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SOUTH FLORIDA LIMESTONE

VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 16

									 OUTH      RIDA    TONE
S       FLO
               IMES
              L




              This Educational Supplement is sponsored by:
                        Miami Dade Limestone
                       Products Association, Inc.


    T                       he highest quality limestone aggregate in Florida comes from western Miami-Dade County. Only a few locations in the state produce high quality limestone aggregate
    products that meet state and national specifications for cement, concrete, concrete products (paver bricks, roof tiles, gunite for pools, power poles and blocks), and asphalt. These products are used to
    build schools, homes, hospitals, offices, and the roads you travel daily.
                Florida consumes over 139 million tons of aggregate per year. It is the 2nd largest state in consumption and production of aggregate products. 60 million tons per year come from west-
    ern Miami-Dade County. Because of a lack of any other suitable aggregate, and the high quality of Miami-Dade product, aggregate from this region is shipped by rail all along the east coast of
    Florida as far as Jacksonville, as well as to Orlando, Tampa, and Ocala.
                The Miami-Dade limestone products industry results in more than 7,000 direct jobs and 7,000 indirect jobs producing a $550 million payroll, in Dade, Broward and Palm Beach
    counties. The industry pays more than $22 million in local sales tax per year and almost $10 million in local property taxes per year.
                In addition to the thousands of jobs that the industry provides for the citizens of Miami-Dade County, product utility and efficient transportation make this limestone among the most
    cost effective in the nation. Florida ranks first in the lowest construction cost for homes and construction of commercial and industrial construction. It would cost the people of Miami-Dade County
    an additional $800 million dollars and the State of Florida an additional $1.5 billion dollars for their basic building materials, if the Miami-Dade County limestone products industry did not
    exist.
                The limestone products industry recognized the importance of the limestone deposit in western Miami-Dade County and has purchased approximately 40 square miles of mining
    reserves over the last 50 years. These purchases were largely based on the fact that the property was zoned for mining and agricultural use only (CDMP designation as open lands).
                The westward push has not only moved neighborhoods closer to the limestone quarry operations but it also created concern by the government and environmental community about pro-
    tecting the Everglades from urban sprawl. Government and environmentalists recognized ongoing and continued limestone mining as a natural buffer. To balance the need for Miami-Dade lime-
    stone with environmental priorities, the Florida state legislature established a Lake Belt Committee in 1992 to develop a plan for western Miami-Dade limestone mining and land use.
    Implementation Legislation was passed and signed into law in 1994, 1997 and 1999. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the South Florida Water Management District plan for Everglades
    restoration includes the Miami-Dade limestone quarries as a vital water storage area and buffer between urban areas and the Everglades.
                The limestone mines use the most advanced blasting technology available. Miami-Dade County existing blasting limits are at a level 62% below the no-damage level established by the
    U. S. Bureau of Mines. The industry understands the perception and concern that blasting could damage structures and is committed to informing the public and addressing these concerns. Careful
    monitoring with highly accurate seismic instruments shows the levels are well within safe limits with little or no risk of damage.
                In addition to a reliable and economical supply of basic construction material for the future, jobs, payroll and tax revenues, the citizens of Miami-Dade stand to gain a water storage
    area, wellfield protection, an Everglades buffer, and a potential recreation area. None of this would be possible without the limestone products industry, its mining and the blasting, which makes the
    mining possible.
                The Miami Dade Limestone Products Association has billions of dollars invested in Miami-Dade County and the distribution network in Florida that are tied to their limestone prod-
    ucts operations. If limestone mining is restricted or curtailed the industry stands to lose business, but the people of Miami-Dade County and Florida will lose much more.




2
                                     GEOLOGIC TERMS
   1      marine animals. Lim
          main source of lim
                                                    k consisting mainly of calcium tha
          LIMESTONE is a sedimentary roc from the mineral calcite (calcium carbonate) and sediment. The ed
                                estone is produced
                              estone is the lime ooze formed
          from ocean water or it can be form

          The carbonate deposits mined
                                                                in the ocean. The calcium carbon ae and coral.
                                                ed from sea creatures that secrete

                                           in the sou
                                                                                         t was deposited by the remains


                                                                                     lime such as alg

                                                                                             ed in a shallow marine environ
                                                       theast coastal lowlands were form essed and regressed with the
                                                                    . As the sea level transgr
                                                                                                      ate can be precipitat
                                                                                                                            of




                                                                                                                              -

          ment one hundred     thousand to two million years ago of marine sediments are deposited. These sediments
                                            ciers, layers upon layers                      itated directly from seawater. It
                                                                                                                             is
          advancement and retreat of gla               shells and calcite deposits precip
                                                brate,                                                                aphy in
           consisted mainly of marine inverte Limestone Product Association quarries are located. The stratigr tion
           in these deposits that Miami-Dade                                    then three to ten fee   t of Miami Forma
                                             of three feet of peat (muck) and
           this area consists of an average
                                                Formation limestone.



                                                                   3
           limestone grading into Thompson




2        CARBONATE
            a sediment formed of
            magnesi
                                 the carbonates
                    um, and/or iron
                                                 of calcium,
                                    (e.g. limestone,
                                                     dolomite)
                                                                                 CALCITE (CaCO3)
                                                                                 a common rock form

                                                                                 ble

                                                                                 SEDIMENT
                                                                                                        ing
                                                                                 chief constituent of lim mineral, it is the
                                                                                                          estone and most mar
                                                                                                                             -




                                                                   5
                                                                                                      erial transported or
                                                                                 solid fragmental mat
                                                                                                         ter or ice, chemically



4
            DEPOSITION                                                           deposited by wind, wa n, or secreted by
                                                                                                        tio
                                                                                 precipitated from solu              ers in loose
            the laying-down of ro
                                 ck                                              organism  s, and that forms in lay
           natural agent such as -forming material by any
                                  th
           sediment from suspen e mechanical settling of                         unconsolidated form
                                  sion in water or the pr
           tation of mineral mat                         ecipi-
                                ter from solution



STRIPPING
 is a basic operation in a sand and
a quarry. The overburden materi   6 gravel pit or
                                  al between the
                                                                            STRATIGRAPHY
                                                                            the arrangement of rock layers, as related to
                                                                            geographic position and sequence7
                                                              8
                                 or stone) must
surface and the product (gravel
                                    begin.
be removed before production can                                             CRUSHERS
                                                                            are obviously important. Crushi
                                                                                                             ng reduces big
                                                                            rocks to small rocks so that the
  SCALPING                                                                                                  y can be screened
                                                                            into a usable gradation. Crushe
                                                                                                              rs also upgrade
  separates an oversized material                                           the quality of the aggregate by
                                                                                                            reducing the bad
  It allows the oversized material from smaller material.                   rock to fines where it usually doe
                                                                                                              s not cause a
  and then be processed. Scalpin to be crushed by itself                    problem.
  ation process that, in some cas g is a definite benefici-
                                  es,
  material in the smaller sizes and removes the worst



                                                9
  material to be crushed for the betallows the oversized
                                    ter quality material.          SURGE PILES
                                                                                                     the plant and maintain a
                                                                   even out the flow of raw feed in
                                                                                                      crushing and screening.
                                                                   constant feed essential for good
                                                                                                     ration of separate sections
                                                                   It also allows the continued ope

10             LOGWASHER
               is another beneficiation process. The produc-
               tion material and water is introduced into the
                                                                   of the production plant without
                                                                   operation. For example, loadin
                                                                   ry crusher and crushing materi
                                                                   continue even though the second
                                                                                                     the total plant being in
                                                                                                    g and hauling to the prima-
                                                                                                    al into the surge pile can
                                                                                                       ary and tertiary plants




                                                                                                                11
               bottom end of the logwasher, and large hori-                                            ary plant can be shut
                                                                    are not operating. Also, the prim
               zontal shafts with paddles agitate, grind, and                                         pile goes to the secondary
               auger the material up and out the logwasher.         down while feed from the surge
                                                                                                      g.
               Soft material, especially clay and soft shale, is    and tertiary plants for processin
               broken down and washed away with the
               water.



                                                                                                                                    3
                  The Mining Process

    SITE EVALUATION AND PREPARATION
    Site evaluation and preparation requires planning to meet permitting requirements. Guidelines for clear-
    ing tress and vegetation; stripping, transporting, and storing topsoil and overburden; constructing fences,
    berms, buffer zones, roadways, and sediment traps; and constructing or installing permanent or portable
    processing equipment are followed.




    MINING AND PROCESSING
    Mining of crushed stone or sand and gravel is dependent on the geologic characteristics and the extent
    and thickness of the natural deposit. Open-pit mining and quarrying
    are most commonly used, although some stone is mined underground.
    Sand and gravel deposits above the water table are excavated with bull-
    dozers, front-end loaders, tractor scrapers, and draglines. Deposits
    below the water table, including stream and lake bed deposits may be
    excavated with draglines or from barges using hydraulic or ladder
    dredges. Mining and quarrying stone generally require drilling and
    blasting, after which the rock is then transported to a processing facili-
    ty on trucks and conveyors.

    Processing plants are generally constructed on the site of extraction.
    Processing of mined or quarried rock requires primary and possible
    secondary crushing, depending on the sizes of aggregate needed. After
    crushing, the crushed stone and sand and gravel usually are sorted to
    size, then moved by conveyors to bins or stockpiled.




    RECLAMATION
    The goal of reclamation is to return the land to a beneficial use. By planning reclamation before the
    aggregate is extracted, it can be mined with how the quarry will look when it is reclaimed. This can make
    it easier to turn quarries into scenic, lake-front property, wildlife parks, golf courses, office parks, roller
    coaster rides and the many other items a quarry can eventually become. Parts of the mine can be
    reclaimed while continuing on-going mining operations in some instances.

    Reclamation procedures depend on the configuration and character of the area. Progressive reclamation
    typically involves the following three steps: terracing the pit or face walls during or after extraction, final
    shaping of the area by replacing and reconfiguring the overburden, and landscaping. Reclamation plans
    are most effective if operators and planners select a strategy that satisfies the land use needs of the com-
    munity and at the same time provides an economic incentive for the operator.




4
                                               How Aggregates
                                               Impact Your Life
  H
                                                                               C
                    ousing

  Most people do not realize just how much sand, gravel or
                                                                                                   ommercial Structures
  crushed stone goes into the construction of an average home.
  15,000 tons of aggregates are required for the construction of an
                                                                               The skyline of any city is an impressive site to visitors and residents.
  average size school or hospital. It is estimated that 85,000 tons of
                                                                               Concrete is commonly used in the construction of all large buildings.
  aggregates are necessary to construct one mile of a four-lane
                                                                               Crushed stone, sand and gravel are used to make concrete. Buildings like
  interstate highway. In the United States, the construction of a
                                                                               the Denver National Airport located in Denver, Colorado required 5 mil-
  new home uses an average of 120 tons of aggregates. Sidewalks,
                                                                               lion tons of crushed stone, sand and gravel. The Sears Tower in Chicago,
  driveways, roofs, foundations, floors, fences, and walls all contain
                                                                               Illinois has enough concrete, crushed stone, sand and gravel in it to pave 8
  aggregates in one form or another. Aggregates will always play
                                                                               one-mile lanes of interstate highway.
  an important role in building America's houses.




D                 imension Stone
                                                                                              S                   pecial Uses

                                                                                              Aggregates play vital roles in providing food, water, electricity,
Used for external or interior parts of buildings, foundations, curbing, paving, flagging,     recreation, and other basics of our modern society. The dams
bridges or other architectural or engineering purposes, dimension stone is naturally          that store our water supplies and create our fishing and boating
occurring rock material that has been cut, shaped or selected for use in blocks, slabs,       opportunities are constructed with concrete, crushed stone and
sheets or other specified construction units. The term also applies to quarry blocks          gravel. Our sewer and waste water treatment facilities could not
from which pieces of fixed dimension may be cut. Marble, granite, limestone, and              be built without available aggregates and concrete. Concrete-
sandstone provide the bulk of dimension stone; however, slate, diorite, basalt and dia-       lined canals are built to conserve agricultural water to ensure
base may also be sources. Many public and governmental buildings and areas rely on            productive farming. Crushed stone, ground into a powder, is
dimension stone to supply both strength and community aesthetics.                             used as an important mineral supplement in our agriculture
                                                                                              industry. Large material, called "rip rap", is used to prevent ero-
                                                                                              sion along rivers and shorelines.


                                                 Bet you didn’t kno
                                                                   w                   that. . .

   T              ransportation

   Modern road paving brought us
                                                 Aggregates are the on
                                                 than two billion ton
                                                In other words, appro
                                                16,000 pounds or a
                                                Imagine life without
                                                                         ly mineral commodity
                                                                       s of this material are
                                                                         ximately eight tons
                                                                       total of 107 average
                                                                                                   produced in every sta
                                                                                               used in the United Sta
                                                                                               of aggregates are us
                                                                                              sized people standing
                                                                                                                       tes.
                                                                                                                           te in the union. Every

                                                                                                                    ed for every America
                                                                                                                                                   year more

                                                                                                                                            n each year. That’s
                                                                        ...                                           on the scale at one tim
   asphalt pavements. The basic paving                                                                                                          e!
                                                highways · paint ·
                                                                      plastics · medicines
   materials, concrete and asphalt, are        board · vinyl · brick                         · glass · driveways
                                                                        and stone buildings                        · concrete sidewalk
                                                                                               and homes · concret                        s · bridges · wall-
   composed primarily of crushed stone,        shingles · minerals                                                   e blocks · roofing tile
                                                                      for agriculture                                                         s · asphalt
   sand and gravel. Sub-bases, upon            .. all these things are
                                                                        made possible with
                                               AND . . .                                      crushed stone produ
   which roads, pavements, many land-                                                                               cts ..
   scaping and drainage installations are      More than a million
                                                                      employees and their
                                              tries for their liveliho                       families rely on the
   constructed, require thousands of tons                              od. Many live and wo                       country’s constructi
                                                                                               rk in your community                      on materials indus-
                                              this resource and ind                                                   . Thousands of other
   of aggregates.                                                      ustry to make possi                                                    folks rely on
                                              PLUS . . .                                    ble other things like
                                                                                                                  schools, hospitals, an
                                                                                                                                           d airports.
                                              Finally, every small
                                                                     town, every big city,
                                                                                           every road and build
                                                                                                                  ing in them are built
                                                                                                                                           with stone.



                                                                                                                                                                  5
        The Mining
                      1
          Process
         ...Further
         Explained




    2                 3




6
4   5




6   7




        7
                             LET’S PLAY...                       UNSCRAMBLE THESE WORDS
   SIMPLY                  1. SHCURRES                                                                                       __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
SEDIMENTS                  reduces big rocks to small rocks so that they can be screened into a usable gradation
 ACTIVITY
                           2. PHSRTTARGIYA                                                                    __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
                           the arrangement of rock layers, as related to geographic position and sequence
  Students will create
   sediment bottles.       3. POODNTISIE                                                                             __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
Students use the sedi-
    ment bottles to
explore the "birth" of
                           the laying-down of rock-forming material by any natural agent such as the
                           mechanical settling of sediment from suspension in water or the precipitation of mineral matter from solution     YOU
sedimentary rocks and
 relate their observa-
                           4. BRAOENAC
                           a sediment formed of the carbonates of calcium, magnesium, and/or iron
                                                                                                                                             WIN!
                                                                                                                        __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __

   tions to the local
  rivers and streams.      5. NETEDSMI                                                                                       __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
   Students bring in       solid fragmental material transported or deposited by wind, water or ice, chemically
  clear plastic bottles    precipitated from solution, or secreted by organisms, and that forms in layers in loose unconsolidated form
   (16-20 oz soda or
   water bottles) and
                           6. CGNPISAL                                                                                       __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
                           separates an oversized material from smaller material. It allows the oversized
 samples of pebbles,       material to be crushed by itself and then be processed.
  sand, clay, and soil.
     The samples are                                                                                                           Answers found on page 15
 added to the bottles
    along with some
 water and materials
  (leaves, twigs, small
shells, etc.) Allow the
  students to choose
  their own mixture
    ratio, but caution
 them not to fill the
    bottle more than
  halfway with sedi-
          ments.

Allow 10-15 minutes
    of "explore time"
during which the stu-
dents make a list of all
  the different things
 they observe as they
move the bottle. After
 their explore time is
 up, discuss the obser-
vations and attempt to
   relate them to the
process of sedimenta-
   ry rock formation.
Throughout the next
  few weeks, students
  should record their
  observations of the
    sediments in the
         bottles.


      8
CROSSWORD PUZZLE                        RIDE THE
                                       ROCK CYCLE
                                        ACTIVITY
                                         Take your students on a
                                        journey through the rock
                                       cycle with this fun lesson.
                                     After the students have been
                                          introduced to the rock
                                        cycle, challenge them to
                                     create a story about Roger, a
                                     metamorphic rock. Students
                                      must describe at least three
                                         transitions that occurred
                                      during Roger's life, such as
                                     changing from metamorphic
                                      to igneous, igneous to sedi-
                                     mentary, and sedimentary to
                                       igneous. Students have the
                                        option of writing a diary,
                                      creating a cartoon, or mak-
                                           ing a children's book.
                                        Students will have a great
                                       time using their creativity
                                          and the entire class will
                                          enjoy all the humorous
                                        insights into Roger's life.

                                         Materials needed:
                                             Bags of sand
                                          Magnifying glasses
                                         Blank sheet of paper
                                             Toothpicks
                                            Small magnets
                                             Egg cartons
                                                Glue
                                          Optional:Vinegar

                                              Procedure:
                                     Students should have a basic
                                       understanding of the rock
                                     cycle and weathering before
                                      attempting this lab activity.
                                      Distribute the materials to
                                      each team (2 - 4 students).
                                      Instruct them to sort their
                                       sand into groups based on
                                         color, luster, shape, etc.
                                      Allow several short periods
                                      over 2 - 3 days for sorting.
                                     After the students have sort-
                                       ed their sand into groups,
                                      challenge them to identify
                                     their findings by comparing
                                      them with other student’s.
                                       Once they have identified
                                      the groups, provide glue to
                                         adhere the samples to a
                                     sheet of paper.They should
                                     also glue a "pile" of sand in
                                         the middle of the page.

          Answers found on page 15
                                                      9
                                                                                Types of
     1                                                                            Rocks
     Sedimentary rock which was formed out of soil, silt, sand,
     seashells, bits of pieces of everything.The tiny bits settled and built
     up in thick layers. Minerals from water seeped into the spaces
     between the particles and bonded them into solid rock.The Grand
     Canyon is made up of sandstone, limestone, and shale which are all
     sedimentary rocks.




                                                                                2
     You will need: Mixing bowl, Sand, Epsom salt, Spoon, Small paper
     cup,Water

     Please have an adult's supervision for this activity. Mix 1 cup of
     water and 1/2 cup of Epsom salt in a mixing bowl. Stir until most of
     the salt dissolves. Place about 1 inch of sand in a small paper cup.
     Add enough salt solution to just cover the sand. Mix well. Let the
     mixture stand until dry (about 2 to 3 days). Cut off the paper.

     Take a close look at the rock.Where is the salt? How does it hold
                                                                                 Metamorphic rock used to be igneous or sedimentary rock that
     the sand together?                                                          was changed by heat or pressure or both.The Appalachian
                                                                                 Mountains including the Blue Ridge are mainly metamorphic rock
                                                                                 with a little igneous rock.

                                                                                 You will need: Different colors of Play Dough or Modeling clay,
                                                                                 Waxed paper, 3 books

                                                                                 Please have an adult's supervision for this activity. Make about 2




     3
                                                                                 dozen pea-sized balls from clay of different colors to represent rock
                                                                                 particles. Place the clay balls close together on a piece of waxed
                                                                                 pager. Place a second sheet of waxed paper on top of the clay balls.

                                                                                 Now, stack some books on top of the waxed paper. Imagine that the
                                                                                 books are layers of rock building up on top of the rock particles.The
                                                                                 pressure of the rock particles increases as you add each book. Heat
                                                                                 builds as the rock particles are pushed deeper into the Earth's crust.
                                                                                 Now remove the books and peel away the waxed paper. Look at the
                                                                                 clay. An entirely new kind of rock has been formed.The same thing
      Igneous rock was once hot liquid inside the earth. Rock that               happens to igneous and sedimentary rocks when they are changed.
      erupted from volcanoes and cooled on the surface is called extrusive
      igneous rock. Igneous rock that cooled more slowly inside the
      Earth is called intrusive. Apache Tear and the Hawaiian Islands are
      mainly igneous rock.

      You will need: Spray cooking oil,Waxed paper, Hot plate or oven
      range burner, Small plastic cup, Plastic spoon, A cooking pan,
      Wooden spoon, 1 bag of large marshmallows, 6 tablespoons of but-
      ter, 6 cups of Rice Krispies

      Please have an adult's supervision for this activity. These ingredients
      will form the molten rock. Place the marshmallows and butter in a
      pan. Stir and melt. Add the rice krispies. Stir. Place a cup of the
      warm, rice krispy mixture on the waxed paper square. Make sure
      your hands are sprayed with cooking oil. Sprinkle and roll into the
      mixture other ingredients like raisins, chocolate chips, nuts, M&M's
      with your hands.These ingredients will form the rock surface. After
      it cools and hardens, you have an edible igneous rock!




10
         ROCK
   OBITUARY
   Have students form a team of at
 least three. Have enough rocks for
   each team, making sure that you
use each type, ie, igneous, sedimen-
tary and metamorphic. Igneous can
   include either or both, intrusive
and extrusive. Students will need to
  know the rock cycle on how dif-
   ferent types of rocks are formed
 before they will be able to do this
   activity. You could invite a local
geologist into the classroom to talk
 to the students about how various
 rocks are formed and how weath-
   ering, faulting and other natural
    occurrences can either form or
  change a rock. Once the students
 have the information on rock for-
mation, and you have given them a
rock, allow them about 10 minutes
to write an obituary for their rock.
 It should have a name, how it was
  originally formed and something
  about its life. Once they are fin-
ished, read them to the entire class,
  then open up a discussion period
 to discuss the life cycles of a rock.
     Could other rocks have been
 formed by a different type of nat-
ural occurrence? What other causes
could be the demise of a particular
  rock? Have the students do some
     research on different rocks to
    determine what type of natural
  occurrence formed them or con-
    tributed to their present form.




                                         11
                                DRILLING
      D          rilling is used by geologists to gain an
     understanding of the types of rocks that occur
     beneath the surface. One drilling method is
                                                             mineralized or contain oil/gas. Of course geolo-
                                                             gists are unable to slice open the earth to see
                                                             how well their model of rock types and how they
     called Diamond Drilling. Long core rocks below
                                                             occur, matches the real thing. Geologists use
     the surface are drilled and extracted to get a bet-
                                                             other drilling methods (Aircore, Reverse
     ter understanding of the geology (the rock types
                                                             Circulation, Rotary Air blast etc) that are much
     and where and how they occur beneath the sur-
                                                             less expensive than Diamond drilling to support
     face of the earth.)
                                                             their exploration program. The activity that fol-
                                                             lows provides a way for students to simulate part
                 YOU WILL NEED:                              of an exploration program.



                       Marble cake                                               METHOD              :
             (select cakes that have not had
                 colors mixed too much)                            1. Use the straws to drill through the marble cake.
                                                               2. Make sure the holes that you drill are in a straight line.
               4 straws (clear, not colored)                3. Once you have drilled through the cake with the straws lay
                                                                      the straws filled with cake down on the table.
                              Knife                         4. Now on your paper draw what you see in the straws in the
                                                                               four columns on your paper.
                       Paper and pencil                      5. Join up the colored layers of your cake how you think the
                                                                      layers may appear between your drill holes.
                                                             6. Once this is completed slice your cake along the line
                                                            (fence) of your drilling and compare your cake with your
     This is of particular interest to exploration geolo-                               prediction.
     gists as they will want to know where to find the
     mineralized zone or the oil/gas. They can
                                                                You may like to suggest that one par-
     achieve this by using drill core and by under-
                                                             ticular colored layer of the cake is the host for
     standing the types of rocks most likely to be
                                                             mineralization. Students must predict where they
                                                             think the thickness and location of intersection of
                                                             the mineralized zone before they drill.




12
                    ROCK
                    CANDY
  I   2 cups Water                               I String
  I   Stockpot                                   I Straw
  I   5 cups Sugar                               I Plastic Paperclip
  I   Plastic Cup and Spoon                      I Food coloring/flavoring



It can take a few days for the sugar crystals to harden into rock candy.

Make Supersaturated Sugar Solution by boiling 2 cups of water
in a large stockpot. While stirring, slowly add sugar
until no more sugar will dissolve (about 5
cups). You can make this an hour or two before
you’d like to use it if you want.

Using a plastic cup and spoon, a piece of
string, a straw and a plastic paper clip. Fill
your cup 3/4 full with the sugar solution.
If you want add some flavoring add
vanilla or almond extract and some
food color to make your "rocks" pretty
and taste good.

Tie your string to one end of the paper clip.
Tie the string to the middle of the straw. Lay
the straw over the cup so that the paper clip
is suspended in the sugar solution but doesn’t
touch the bottom of the cup. Keep checking the
cup until the sugar crystals have hardened around                                     Check out
the string. You will have made your own rock candy!                                 ads of new
                                                                                 products in the
                                                                 newspaper. What ty
                                                                                   pe(s) of sci-
                                                                ence



                                                                                                   13
             Why a Quarry Should be in your
                    Neighborhood?
     I    t is estimated that between 70 and 85 per-
     cent of crushed stone is used in the construction
     of roads, buildings and communities.
                                                            Another important reason quarries should be
                                                            near you is, crushed stone products are devel-
                                                            oped from natural resources. As communities
     Ideally, a quarry will be located close to where       grow and population increases, land becomes
     crushed stone will be used. The distance crushed       less available. A natural deposit of crushed stone
     stone must be transported plays a significant role     is not always available where it is needed or
     in it's actual cost. Cost for crushed stone increas-   located in a convenient place. Forward thinking
     es as distance to delivery increases.                  communities have zoned special areas to protect
                                                            and allow for the expansion and operation of
     So, you see, it makes economic sense to have a         crushed stone mining.
     quarry near your community. As an example,             Having a quarry near your town adds jobs and
     when a community is funding a million dollar           tax dollars, and gives the local economy a boost.
     construction project, transportation costs will        A close relationship between quarries and your
     play a significant factor in what they actually pay    community is essential.
     for the crushed stone they will need. The further
     the quarry is from the building site, the higher the   Quarries can make good neighbors.
     delivery cost will be.


     ACTIVITY: MAKING A QUARRY SHOT
                                               WITH AN ADULT'S ASSISTANCE-Cut the aluminum foil into
         You Will Need:                        small squares about the size of a quarter (approximately
                                               15 pieces altogether). Drop the pieces into a tall glass jar.
                          Foil &               Have an adult fill the jar with boiled water. Add 3 table-
                 Aluminum                      spoons of washing soda to the water. With an adult’s
                 A Pencil                      assistance, let the children cover the top of the jar with alu-
                                               minum foil and fold the foil around the rim to make a tight-
                                               fitting cover.
                       Washing
                       Soda                    Using a sharpened pencil, poke a small hole in the center
                                               of the foil. Watch closely as the foil pieces magically rise to
                                               the surface and bubbles form. After two minutes, hold the
                   les                         end of a lit birthday candle directly over the hole in the foil
      Birthday Cand                            and wait for the noise.
                                               After each "explosion", readjust the foil for a snug fit. Don’t
                                               be alarmed if a flame appears over the hole. The flame
      A Tall Glass Jar &                       and the pop are caused by the combustion of hydrogen
      Boiled Water                             gas. The hydrogen gas was created by the reaction
                                               between the aluminum foil, washing soda, and the hot
                                               water.
                                               After awhile, have the children remove the aluminum foil lid
             Dishwashing Liquid                and pour some dishwashing liquid into the water. Stir the
                                               detergent into the water and place a lit candle over the
                                               bubbles. Watch the amazement of the children as the can-
                                               dle is extinguished.

14
                             Miami-Dade Lake Belt
Limestone mining in Miami-Dade County occurs primarily
west of the Florida Turnpike in an area known as the "Lake
Belt". The Lake Belt Plan, as approved by the Florida
Legislature, was formulated to protect the public water supply,
be compatible with Everglades restoration, determine appro-
priate mitigation for wetlands affected by mining, and provide
for the efficient recovery of limestone, a scarce but critical
resource for the state of Florida.

As shown in the Lake Belt map adopted by the Legislature, the
Plan provided protection for the Everglades by establishing a
buffer between the urban areas east of the Turnpike and the
natural areas west of Krome Avenue. Unlike in Broward
County, where urban development has occurred immediately
adjacent to natural areas, the Lake Belt Plan included a 2-mile
wide buffer of preserved wetlands (which were to be acquired
and restored with funds collected through a mining fee) and a
4-mile wide buffer of lakes created by the mining operations.

The primary goal of the CERP is the restoration, preserva-
tion, and protection of the South Florida ecosystem, while
also providing for other water-related needs of the region such
as flood protection and water supply. The CERP contains
more than 60 major components that involve creation of
reservoirs and wetland-based water treatment areas. Two of
those components, the North and Central Lake Belt Storage
Areas, are located in the Lake Belt. These proposed storage
areas will provide almost 10,000 acres (15 square miles) of
water storage to meet both environmental and human
demands and will be located in former limestone mining
quarries. The purpose of the Central Lake Belt Storage Area
is to store water from the Everglades during periods of unde-
sirable high water levels and deliver the water back to the
Everglades when the environment requires additional water.
The purpose of the North Lake Belt Storage Area is to cap-
ture stormwater from the primary water management canals
during wet periods and release it to meet coastal canal
recharge demands, as well as provide flow to Biscayne Bay.


  Answers to Unscramble puzzle on page 8                                Answers to Crossword puzzle on page 9

                1. CRUSHERS                                       ACROSS                      DOWN
              2. STRATIGRAPHY                                     2. crystals                 1. fossils
               3. DEPOSITION                                      5. igneous                  2. core
               4. CARBONATE                                       7. plates                   3. mantle
                 5. SEDIMENT                                      8. metamorphic              4. rocks
                 6. SCALPING                                      9. glacier                  6. sedimentary


                                                                                                                15
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