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					Notes: Digestive System Anatomy                                                         Item # _____

I.     Introduction
       A.     ___________________ is the process by which food substances are changed into forms that
              can be absorbed through cell membranes.
       B.     The digestive system consists of the _________________________ canal, which extends
              from the mouth to the anus, and several __________________ organs, which release
              secretions into the canal.
              1.      Alimentary canal includes:

              2.     Accessory organs include:

II.    The Alimentary Canal
       A.     ___________________ tube about _____ m long passing through the ventral cavity
       B.     Movements can be _______________ (rhythmic contractions) or propelling (wavelike). The
              wavelike movements are known as ___________________.

III.   Oral Cavity
       A.     The _____________ receives food and prepares it for digestion by mechanically decreasing
              its size.
       B.     The cheeks contain muscles associated with ________________ and chewing.
       C.     The lips contain skeletal muscle for movement and _____________ receptors. Their reddish
              color is associated with an abundance of ____________ vessels near the surface.
       D.     The ___________ is composed primarily of skeletal muscle and functions to aid in mixing
              food with ___________________.
              1.       connected to the floor of the mouth via the __________________
              2.       rough projections called ______________ contain taste buds
       E.     The _____________ forms the roof of the mouth.
              1.       The anterior portion is the __________ palate and the posterior portion is the
                       __________ palate which forms a projection called the uvula.
              2.       The _______________ tonsils lie laterally to the tongue in the back of the mouth and
                       have some immune function.
              3.       The _______________ tonsils, or adenoids, are located on the posterior wall of the
                       pharynx and also have some immune function.
       F.     Teeth
              1.       _______ primary (deciduous:ages 6 months – 3) and _______ secondary (permanent:
                       ages 6+)
              2.       function: break food into smaller pieces to increase _____________ area
              3.       Types
                       a.      ____________ (front): biting
                       b.      ____________ (canines): tearing
                       c.      ____________ (premolars): grinding
                       d.      ____________ (molars): grinding
              4.       Each tooth consists of a crown and root is composed of ____________ (glossy
                       white), _____________ (bone-like), __________ (connective tissue), nerves, and
                       blood vessels.
              5.       Attached by the _____________________ ligament.
IV.     Pharynx
        A.    cavity behind the ____________ that connects the nasal and oral cavities with the larynx and
              1.      ______________________: passageway for air during breathing
              2.      ______________________: behind soft palate; passageway for food and air
              3.      ______________________: opens into larynx and esophagus; passage for food and air

V.      Swallowing
        A.    Occurs in _____ stages
              1.     Food mixed with ____________, called a ________________, is forced into the
                     ______________ by the tongue. This action is initiated voluntarily.
              2.     Involuntary reflex actions move food into the esophagus. The ___________________
                     helps to prevent food from entering the trachea.
              3.     Food is transported to the _________________ via peristalsis

VI.     Esophagus
        A.    straight, collapsible tube ~ _______ cm long providing a passage for food between the
              pharynx and stomach
              1.      runs behind trachea, through mediastinum, and penetrates the ______________
        B.    contains circular _____________ muscle fibers at the distal end to help prevent regurgitation
              of food from the stomach

VII.    Stomach
        A.    General Info
              1.    J-shaped, _____________ organ in the upper __________ abdomen
              2.    hold ~ ____L
              3.    Inner mucosa lining of thick folds called ____________
              4.    Mixes bolus with hydrochloric acid and gastric juices to become _________________
        B.    Regions
              1.    ___________ Sphincter: small valve at the esophageal opening prevents regurgitation
              2.    _____________: balloon area above cardiac serves as temporary storage
              3.    _____________: main portion
              4.    _____________: lower portion
              5.    _____________: narrowed distal portion which becomes a canal to the small intestine
                    a.     ________________ Sphincter: powerful circular muscle at the end of the
                           pyloric canal serving as a valve that prevents the __________________
                           of food from the intestine back into the stomach

VIII.   Small Intestine
          A. Tubular organ extending from the ______________ sphincter to the large intestine (~20 feet)
          B. Functions:
               1.      receive ______________ from the pancreas and liver
               2.      completes the digestion of nutrients in _____________
               3.      ______________ the various products of digestions
               4.      ______________ remaining residues to large intestine
          C. Anatomy: ___ portions
               1.      _______________: proximal C-shaped portion; ~1 ft long
               2.      _______________: middle portion; ~ 8 ft long
               3.      _______________: distal portion; ~ 12 ft long
                       a.     suspended from the abdominal wall via the ________________
IX.   Large Intestine
      A. diameter greater than the SI and ~ ______ ft long
      B. Anatomy:
         1.      Structures
                     a.      __________________: beginning of LI; dilated, pouch-like structure
                                  (i) ____________________: worm-like outgrowth; immune function?
                     b.      ___________________: main portion of the LI
                             (i) ______________________ colon: travels upward just below liver
                             (ii) ______________________ colon: longest; below stomach
                             (iii) ______________________ colon: downward from spleen
                             (iv) ______________________ colon: S-shaped curve at pelvis
                     c.      __________________: next to the sacrum; ~ ___ cm long
                     d.      __________________ canal: last ________ cm of LI
                             (i) _________: distal opening
                                  (a) ____________ anal sphincter: involuntary smooth muscle
                                  (b) ____________ anal sphincter: voluntary skeletal muscle
                             (ii) _________________: enlargement and inflammation of the rectal veins
                             within anal columns; aggravated by bowel movements and cause
                             discomfort and bleeding
      C. Functions
         1.      Little to no ________________________ function
         2.      contributes ________________________ secretions
         2.      absorbs _________________ and electrolytes
         3.      ______________, stores, and expels feces
      D. Movement
         1.      mixing and ______________
         2.      Mass movements _________ times per day, usually following a meal.
         2.      __________________ involves a defecation reflex.
                 a. Aided by the _______________ maneuver
      E. Feces
         1.      consists of water (_____%), ____________ material, mucus, and _______________.
          2.     color due to ________________ altered by bacterial actions
Notes: Digestive System Anatomy – Accessory Organs

X.      Salivary Glands
               1.     secrete fluids to moisten food and begin ______________________
               3.     Major Glands
                      a.      _____________ (largest): in front of the ear
                      b.      __________________: in floor of mouth by jaw
                      c.      _______________ (smallest): under tongue

XI.     Liver
        A.    located in the upper right and central portion of the abdomen, just below the ______________
        B.    Functions
              1.     ___________________ of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
              2.     _________________ of substances including vitamins ___, ___, and ______.
              3.     _________________ of blood
              4.     _________________ of toxic chemicals
              5.     _________________ of bile
                     a.       Bile is the only liver secretion that directly affects digestion.
        C.    Structure
              1.     color: ___________________
              2.     enclosed in a fibrous capsule and divided into _____________
                     a.       Lobes are separated into ____________ lobules, which are the functional unit.
              3.     Bile from the lobules is carried by the bile canals to the _______________ ducts.
                     a.       Merging of hepatic ducts forms the ________________ bile duct.
        D.    Bile
              1.     yellowish-green liquid secreted by _______________ cells
              2.     contains bile __________, bile _______________, cholesterol, and electrolytes
                     a.       Only _____________________ have a digestive function.

XII.    Gallbladder
           A. pear-shaped sac attached to the __________ by the ___________ duct (joins the hepatic duct)
           B. Functions:
               1.     ___________ bile between meals
               2.     _____________ bile by reabsorbing water
               3.     _____________ bile into the small intestine
               4.     Bile salts aid the actions of digestive enzymes and enhance the absorption of
                      _________________ and some fat-soluble vitamins.
                      a.      The breakdown of fat globules is known as _______________________.
           C. The common bile duct is formed by the union of the _______________ and ____________
               ducts and leads to the duodenum.
           D. _________________ are crystallized forms of cholesterol in bile that block the bile duct.

XIII.   Pancreas
        A.     While pancreas has _______________ functions, it also has ________________ functions by
               secreting digestive juices.
        B.     Structure
               1.      extends ____________________ across post. abdomen in the C-shaped curve of
                       duodenum of SI
               2.      The pancreatic duct connects with the duodenum of SI where the _______ duct from
                       the liver and gallbladder joins the duodenum.

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