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					WIND MILLS

1. Energy Scenario in India

India is a power-starved country. The total installed power generation capacity in India stood at 1,05,714.29 MW
including thermal, hydel, nuclear and renewables. The contribution of thermal, hydel, nuclear and renewable sources
of power towards the total installed power generation capacity were 73%, 23.50%, 2% and 1.50% respectively.
According to a recent estimate there is a demand gap of 8-10% and a peak load demand gap of 18-20% in the
country. The problem is also accentuated by the fact that there is very little decentralized generation of power and
vast areas in the rural segment is not connected by grid power. This is where tapping wind energy for generation of
grid quality electricity on a decentralized manner can be of immense help to the country.

2. Present state and future potential for wind energy generation in India

Exploitation of wind energy has been in place from time immemorial but the development of technology for tapping
the same for generation of grid quality electricity is of a recent origin. India has been quick to make a foray in this
area. It has made its mark as one of the top ranking countries in the world in wind power generation. With an installed
generation capacity of 1702.30 MW of wind power, India now ranks 5th in the world after Germany, USA, Denmark
and Spain in wind power generation. According to a recent estimate, the gross wind power generation potential in the
country is estimated at 45,195 MW at 50 Mtr. Hub Height. Hub height is defined as the height from the Ground Level
(GL) at which the hub of the windmill or the hub of the propeller blades of the wind energy generator is situated. The
state wise potential and installed capacity is given in the table below:

Table-1

State                  Gross Potential in                     Total Installed Capacity in MW
                       MW
                                              Demonstration          Private Sector        Total Capacity
                                              Projects (MW)          Projects (MW)         (MW)
Andhra Pradesh                 8275                   5.40                   87.20                 92.60
Gujarat                        9675                   17.30                 149.60                 166.90
Karnataka                      6620                   2.60                   93.60                 96.20
Kerala                          875                   2.00                   0.00                   2.00
Madhya Pradesh                 5500                   0.60                   22.00                 22.60
Maharashtra                    3650                   6.40                  392.80                 399.20
Orissa                         1700                   6.40                   18.70                 25.10
Rajasthan                      5400                   19.40                 875.60                 895.00
Tamil Nadu                     3050                   1.10                   0.00                   1.10
West Bengal                     450                   1.60                   0.00                   1.60
Total                          45195                  62.80                1639.50                1702.30

The present installed capacity of 1702.30 MW of wind power is around 3.78% of the total potential in the country. The
achievement during the VIIIth Plan was significant. 860 MW of wind power capacity was added during the plan
period as against the initial target of 100 MW and the revised target of 500 MW.

Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources (MNES); a full fledged Ministry of Govt. of India looking after the
promotional and development policies of renewables in the country; has year marked a target of 5,000 MW from wind
energy sources by 2012 i.e. the end of the XI th Five Year Plan.

3. Wind resource potential

 The wind power generation in the country is influenced to a great extent by the wind speed and wind power density
prevalent at a particular potential location at any given point of time. The wind speed is affected to a large extent by
the strong southwesterly monsoons, starting in May-June, and at the same time by the weaker northeastern
monsoons in the winter months. It has been generally observed that 60-70% of the total wind power generation in the
country takes place during June- October when the southwest monsoons are prevalent through out the country.
According to a latest study, locations having an annual mean wind power density greater than 150 watts/ square
meter at 30 meter hub height have been found to be suitable for development of wind power projects. The details of
these sites are available in the wind energy atlas of India.

4. Promotional policies and new initiatives for development of wind power

Govt. of India and state govts. have developed suitable policies and guidelines for providing technical help, financial
support and various other incentives for development of wind power in the country. These include R&D activities for
design and development of low cost indigenous wind energy harnessing technologies, dissemination of the
developed technologies through demonstration projects, setting up of the commercial wind farms through central and
state government subsidy, providing financial incentives to potential entrepreneurs etc.

The various incentives that are being provided by the central and the state governments are as per the details given
below:

From Central Government

·     Income Tax Holiday

·     Accelerated Depreciation

·     Concessional Custom Duty/ Duty Free Import

·     Capital/ Interest Subsidy

From State Governments

·     Energy buyback, power wheeling and banking facilities

·     Sales tax concession benefits

·     Electricity tax exemption

·    Demand cut concession offered to industrial consumers who establish power generating units from renewable
energy sources

·     Capital Subsidy

The table given below depicts the initiatives provided by some of the state governments towards development of
commercial wind power projects.

These calorific values or heat values indicate that bio-gas can perform works similar to fossil oil in domestic cooking,
lighting etc., with better efficiency depending upon the methane content in it. The bio-gas has also the potential for
use in internal combustion engines used for pumping water etc. for which research and development works are in
progress. Biogas, therefore, has a bright future as an alternate renewable source of energy for domestic and farm
use.

3. Bio-Gas, its Production Process and Composition

It would be useful to know what bio-gas is and what its properties are-

(i) Bio-gas: Itmainly comprises of hydro-carbon which is combustible like any hydro-carbons and can produce heat
and energy when burnt. The chemical formula of the hydro-carbon is CH4 where C stands for carbon and H for
hydrogen and chemically the gas is termed as methane gas. The chemical formula of some other commonly used
hydrocarbons derived from fossil oil viz. petrol, kerosene, diesel, etc. are C6H14 , C9H20 and C16H34 respectively.
Unlike these hydro-carbons which are derived from direct chemical processes, bio-gas is produced through a bio-
chemical process in which some bacteria convert the biological wastes into useful bio-gas comprising methane
through chemical interaction. Such methane gas is renewable through continuous feeding of biological wastes and
which are available in plenty in rural areas in the country. Since the useful gas originates from biological process, it
has been termed as bio-gas in which methane gas is the main constituent.

(ii) Production Process:The process of bio-gas production is anaerobic in nature and takes place in two stages. The
two stages have been termed as acid formation stage and methane formation stage. In the acid formation stage, the
bio-degradable complex organic compounds of solids and cellulose presents in the waste materials are acted upon
by a group of acid forming bacteria present in the dung and reduce them into organic acids, CO2, H2, NH4 and H2S.
Since the organic acids are the main products in this stage, it is known as acid forming stage and this serves as the
substrates for the production of methane by methanogenic bacteria.

In the second stage, groups of methanogenic bacteria act upon the organic acids to produce methane gas and also
reduce CO2 in the presence of H2 to form methane (CH4). At the end of the process the amount of oxygen
demanding materials in the waste product is reduced to within the safe level for handling by human beings. There are
four types of methano-genic bacteria; Methano-bacterium, Methano-spirillium, Methano-coccus and Methano-circina.
These bacteria are oxygen sensitive and photo-sensitive and do not perform effectively in the presence of oxygen
and light.

Constituents

The gas thus produced by the above process in a bio-gas plant does not contain pure methane and has several
impurities. A typical composition of such gas obtained from the process is as follows:

Table –II

Items          Andhra Pradesh Karnataka           Madhya         Mahar-ashtra       Rajasthan         Tamil Nadu West Bengal
                                                  Pradesh
Wheeling       2% of energy      2% of energy     2% of energy   2% of energy       2% of energy      2% of     2% of energy
                                                                                                      energy
Banking        12 months         2% p.m. for 12 -                12 Months          12 Months         12 Months 6 Months
                                 months


Buy - Back     Rs. 2.25/ Kwh     Rs. 2.25/ Kwh Rs. 2.25/ Kwh     Rs. 2.25/ Kwh (5% Rs. 2.75/ Kwh      Rs. 2.25/   On case to
               (5% escalation    (5% escalation no escalation    escalation 1994-95) (5% escalation   Kwh (5%     case basis
               1997-98)          1994-95)                                            1999-2000)       escalation
                                                                                                      1995-96)
Third Party    Not allowed       Allowed          Allowed        Allowed            Allowed           Not Allowed Not Allowed
Sale
Capital        20% Max. Rs.      Max. Rs. 25.00 Same as other 30% Max. Rs.          -                 -            -
Subsidy        25.00 Lakh        Lakh for       industries    30.00 Lakh
                                 backward areas


Other          Industry status   No electricity   -              100% sales tax     No electricity   No            -
incentives                       duty for 5 years                exemption          duty for 5 years electricity
                                                                                                     duty

Apart from the same, MNES has set up an autonomous body called The Center for Wind Energy technology (C-WET)
with assistance from the Danish Government. C-WET conducts research and development work for development of
indigenous technology for wind power generation, preparation of technical standards for certification of wind power
generators, award of certificates for the development as well as consultancy activities for development of market for
wind power.

On similar lines to C-WET few other autonomous bodies namely Wind Energy Producers Association (WINPRO) and
Indian Wind Turbine Manufacturers Association (IWTMA) have been created. The objective of WINPRO is to create
awareness about the development of wind power in the country, creating consensus about solving technical problems
and development of skilled manpower through organization of countrywide seminars, workshops etc. Similarly the
function of IWTMA is to discuss/ take up issues concerning wind turbine manufacturers with central, state
governmental and other concerned agencies, work towards an amicable solution to the issues so that development
and penetration of wind power in the country can take place in a sustainable manner.

5. Wind power generator manufacturing technology available in the country

The wind turbines installed so far in the country are predominantly of the “fixed pitch” type. The degree by which the
Wind Energy Generator (WEG) propeller blades can be made to tilt through mechanical or electrical controls is called
the pitch of the WEG. However, with technological advancement, the use of WEGs with better aerodynamic designs,
lighter and larger blades made up of fibre glass material with epoxy coating, higher tubular towers, direct mesh drive
and variable speed gearless operation using advanced power electronics is gaining momentum.

Technological advancement is being made nowadays for complete elimination or reduction in reactive power
consumption by the WEGs. Reactive power is defined as the power required for cutting the electromagnetic field
generated within the armature coil of the electrical generator of a WEG under static condition for it to rotate and
generate electrical power. The unit size of the WEGs has also gone up from 55-100 KW to 400-750KW for
commercial projects being implemented nowadays.

6. Barriers in wind power development

 Inspite of the availability of various financial incentives and availability of technological know-how, the development
of wind power is very tardy in the country. The main bottlenecks for large-scale development of wind power in the
country can be attributed to the following:

1.Distortions in the energy market
2.Stiff competition from subsidized conventional energy and its universal acceptability
3. Lack of awareness and organizational skill required for propagating the technology
4.Technological constraints for limited level of grid penetration (20% maximum)
5. Inappropriate estimation of the power load that is to be served by the WEG
6.Lack of adequate capital at affordable cost
7.Laborious and tardy procedure for site allocation

7. Need of the hour

The following are the need of the hour:

    1.   Urgent efforts are required for the design and development of low cost, simple to use wind turbines. The
         manufacturers in India who have a tie up with foreign firms should see that the level of indenization of the
         WEGs is increased so that the plant and machinery cost is reduced.
    2.   Suitable extension mechanism has to be devised wherein the benefitsof development of wind power can be
         disseminated to the rural communities, village panchayats so that collective organizational skills can be
         developed.
    3.   Simple, easy to understand and lucid techniques should be devised which can help in correct estimation of
         power requirement at various power-consuming units.
    4.   The various agencies providing institutional finance have got a key role to play by providing finance to the
         promoters at concessional rate of interest, repayment period matching to the level of annual revenue
         available for repayment of debt, provision of adequate grace period, rationalization of the process of creation
         of charge by the bankers on the securities of the promoters etc.
    5.   Simplification of procedure for speedy land/ site allotment for the wind turbines.

Therefore, in order to bring the desired information in the knowledge of potential entrepreneurs and in order to
properly guide them in establishment of projects on wind energy generators, the present model having an installed
wind power generation capacity of 1.00 MW has been formulated.

8. Investment components of project for installation of wind energy generators having an installed capacity
of 1.00 MW

The various investment components are as follows:
Land, layout plan and site development requirement:

The land requirement for installation of the wind energy generators will depend upon the total installed capacity of the
wind farm. The site should have been identified by MNES or its state level sister agencies for its potentiality for
development of wind power based on technical parameters such as avg. yearly wind speed, wind power density, wind
direction etc. The site should find a mention in the wind energy atlas of India having potentiality for wind power
development. The average yearly wind speed of the site should be greater than the minimum cut-in wind speed for
the specific WEG proposed to be installed. Micro siting at the site should also have been done by MNES or
concerned state level agency. Non agricultural land should invariably be used for installation of the WEGs. A
minimum distance of 7 times the rotor diameter should be maintained between 2 adjacent WEGs installed in a single
row, whereas a minimum row to row distance of 3 times the rotor diameter should be maintained between 2 WEGs.
Therefore, approximately an area of 4.00 acre is required for installation of 1.00 MW capacity wind power plant. The
tentative cost of land and land development charges for the model project has been considered at Rs. 4.00 Lakh.

It has been observed from experience that the major WEG manufacturers generally purchase land in bulk from
MNES/ State Nodal Agencies for installation of WEGs. Thereafter, the companies negotiate for establishment of
WEGs with corporates, partnership firms, individuals etc. Once the contractual agreement is signed, the WEG
manufacturing companies go in for installation and commissioning of the WEGs on a turn key basis. They also help in
completing all the legal formalities and making arrangements for forward linkages viz. signing of the power purchase
agreement (PPA) with the concerned state electricity board (SEB) for sale of wind power, using the power
transmission and distribution infrastructure of the SEB for wheeling of power for captive use etc, third party sale,
banking etc. The WEG manufacturing companies thereafter transfers the ownership of the projects to its true owners.
However, they continue to operate the project on behalf of the corporates, partnership firms, individuals etc. as well
as carry out annual repair and maintenance operations based on annual contractual agreement.

Civil construction:

As a thumb rule approximately 2.30% of the total project cost involved in a 1.00 MW capacity Wind Energy Farm is
used towards meeting the cost of civil infrastructure.

The cost include construction of sheds for installation of the control panel, metering unit, construction of foundation
for the lattice/ tubular tower on top of which the WEGs is to be housed. A cost of Rs. 3.00 Lakh /unit (WEG) has
been considered for the model project . Thus the total cost amounts to Rs. 3.00 lakh x 4 = Rs. 12.00 Lakh.

Plant and Machinery:

In the proposed model project four number of WEGs are proposed to be installed. Some of the important technical
specifications of the machines have been presented in the table given below:

Table-III

Technical specifications of the WEGs

Rated Capacity                                               250KW
Rotor Diameter                                               30m
Hub Height                                                   50m
Rotor with Pitch Control
Type                                                         Upwind rotor with active pitch control
Direction of rotation                                        Clockwise
Number of blades                                             3
Length of blades                                             14m
Swept Area                                                   707 m 2
Blade Material                                               Fiber glass ( reinforced epoxy) with integral lightening
                                                             protection
Rotor Speed                                                  Variable 18-50 rpm
Tip Speed                                                      25-75 m/s
Pitch Control                                                  Three synchronized blade pitch systems with battery
                                                               back up
Generator                                                      Rigid
Hub Bearings                                                   Tapered roller bearings
Grid Feeding                                                   AC-DC-AC through converter- inverter
Braking System                                                 3 independent aero brakes with emergency backup
                                                               supply
Yaw Control                                                    Active through arrangement gears, friction damping etc.
Cut-in wind speed                                              2.5 m/s
Rated wind speed                                               13 m/s
Tower                                                          Steel tubular

As a thumb rule 86% of the total cost for erection and commissioning a 1.00 MW capacity wind farm is incurred
towards cost of plant and machinery. Under the model project a cost of Rs. 104.00 Lakh ( inclusive of packaging,
handling, erection and commissioning charges etc.) has been considered for the supply of each WEG of 250 kW
installed power generation capacity at the site. Thus the total cost amounts to Rs. 104.00 Lakh x 4nos. = Rs. 416.00
Lakh

Electricals:

Suitable step up transformers with 33 KV as output voltage are also required for stepping up the voltage of generated
power for onward feeding the same to the state power grid. A cost @ Rs. 4.50 Lakh per transformer unit totaling Rs.
18.00 Lakh has been considered for the model project. Apart from it, a cost of Rs. 0.975 Lakh has also been
considered towards cost of 33 KV OHT Line.

Infrastructure development / miscellaneous charges:

A cost of Rs. 25.00 Lakh has been considered for the model project.

Project Cost:

The detailed item wise project cost considered are as follows:

Table -IV

Detailed project Cost
(Rs. Lakh)

S.No. Description                          Rate/unit (Rs.in Lakh)          Qty. or no. of units       Amount



   1    Purchase of land, land             Lump sum amount                      4.00 acres                4.00
        development and fencing
        charges
   2    Supply of WEG of 250 kW                       100.00                         4                   400.00
        capacity each
   3    Packaging , handling, loading                  1.00                          4                    4.00
        , transportation, unloading and
        insurance cover till erection of
        WEGs
   4    Foundation and other civil                     3.00                          4                   12.00
        structures
      5   Electrical and Transformers                   4.50                         4                    18.00
          33 KV
      6   Erection and Commissioning                    3.00                         4                    12.00

      7   Other project cost including                  25.00                    1.00 MW                  25.00
          charges for infrastructure
          development @ Rs. 25 Lakh
          per MW for 1.00 MW
      8   Cost of 33 KV OHT Line (                                                                        0.975
          External and internal) 0.15 KM
          assumed approx. @ Rs. 6.50
          lakhs per KM or as actual

      9   Total                                                                                           475.98


9. Marketing

The wind power generated can be:

i.                Used for captive use through wheeling using the power grid of the concerned state electricity board.
ii.               Can be directly sold to the State Electricity Board

The banks are requested to make themselves familiar with the wind power development policies brought out by
IREDA and it's sister concern at the state level for financing WEG installation project proposals.

10. Insurance:

The wind energy generators should be adequately insured.

11. Eligibility of the borrowers:

The borrowers can be proprietary and partnership firms, cooperatives, joint stock companies, joint sector companies
etc

12. Repayment:

The repayment schedule has been calculated considering the tenure of the term loan of 5 years without any grace
period. However, banks are free to decide upon the repayment schedule depending upon the net cash flow
assessed.

13. Interest rate for ultimate borrowers:

Banks are free to decide the rate of interest within the overall RBI guidelines . However, for working out the financial
viability and bankability of the model project we have assumed the rate of interest as 12% p.a.

14. Interest rate for refinance from NABARD:

As per circulars of NABARD issued from time to time.

15. Security:

Banks may take a decision as per RBI guidelines.

Results of financial analysis are as under:
The financial analysis of the investment on installation of Wind Energy Generators for generation of wind power has
been attempted for two different scenarios.

1. Power is wheeled through the power grid of the concerned state electricity board for captive use.
2. Wind power generated is directly sold to the to the state electricity board.

The results are place in annexures I(a) to VIII(a) and I(b) to VIII(b) respectively. The project has a margin money
component of 25% with the rate of interest on term loan and working capital as 12% p.a. and 13% p.a. respectively.
The financial indicators for two different investment scenarios are as under:

I. Power is wheeled through the power grid of the concerned state electricity board for captive use.

1.Net present value @ 15% DF (NPV)            : Rs. 471.845 Lakh
2.Internal Rate of return (IRR)                : 27.37%
3.Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR)                     : 1.79: 1
4.Average Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR): 1.75:1

II. Wind power generated is directly sold to the state electricity board.

1. Net present value @ 15% DF (NPV)           : Rs. 333.369 Lakh
2. Internal Rate of return (IRR)                : 21.92 %
3. Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR)                    : 1.55:1
4. Average Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR) : 1.61:1

Annexures

Project on Installation of Wind Energy Generators for captive use of wind power

Project on Installation of Wind Energy Generators for captive use of wind power
Installed capacity: 1.00 MW
                                                                                                                  Annexure-I
Detailed Project Cost                                                                                             (a)
                                                                                                                  (Rs. Lakh)
S.No. Description                                                   Rate/unit (Rs.in         Qty. or no. of       Amount
                                                                    Lakh)                    units
   1   Purchase of land, land development and fencing charges Lump sum amount                4.00 acres                        4
   2   Supply of WEG of 250 kW capacity each                                           100                    4            400
   3   Packaging , handling, loading , transportation, unloading                        1                     4                4
       and insurance cover till erection of WEGs
   4   Foundation and other civil structures                                            3                     4             12
   5   Electrical and Transformers 33 KV                                               4.5                    4             18
   6   Erection and Commissioning                                                       3                     4             12
   7   Other project cost including charges for infrastructure                          25                    1             25
       development @ Rs.25.00 Lakh per MW for 1.00 MW
   8   Cost of 33 KV OHT Line ( External and internal) 0.15 KM assumed approx. @ Rs. 6.50 lakh per                         0.98
       KM or as actual
   9   Total                                                                                                           475.98


Project on Installation of Wind Energy Generators for commercial use of wind power
Annexure-I (b) Detailed Project Cost

Installed capacity: 1.00 MW

                                                                                 (Rs. Lakh)
                                                                      Qty. or no.
S.No.          Description                      Rate/unit (Rs.Lakh)               Amount
                                                                      of units
               Purchase of land, land
1              development and fencing          Lump sum amount       4.00 acres 4.00
               charges
               Supply of WEG of 250 kW
2                                               100.00                4          400.00
               capacity each
               Packaging , handling, loading ,
               transportation, unloading and
3                                               1.00                  4          4.00
               insurance cover till erection of
               WEGs
               Foundation and other civil
4                                               3.00                  4          12.00
               structures
               Electrical and Transformers 33
5                                             4.50                    4          18.00
               KV
6              Erection and Commissioning       3.00                  4          12.00
               Other project cost including
               charges for infrastructure
7                                           25.00                     1          25.00
               development @ Rs. 25.00 Lakh
               per MW for 1.00 MW
               Cost of 33 KV OHT Line (
               External and internal) 0.15 KM
8                                                                                0.98
               assumed approx. @ Rs. 6.50
               lakh per KM or as actual
9              Total                                                             475.98

				
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