contingency questions, make a
1)   Is the Question Necessary/Useful?: Examine each question to see if you need
     to ask it at all and if you need to ask it at the level of detail you currently have.

2)   Are Several Questions Needed? You should think about splitting each of the
     following questions into two separate ones. You can often spot these kinds of
     problems by looking for the conjunction "and" in your question.

Ex. What do you think of proposed changes in benefits and hours?

3.   Do Respondents Have the Needed Information? Look at each question in your
     survey to see whether the respondent is likely to have the necessary information
     to be able to answer the question. For example, let's say you want to ask the

Ex. Do you think Dean Rusk acted correctly in the Bay of Pigs crisis?

4)   Does the Question Need to be More Specific?

5)   Is Question Biased or Loaded?
A.   Statistics: For each question (where possible), turn results into
     a (whole number) percentage.

B.   Graphs & Visual Representation of Data: Once you have
     percentages, you can make bar graphs, circle graphs or other
     visual representations of the data.

C.   Relevancy: For each piece of data, indicate how it supports or
     negates the hypothesis.

D.   Identification of Correlations & Trends

E.   Statement of Correlations and Trends
For each question (where possible), turn results into a (whole number)

    How many hours a week do you work?

Total Respondants: 30
    0 hours:      20 students                - 66%
    1-2 hours:     5 students                - 16%
    3-4 hours:    3 students                 - 10%
    4-5 hours:    1 student                  - 0.3%
    5 or more:    1 student                  - 0.3%
Once you have percentages, you can make bar graphs,
circle graphs or other visual representations of the
data. Each question has its own set of data, so you can
make several graphs, etc. However, it is most useful to
have a graph that represents many different pieces of
data, so that comparisons can be made. There are
different ways to represent the data.

Bar Graph: In a bar graph, the Y axis (vertical) should be the
dependent variable, and the X axis should represent the
independent variable.
       This method will help to show impact of the independent variable
       on the dependent variable.
       This method works with questions using levels of measurement.
       You can show different types of data on the same bar graph by
       overlapping the bars and using different colours.
       You can also include a line graph (    ) in your bar graph to show
       different pieces of information.

Circle Graph: You can use a circle graph to represent the division of
types of responses. This works best with questions that have 3 or more
After turning your data into percentages and making a
visual representation, you should now be able to
analyze data in terms of whether it supports, or fails to
support your hypothesis. For each piece of data,
indicate how it supports or negates the hypothesis.
     Based on the hypothesis, conclusions can be divided
     into four categories:

1.   Supports hypothesis (+51%)

2.   Some support of hypothesis (30-50%)

3.   Does not support hypothesis (0-15%)

4.   Supports an alternative hypothesis
 Supports         How?            Negates           How?           Neither
Hypothesis                       Hypothesis                      supports nor
66% of       The average        16% of          These            Amount of
students     participant did    students work   students all     hours spent
don’t work   not have a part-   1-2 hours a     had honour       on homework
             time job. The      day             roll standing.   was similar/
             average student                    This may         equal among
             also had an                        demonstrate      all survey
             academic                           that hours       respondents.
             average of                         worked does
             78%. This may                      not impact
             help to prove                      academic
             the hypothesis                     achievement.
             that students                      It depends on
             who work have                      the student.
             lower academic
   By examining and inputting all data that either supports or
   negates the hypothesis into chart format, you should be able to
   notice correlations, or trends, between various factors. These
   correlations, or trends, should help to either support or negate
   your hypothesis.
   The data showed that the more hours a student worked, the
   lower their average. There appears to be a correlation between
   hours worked and academic performance.
   Also, there is a correlation between hours worked and hours
   spent on homework. There was a negative correlation.
Once you have identified all statements and trends,
write 1 -2 sentences for each correlation seen, as
exemplified in the previous slide.

* Make sure that you DO NOT make correlations that
aren’t really there. That would be manipulating the
information to say what you want it to say. Any
evidence of this receives a ‘0' (zero). As this is a (social)
scientific inquiry into a social science question, you are
looking to find the truth, not to make the truth.
To draw a conclusion in a social science inquiry, you must
   answer the question posed at the beginning of the
   inquiry. To answer this question, follow the steps below:
   State the question/purpose for the inquiry (as an introductory sentence)
   Identify the independent and dependent variables
   State the context within which the question was developed
   State what was your plan of action - how you went about trying to answer the
   State, in a few sentences, a summary of all data gathered that was relevant to
   answering your question (this includes information that both supports and
   negates your hypothesis)
   State all correlations/ trends that were observed
   Now, answer the question with insight and maturity, based on your data.
   Identify if the hypothesis was supported or negated. If it was negated, provide
   possible reasons why.
   Provide a statement outlining possible avenues for further inquiry into your
   question, as a concluding sentence
1.   OBJECTIVITY – the findings must not be coloured by the
     personal opinions of the researcher.

2.   RELEVANT – the findings must relate directly to the

3.   VALID – all results must be accurate and reliable.

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