Food Animal Veterinarian Presentation by KVFeBY1l

VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 100

									Bioterrorism
Awareness:
Protection of
Human and Animal
Health
Food animal producers
          Why Are We Here?
•   September 11, 2001
    changed many things
    − Worst  terrorist act in U.S.
      history
    − More than 3,000 presumed
      dead
    − Occurred on American soil
    − Increased sense of
      vulnerability
                                     Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                             Iowa State University 2005
                Biological Attack
•   Bioterrorism attacks of 2001
    •   Anthrax in postal system
        •   22 cases
        •   5 deaths
•   U.S. public health realm changed
    forever



                                   Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                           Iowa State University 2005
              Overview
•   Bioterrorism
•   Zoonoses and bioterrorism
•   Disease control and biosecurity
•   U.S. Government agencies involved
•   Bioterrorism agents/diseases
•   Your role and responsibility


                             Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                     Iowa State University 2005
                       Terrorism
Agroterrorism        Bioterrorism                     Other
Biological,                                      Conventional,
chemical or          Biological agents           radiological,
radiological         targeting humans,           nuclear,
agents targeting     animals, or plants          chemical,
agriculture or its                               cyber
components
                                                       •Typically
  •Livestock
                                                       direct
  •Food supply
                                                       human
  •Crops
                                                       targeting
  •Industry
  •Workers
                                          Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                                  Iowa State University 2005
         Characteristics of a
          Biological Attack
•   Difficult to detect release
•   Dissemination may cover large area
•   Possible secondary spread
•   Recognition of agent may be delayed
    days to weeks
•   Difficulties in catching perpetrator


                              Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                      Iowa State University 2005
Infectious Disease Outbreak
               Exposure

                                  Symptoms

                                              Seek Care
No. Affected




                    Time (Days)
                                         Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                                 Iowa State University 2005
    Clues Suggesting Biological
          Agent Release
•   Clustering of morbidity or mortality
    − Temporally  or geographically
    − Large numbers of animals and/or people
    − Atypical symptoms

•   Normally healthy people affected
•   Unusual symptoms for area
•   Unusual age distribution
•   Disease occurring outside typical
    season                       Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                         Iowa State University 2005
    Many Agents are Zoonotic
• Zoonotic means a disease transmitted
  from animals to humans
• Disease may be seen in animals before
  humans
• Animals are sentinels
    −   Pets, livestock,        wildlife




                               Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                       Iowa State University 2005
       Factors That Promote
     Transmission of Zoonoses
•   Frequent contact with
    domestic or wild animals
•   Overlap with wildlife habitat
•   Intensive livestock production
•   Poor animal sanitation
•   Poor personal hygiene
•   Poor animal health

                               Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                       Iowa State University 2005
        Routes of Transmission
•   Direct contact
    − Gel, liquid, powder
    − Scratches
    − Droplet spray onto mucous membranes

•   Indirect: Ingestion, injection
    − Contaminated food, water
    − Vector

•   Aerosol


                                     Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                             Iowa State University 2005
             Disease Control:
             Client Education
•   Disinfect/clean up areas
    contaminated with animal waste
    − Livestock,   pets, wildlife, rodents
•   Basic hygiene
    − Wash  hands
    − Child supervision




                                      Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                              Iowa State University 2005
          Zoonoses Control

•   Proper pet selection
•   Use caution at petting zoos
•   Cook food properly
•   Control strays
•   Visit and communicate with physician
    and veterinarian
•   Follow guidelines for
    immunocompromised people

                                 Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                         Iowa State University 2005
        Biosecurity Education
           for the Producer
•   Develop and implement
    a biosecurity plan

•   Train employees to
    help maintain the plan

•   Post signs restricting
    access to areas of the
    farm and control traffic
    flow
                               Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                       Iowa State University 2005
        Biosecurity Education
           for the Producer
•   Regulate visitors
•   Keep visitors sanitary
    − Clean clothing, boots
    − Disposable plastic
      shoe/boot covers
•   Implement insect,
    bird and animal control
•   Secure water, feed, and nutrient
    sources
                               Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                       Iowa State University 2005
      Biosecurity Education
         for the Producer
• Maintain healthy herd
   − Vaccinations
   − Proper hygiene for
     animals and handlers
• Purchase from
  reputable sources
• Quarantine newly
  purchased animals
• Separate sick animals

                            Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                    Iowa State University 2005
U.S. Agencies

Dealing with terrorism
Public Health Security and Bioterrorism
 Preparedness Response Act of 2002
•   June 12, 2002
•   Improve ability of the U.S. to
    prevent, prepare for, and respond to
    bioterrorism and other public health
    emergencies
•   $4.3 billion to various federal, state
    and local agencies
    − Upgrade   facilities, enhance security, etc

                                     Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                             Iowa State University 2005
     Department of Homeland
         Security (DHS)
•   Established January, 2003
•   Mission
    − Prevent, protect, and respond to acts of
      terrorism on U.S. soil
•   Established four policy directorates
    − Responsibilities   for coordinating HHS
      and USDA
    − Guard borders and airports, coordinate
      the response for future emergencies,
      analyze threats and intelligence, protect
      our critical infrastructure    Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                             Iowa State University 2005
    Centers for Disease Control
      and Prevention (CDC)
•   CDC's Mission
    − Promote  health and quality
    of life by preventing and
    controlling disease, injury
    and disability
• Preparing for bioterrorism since 1998
• One of first agencies to respond to anthrax
  incidents of 2001

                                  Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                          Iowa State University 2005
Strategic National Stockpile


•   12-hour Push Package
    −   Complete package of
        medical materials




•   Vendor Managed Inventory
    −   Tailored to suspected agents


                                       Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                               Iowa State University 2005
Insert Your State’s Info Here




                     Center for Food Security and Public Health
                             Iowa State University 2005
            Preparing Iowa
•   Iowa’s Homeland
    Security
    − Administered by
      Iowa Emergency
      Management
      Division
    − Works with public
      and private         www.iowahomeland
                          security.org
      partners

                                Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                        Iowa State University 2005
            Preparing Iowa
• Iowa Department of Public Health
     www.idph.state.ia.us/odedp
• Iowa Department of Agriculture and
  Land Stewardship
    − Highly infectious animal disease program
    − IRVIN: Iowa Rapid Veterinary Information
      Network
•   CFSPH training veterinarians to educate
    others

                                     Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                             Iowa State University 2005
Category ABC
Agent Overview
             Classification
•   Prepared by the CDC’s Bioterrorism
    Preparedness and Response Office
•   Category A: Highest priority
•   Category B: Second highest priority
•   Category C: Third highest priority




                              Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                      Iowa State University 2005
    “Weaponization” of Agents
•   Alter characteristics of an agent,
    allowing it to cause a more serious
    disease
    − Enhance    transmission
    − Increase virulence
    − Resistant to antibiotics
    − Evade vaccine protection
    − Alter clinical signs
         Harder to diagnose
                                 Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                         Iowa State University 2005
           Note to presenter
•   As time allows select diseases you would like
    to review.
•   If you have limited time you should focus on
    the Category A agents.
•   The disease coverage is brief. If you would
    like more information on a disease, refer to
    the fact sheet or to the disease specific
    presentation.



                                     Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                             Iowa State University 2005
Category A : Agents/Diseases
•   Anthrax
•   Botulism
•   Plague
•   Smallpox
•   Tularemia
•   Viral hemorrhagic fevers


                               Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                       Iowa State University 2005
         Anthrax: The Agent
•   Bacteria: Bacillus anthracis
•   Forms spores
•   Human disease
    − Skin
    − Intestinal
    − Inhalation
•   Animal disease
    − Spreads through the body
    − Rapid death
                                   Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                           Iowa State University 2005
      Anthrax: The Response
•   Vaccine
    − Humans
    − Animals

•   Antibiotics
    − Treatment
    − Prevention

•   Hardy in environment
    − Difficult   to disinfect
                                 Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                         Iowa State University 2005
         Botulism: The Agent
•   Clostridium botulinum – Gram pos,
    spore-forming bacteria
•   7 different neurotoxins
    − Types   A-G
•   Clinical signs
    − Flaccid paralysis
    − Pigs, dogs and cats
      fairly resistant


                             Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                     Iowa State University 2005
      Botulism: The Response
•   Toxoids for high risk people
•   Antitoxin available
    − Case-by-case   basis
•   Spores destroyed by moist
    heat




                                Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                        Iowa State University 2005
             Plague: The Agent
•   Yersinia pestis
    − Gram   neg, transmitted by
      fleabites, aerosol, direct contact
•   Symptoms: Humans
    − Bubonic,   septicemic, pneumonic
•   Symptoms: Animals
    − Cat: Similar to human
    − Dogs, livestock: Somewhat
      resistant

                                     Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                             Iowa State University 2005
       Plague: The Response
•   Antibiotics generally effective if given
    early
•   Killed vaccine available
•   Isolation of sick individuals
•   Susceptible to a number of common
    disinfectants



                                 Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                         Iowa State University 2005
        Smallpox: The Agent
•   Variola virus
•   Eradicated from the world in 1977
•   Narrow host range: Humans only
•   Transmission: Person-to-person,
    contaminated items
•   Clinical signs
             progressive skin
    − Flu-like,
     eruptions
                                Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                        Iowa State University 2005
     Smallpox: The Response
•   No specific treatment
•   Vaccine has side effects
•   Vaccination of health care personnel
•   Isolation of infected individuals
•   Disinfection of clothing etc. with
    steam, fire or bleach


                               Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                       Iowa State University 2005
       Tularemia: The Agent
•   Francisella tularensis
•   Transmitted by ingestion,
    inhalation, vectors, direct
    contact through skin
•   Six clinical forms in humans




      Glandular       Ulceroglandular
                                   Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                           Iowa State University 2005
        Tularemia: The Agent
•   Sheep, young pigs, horses,
    dogs, cats
    • Sudden   fever, lethargy, stiffness,
      prostration and death
•   Wildlife
    • Usually find dead
    • Rabbits behave strangely

•   Cattle, older pigs resistant

                                     Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                             Iowa State University 2005
     Tularemia: The Response
•   Person-to-person transmission not
    documented
•   Antibiotics effective if early or
    preventative
•   Vaccine
    − For high risk individuals
    − Unknown effectiveness
      against inhalation
      tularemia
                                  Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                          Iowa State University 2005
     Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers:
             The Agents
•   Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, Machupo
•   Human clinical presentation
    − Early: Fever, fatigue
    − Severe: Bleed from internal
      organs, body orifices
    − Progression to shock,
      seizures                            Vincent Massey



•   Animals: Only non-human
    primates susceptible
                                    Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                            Iowa State University 2005
         VHF: The Response
•   Intensive supportive care
•   Antiviral medications have shown
    some efficacy
•   Susceptible to various disinfectants




                                Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                        Iowa State University 2005
Category B: Agents/Diseases
•   Brucellosis   •   Typhus fever
•   Glanders      •   Viral encephalitis
•   Melioidosis   •   Toxins
•   Psittacosis   •   Food Safety Threats
•   Q Fever       •   Water Safety Threats




                                 Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                         Iowa State University 2005
       Brucellosis: The Agent
•   Bacteria: Brucella spp.
•   Transmission by
    − Ingestion
    − Inhalation
    − Direct   contact
•   Clinical signs
    − Humans:    Cyclic fever
      and flu-like symptoms
    − Animals: Reproductive signs

                                    Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                            Iowa State University 2005
    Brucellosis: The Response
•   Long term antibiotics generally
    effective
•   Vaccinate calves, no human vaccine
•   Eliminate reservoir
•   Standard precaution
    to avoid exposure
•   Thorough disinfection

                              Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                      Iowa State University 2005
         Glanders: The Agent
•   Bacteria: Burkholderia mallei
•   Transmission by
    ingestion, inhalation or
    direct contact
    − Animal-to-human
      transmission is inefficient
•   Clinical signs
    − Humans & horses: Cutaneous &
      pulmonary lesions, rapidly fatal illness
                                     Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                             Iowa State University 2005
      Glanders: The Response
•   No vaccine
•   Antibiotic therapy likely effective
•   Destroyed by various chemicals




                                 Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                         Iowa State University 2005
           Melioidosis: The Agent
•   Bacteria: Burkholderia
    pseudomallei
•   Transmission: Contact,
    ingestion, inhalation
•   Clinical signs: Humans,
    sheep, goats and pigs
    − Nosymptoms to
     pneumonia, lung and
     wound abscesses
                              Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                      Iowa State University 2005
    Melioidosis: The Response
•   Long-term, multiple
    antibiotics effective
•   Vaccine not
    available in U.S.
•   Easily destroyed by
    disinfectants



                            Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                    Iowa State University 2005
       Psittacosis: The Agent
•   Bacteria: Chlamydophila psittaci
•   Occurs worldwide
•   Reportable in U.S.
•   Clinical disease
    − Humans   and birds:
     Ranges from no symptoms to systemic
     illness with severe pneumonia


                               Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                       Iowa State University 2005
     Psittacosis: The Response
•   Antibiotics
    generally effective
•   Decontamination
    possible with most
    disinfectants




                          Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                  Iowa State University 2005
            Q Fever: The Agent
•   Bacteria: Coxiella burnetii
•   Transmission: inhalation,
    direct contact, ingestion, ticks
•   Disease symptoms
    − Humans:
         Acute: Flu-like, pneumonia, liver disease
         Chronic: Heart complications, bone
          inflammation
    − Animals:    Most have no signs
         Sheep, cattle and goats: Abortions
                                          Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                                  Iowa State University 2005
      Q Fever: The Response
•   Antibiotic therapy may limit the
    disease
•   Vaccine developed, not available in
    U.S.
•   Some disinfectants are effective




                               Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                       Iowa State University 2005
     Typhus Fever: The Agent
•   Bacteria: Rickettsia prowazekii
•   Endemic in Eastern Europe, Middle
    East, and parts of Africa
•   Transmitted in feces
    of human body louse
•   Clinical signs: Humans             J. Kalisch



           headache, red blotches, and a
    − Fever,
     red-dot rash
•   Not seen in domestic animals
                                Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                        Iowa State University 2005
Typhus Fever: The Response
•   Antibiotics are generally effective
•   Vaccine, not commercially available




                               Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                       Iowa State University 2005
Viral Encephalitis: The Agent
•   Viruses causing EEE, WEE, and VEE
•   Transmitted via mosquito
•   Clinical signs
    − Humans,     horses, donkeys,
      mules: Often no signs to
      flu-like illness
    − Brain inflammation in
      some patients
•   Birds do not become ill but are
    carriers; act as sentinels
                                     Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                             Iowa State University 2005
         Viral Encephalitis:
           The Response
•   Supportive care        •   Virus cannot live
•   Vaccine                    in environment
    − Equine
    − Human:   high risk




                                      Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                              Iowa State University 2005
         Toxins: The Agents
•   Staphylococcal
    enterotoxin B (SEB)
•   Ricin toxin from
    castor plant
•   Clostridium
    perfringens epsilon
    toxin


                          Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                  Iowa State University 2005
               SEB: The Agent
•   Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)
•   A common cause of food poisoning
•   Clinical signs: Humans
    − Fever, chills, headache, aches
    − Non-productive cough if inhaled
    − GI signs if ingested

•   Animals: Likely similar to human

                                  Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                          Iowa State University 2005
              Ricin: The Agent
•   Ricin toxin from bean of castor plant
•   Available worldwide
•   Clinical signs
    − Acuteonset of fever,
     chest tightness, cough,
     dyspnea, nausea



                                Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                        Iowa State University 2005
     Epsilon Toxin: The Agent
•   Clostridium perfringens type B and D
•   Increases intestinal and vascular
    permeability, liver and neurological
    damage
•   Clinical signs
    − Calves:  Diarrhea, abdominal pain,
      listlessness, neurologic
    − Sheep, goats: Watery to bloody
      diarrhea, neurologic
    − Humans: Little information
                                   Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                           Iowa State University 2005
       Toxins: The Response
•   Supportive care
•   No vaccines currently available for
    SEB or ricin
•   Vaccines for animals for clostridial
    disease
•   Toxins are inactivated with common
    disinfectants


                               Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                       Iowa State University 2005
        Food Safety Threats
•   Campylobacter species
•   Salmonella species
•   E. coli 0157:H7
•   Viruses, parasites,
    chemicals, toxins
•   Ingestion of
    contaminated food
•   Gastrointestinal upset
                             Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                     Iowa State University 2005
        Food Safety Threats:
           The Response
•   Constant vigilance to
    improve food safety
•   Food irradiation at
    processing plants
•   Wash hands and
    utensils frequently
•   Proper cooking
    temperature and
    storage
                            Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                    Iowa State University 2005
       Water Safety Threats
•   53% of US drinking
    water is from ground
    water
•   Cryptosporidium
    parvum- protozoa
•   Vibrio cholerae-
    bacteria


                           Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                   Iowa State University 2005
    Cryptosporidium: The Agent
•   Cryptosporidium parvum- protozoa
•   Transmission: Inhalation, ingestion
•   Clinical signs: Humans, calves,
    others
    − Acute   gastroenteritis
•   Dogs, cats, horses, pigs: Resistant



                                Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                        Iowa State University 2005
    Vibrio cholerae: The Agent
•   Vibrio cholerae- bacteria
•   Transmission: fecal-oral,
    contaminated shellfish
•   Clinical signs: humans
    − Acute,mild diarrhea
    − 5% severe disease

•   Animals are resistant to
    disease

                                Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                        Iowa State University 2005
           Water Safety:
     Public Health Significance
•   Cryptosporidum parvum
    − 1993: Municipal water supply
      contaminated in Milwaukee
    − 40,000 ill
    − 1997: Decorative water fountain at the
      Minnesota Zoo
    − 369 cases
    − Mostly young children


                                  Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                          Iowa State University 2005
       Water Safety Threats:
          The Response
•   Government has
    laws to protect our
    water supply
•   Treatment facilities
    are equipped and will
    likely inactivate most
    organisms
    − Chlorination,   filtration, ozone
•   Dilution factor
                                      Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                              Iowa State University 2005
              Category C
•   Nipah virus
•   Hantavirus




                           Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                   Iowa State University 2005
      Nipah Virus: The Agent
•   Fruit bats
•   Clinical signs
    − Humans:  Brain inflammation
    − Pigs: Respiratory; neurological
    − Dogs and cats: “Distemper”




                                   Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                           Iowa State University 2005
    Nipah Virus: The Response
•   Avoid contact with all
    infected animals and
    fluids
•   Vaccine being researched
•   Call authorities
    immediately



                               Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                       Iowa State University 2005
      Hantavirus: The Agent
•   Bunyaviridae family
•   Asymptomatic reservoir: Rodents
•   Transmission: Inhalation,
    ingestion, direct contact
•   Human clinical signs
    − Fever,myalgia, headache
    − Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome
    − Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome
•   Not seen in domestic animals
                               Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                       Iowa State University 2005
    Hantavirus: The Response
•   Supportive care
•   Limit exposure to
    rodent excrement
•   Virus is deactivated
    with bleach




                           Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                   Iowa State University 2005
          Other Important
             Diseases
•   Transmissible Spongiform
    Encephalopathy (TSE)
•   Rift Valley Fever
•   Hendra Virus
•   West Nile Virus
•   Foot and Mouth Disease
•   Monkeypox

                               Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                       Iowa State University 2005
     Transmissible Spongiform
    Encephalopathy: The Agent
•   Prions
    − Proteinaceous infectious particles
    − Mutated proteins

•   Very long incubation period
•   Neurological signs in all species
•   No treatment available



                                   Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                           Iowa State University 2005
            Bovine Spongiform
             Encephalopathy
•   “Mad cow disease”
•   Incubation: 2 to 8 years
•   1995, United Kingdom
    − vCJD
    − People   exposed to BSE
         Before bovine offal ban in
          1989
•   Active U.S. surveillance
    since 1990
                                       Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                               Iowa State University 2005
         TSE: The Response
•   Very resistant
    − Heat,   sterilization and disinfectants
•   Early identification not possible
    − Lack of host immune response
    − Long incubation period

•   No effective treatment or vaccine
•   Surveillance program
•   Import restrictions
                                      Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                              Iowa State University 2005
    Rift Valley Fever: The Agent
•   Virus
•   Transmission: mosquito, inhalation,
    contact with infected body fluids
•   Clinical signs
    − Humans:     Flu-like, fever,
     headache
         Severe disease: Vision
          complications, bleeding
          with fever
    − Animals:    Abortions, death in newborns
                                     Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                             Iowa State University 2005
             Rift Valley Fever:
               The Response
•   Vaccinate ruminants in
    endemic areas
•   Control mosquitoes
•   Avoid contact with
    infected tissues & blood
    − Wear   protective clothing
•   No person-to-person
    transmission
                                   Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                           Iowa State University 2005
        Hendra Virus: The Agent
•   Newly discovered
    −   Australia
• Fruit bats
• Transmission: Urine, body fluids
• Incubation: 6-18 days
• Humans
    −   Flu-like illness, respiratory failure
•   Horses, cats
    −   Acute respiratory signs, nasal discharge,
        fever, encephalitis, sudden death
                                                Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                                        Iowa State University 2005
    Hendra Virus: The Response
•   Little is known about disease
•   Potentially serious consequences
    − High death rate
    − Lack of treatment




                              Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                      Iowa State University 2005
    West Nile Virus: The Agent
• Flavivirus
• Transmission
    − Mosquitoes: Culex species
    − Blood transfusion, organ
      donation, breast feeding
• Animals: Horses, birds,
  mammals and reptiles
• Humans
    − Duration: 3-6 days
    − 80% have no signs
    − 20% develop “West Nile Fever”
                                      Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                              Iowa State University 2005
          West Nile Virus:
     Public Health Significance
•   Human illness in U.S. in 2003
    − 9,100   cases, 222 deaths
•   Horses illness in U.S. in 2003
    − 4,554cases
    − 40% of ill result in death

•   Method of introduction to U.S.
    unknown
                           *data current as of 1/30/04

                                      Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                              Iowa State University 2005
Spread of WNV in the U.S.:
        1999-2002




                    Center for Food Security and Public Health
                            Iowa State University 2005
               West Nile Virus:
                The Response
• Treatment: Supportive care
• Vaccine available for horses, not humans
• Source elimination
    −   Mosquito larval habitats
•   Personal protection
    − Reduce time outdoors
    − Wear long pants and sleeves
    − Use mosquito repellent




                                    Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                            Iowa State University 2005
Foot and Mouth Disease: FMD
•   Picornavirus
•   Transmission: Direct contact,
    aerosol, fomites
•   Species: Cloven-hooved
    animals (not horses)
•   Signs: Fever, vesicles,
    salivation, lameness
•   Extremely rare, mild
    symptoms in people
                               Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                       Iowa State University 2005
    FMD: Agroterrorism Threat
•   Most important livestock disease
    in the world
•   U.S. agriculture as a target
    − One sixth of the U.S. domestic
      product is tied to agriculture
    − Immunologically naive population

•   Vulnerabilities
    − Increased   travel, poor biosecurity

                                     Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                             Iowa State University 2005
          FMD: The Response
•   USDA upgrading safeguarding
    measures
•   Strict biosecurity
•   Notify authorities immediately
•   Response and
    recovery plans
    − Quarantine
    − Depopulation
    − Disinfection
•   Vaccination – complex decision
                                Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                        Iowa State University 2005
        Monkeypox: The Agent
• Orthopoxvirus, related to
  smallpox
• Transmission
    − Reservoir may be African
      squirrel
    − Bites, aerosol, direct contact
    − Zoonotic, animal-to-animal,
      person-to-person
• Animals: Fever, rash,
  pustules, red eyes
• Humans: Flu-like, rash,
  pustules, swollen lymph nodes
                                       Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                               Iowa State University 2005
            Monkeypox:
     Public Health Significance
•   2003 U.S. Outbreak
    − Zoonotic disease
    − 6 Midwestern states
•   Animal illness
    − Suspect cases: 93
    − Confirmed cases: 10
•   Human illness
    − Suspect cases: 72
    − Confirmed cases: 37
           All had contact with infected prairie dogs
•   Potential bioweapon
                                                   Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                                           Iowa State University 2005
    Monkeypox: The Response
• Treatment: Supportive care
• Smallpox vaccination
    − Moderately protective (85% of cases)
    − 30 individuals in 2003, no adverse events
•   Infection Control
    − EPA registered detergent disinfectant
    − 0.5% sodium hypochlorite (bleach)
• Embargo
• Euthanasia of animals
• Quarantine for 6 weeks

                                       Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                               Iowa State University 2005
Conclusion
     What to do if bioterrorism
           is suspected
•   Stay informed and remain calm
•   Response is event specific
•   Response is everyone's responsibility
•   Follow the advice of public health
    officials
•   Follow federal and state guidelines
•   Movement restrictions may be
    necessary
                               Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                       Iowa State University 2005
                  Contacts
•   Phone numbers to know
    − Local veterinarian
    − Local physician
    − Public health officials




                                Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                        Iowa State University 2005
               Summary
•   Bioterrorism is a real threat
•   Public health infrastructure is being
    strengthened
•   Many bioterrorism agents are
    zoonotic
•   Awareness education is an important
    component of preparedness and
    protection
                               Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                       Iowa State University 2005
               Summary
•   Prevention, recognition and
    response involves everyone
•   Report any suspicious activity,
    unexplained behavior or death loss
    in your herd or flock
•   You play a critical role



                              Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                      Iowa State University 2005
     Conclusion


“The best prescription,
    is knowledge.”

             Dr. C. Everett Koop
             Former U.S. Surgeon General




                       Center for Food Security and Public Health
                               Iowa State University 2005
Acknowledgments
Development of this
presentation was funded
by a grant from the
Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention to the
Center for Food Security
and Public Health at Iowa
State University.


                 Center for Food Security and Public Health
                         Iowa State University 2005
             Acknowledgments
Authors:     Danelle Bickett-Weddle, DVM
             Jamie Snow, DVM

Reviewers:   Radford G. Davis, DVM, MPH
             Gayle B. Brown, DVM, PhD
             Jean Gladon, BS




                                     Center for Food Security and Public Health
                                             Iowa State University 2005

								
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