Bahiagrass Breeding Program by dffhrtcv3

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									Bahiagrass Breeding
                         Bahiagrass

•   well adapted
•   grows on poor soil
•   drought tolerance
•   persistent
•   forage/sod/seed
          Bahiagrass-Breeding
• Paspalum notatum
• most P. notatum are apomictic
• plant breeding limited to sexual types
                 Bahiagrass Varieties

Diploid:
Pensacola
Tifton 9
Sand Mountain
RRPS Cycles 0, 4, 9, 23
PICA Cycles 2, 3, 4

Tetraploid:
Argentina
Paraguay 22
Tifton 7
Claudina types
Quesenberry/Smith lines
  DIPLOID bahiagrass:


   Ona Light Study




Forage yields with bahiagrass resulted in winter harvests yielding slightly
more than half the peak yield harvested in early summer. This resulted in
approximately a 6-fold increase for bahiagrass (Sinclair et al., 1997).
Quincy Light Study
 Tiller number and crown area for 1999 greenhouse grown bahiagrass seedlings.

          Trait                C0         C4         C9      C23         LSD 0.05
Tiller number (plant-1)        8.6       12.7       13.5     7.5           3.1
Crown area (mm plant-1)       17.9       25.4       23.6     14.5          5.4
Crown area of field-grown bahiagrass Recurrent Restricted Phenotypic
Selection plants in 2000 and 2001, at the NFREC-Quincy, FL.


                           2000                      2001
      Cycle†       6 mo           15 mo       6 mo          15 mo
                       ---------------m2 plant-1-------------
      C0            0.18          0.24        0.19          0.39
      C4            0.22          0.22        0.17          0.26
      C9            0.16          0.21        0.14          0.21
      C23           0.08          0.19        0.06          0.18


      LSD 0.05     0.019          .012        .018          .017
                              Fig. 1. Mean foliage yield of bahiagrass cycles
                              grown under natural light (MN) and extended light
                              (ME) treatments on 22 Oct. 1999.

                             100
                             80
                g plant -1



                             60                                                   MN
                             40                                                   ME
                             20
                              0
                                     C0         C4            C9       C23
                                                     Cycles



October: C0=69%, C4=76%, C9=47% increase, and C23=9% decrease
January: C0=67%, C4=82%, C9=29% increase, and C23=ns
               Fig. 2. Mean foliage height of bahiagrass cycles
               grown under natural light (MN) and extended light
               (ME) treatments on 20 Oct. 1999.

              120
              100
cm plant -1



               80
                                                                   MN
               60
                                                                   ME
               40
               20
                0
                      C0         C4            C9       C23
                                      Cycles



              significant height (and flowering) effects
                 Fig. 3. Mean crown area of bahiagrass
                 plants grown under natural light (MN)
                 and extended light (ME) treatments
                 recorded on 15 Feb. 2000.

                0.25
                 0.2
 m 2 plant -1



                0.15                                     MN
                 0.1                                     ME
                0.05
                   0
                       C0      C4           C9   C23
                                    Cycle



approximately a 50% decrease in crown spread
               Quincy Light Study

•   later cycles were less daylength sensitive
•   plant growth shifted to upright growth during long days
•   some individual plants were not affected by daylength
•   plants varied in cold tolerance




                  extended vs. natural light
Envirotron Light Study
Cold Tolerance: December 2002
2003 Average Cold Tolerance Ratings-Marianna Beef Unit
1-10 rating (1=green to 10=dormant, brown)

Argentine       Pensacola Cycle 4     Cycle 9   Cycle 18    Cycle 23   PICA 2   Select   PICA 3
     10            9         8.4         8.3       6.7         6         3       2.5      1.9




       Pensacola                                           Argentine
 Cycle 4   Cycle 9




Cycle 18   Cycle 23
Cold tolerant selections
     COLD TOLERANT
      BAHIAGRASS



LEFT
Argentine is cold-sensitive
damaged at 200 F




RIGHT
FL67 is cold-tolerant
with approximately 30% leaf
damaged.
Anatomical exam for cold tolerance



  4th Leaf Lamina




                        Small lacuna &
                        thick cell walls
Ona plots on 7 Jan. 2003
PICA Cycle 4 spaced-plants at Ona on 7 Jan. 2003
TETRAPLOID Bahiagrass:
 Tifton 7-not released
 Q4188 and Q4205 Sexual Tetraploids
 Q4188 has short, stout, ascending rhizomes; erect growth habit; red-
 purple basal leaf sheaths; and purple anthers and stigmas.

 Q4205 has short rhizomes, upright growth habit, red-purple leaf
 sheaths, white stigmas, and is 100% sexual. It has a visually recessive
 marker for white stigmas.
                   Trifurilin
Doubled Diploids   Orylazin
                   Colchicine
      Dollar spot fungus
   Sclerotinia homoeocarpa


Bahiagrass cultivar disease severity ratings in 2001 and 2002 at NFREC, Marianna.

                      2001 Dollar spot   2002 Dollar spot
     Cultivar            disease %          disease %


Argentine                   15.0               <5.0
Pensacola                   44.7               15.2
Tifton 9                    45.0               15.8


      LSD 0.05              2.0                 0.8

†Rating based on 0 to 100%, where 0 = no visible leaf area damaged to 100 = whole
plant dead.
Other plant breeding considerations
                   Mole cricket tolerance




Plant morphology


                       Turf characteristics

								
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