Education Reform in the 1800s

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Education Reform in the 1800s Powered By Docstoc
					By: Jessica Ng, Casey Reiman, Nicole Honegger
Before the industrial revolution the middle class
 taught their children at home.
But because of the industrial revolution, parents
 couldn’t teach their children at home and the only
 place that children could attend were private schools.
Many teachers were not qualified and only the upper
 class had a chance to attend private school.
In 1862 president Lincoln signed a law to build land
 grant colleges
Land grant colleges- land given by the government
 to the states to build free public colleges
Twice as many colleges in 1900 then in 1865
Women were allowed to attend all state universities
 by 1900
Land grant colleges are free public colleges built on land given by
 the government to the states.
Today there are 56 land grant colleges from 1862.
Land Grant colleges started in 1862 when president Lincoln
 signed a law.
The Morrill act was first presented in 1857 by
 Justin Morrill but did not get passed through
 congress until 1862.
The bill was designed to donate 30,000 acres
 of federal land to each state so that the states
 could teach Agriculture, military strategies,
 engineering and home economics along with
 some liberal arts.
The Morrill act of 1890 said that colleges who
 had used to original act to educate white
 students only either had to allow African
 Americans in or create a separate but equal
The funds of the sale of the land were used to
 finance new school and improve existing ones.
Were founded in the mid and late 1800’s
They were mostly located in the northeast.
The goal of these colleges was to provide an
 education for women equal to the education men
A shortage of teacher because of the growth of
 common schools and an increase of devices in the
 home called for women to have a higher education.
The Women’s College of the
University of Denver built in 1800s

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                                      Biederman Co. Womens College
                                      in Cleveland, Ohio
Before the civil war it was illegal in most southern states to
 teach African Americans how to read or write
In the north they were allowed to go to school but were
 separated from the white children
These schools were very poor and had very few supplies.
North Carolina was the only state in the south with an
 education system for white children.
African Americans of all ages were desperate for an education
 once they were free.
The Freedmen’s Bureau and the state governments (after 1868)
 gave the most funding for African American education
The first African American college included the Hampton
 Institute in Virginia and Howard University in Washington D.C.
After the civil war public education came to everyone not just
 African Americans.
Between the time of emancipation and 1900 African American
 Literacy increased from less than 5% to over 50%.
American Indian and African American   Freedmen’s Bureau schools
students at Hampton Institute
 Advantages
                                                Disadvantages

 Parents did not need to worry about
  educating their children.                    People who did not have
 Education could now be offered to not just    children did not want to their
  the upper class.                              taxes spent on education.
 Literacy rates began to increase which       African Americans who were
  started the creation of colleges and more     slaves were not allowed to go
                                                to school.
 Children could now choose careers that
  their parents never had the opportunity to   There were not a lot of help
  have.                                         given to public schools.
 Children could now communicate with
  more people not just their family.
 Horace Mann was born on May 4, 1796 into a
  poor farming family.
 He had a very basic education that only took
  place about 3 months out of the year.
 He took a great interest in reading and educated
  himself by often just going to his public library
  and reading volumes of the encyclopedia.
 In his adolescence, he had a private tutor who
  helped him get into the sophomore class at
  Brown University, and after he graduated with
  honors he went on to study law.
Between 1827 and 1848, Mann served as a State
 Representative and Senator for Massachusetts.
In 1937, Mann became Secretary of Education.
He was devoted to his Unitarian religion and he believed
 that school should be an equal right for all children, rich
 or poor.
One of his main goals was to have a “common” school, to
 promote social harmony and educate children of all
 backgrounds. In 1837 the first was established.
In his 11 years as Secretary, over 50 high schools had
 been established, as well as teacher institutions
 throughout the state. In addition, teacher wages were
 doubled, and textbooks and other equipment were
Girls were not allowed to be taught in public school but were
 allowed to be taught privately by other women.
In 1816 when she was 15 she opened a small private school for
 6-8 year old girls.
She taught this school for three years.
Went to Boston opened another private school available to
 young girls.
Opened a free evening school for poor children (one of the first
 in the nation).
Wrote a number of books for children and parents.
Never had a proper education but she always wanted to learn.
Also made huge reforms for people with mental illnesses.
What were some advantages and disadvantages
 about the Education Reform of 1800’s?
Which group of people do you think were effected
 the most by the Education Reform?
How do you think Land-Grant Colleges effected
 colleges and universities today?

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