By: Jessica Ng, Casey Reiman, Nicole Honegger
Before the industrial revolution the middle class
taught their children at home.
But because of the industrial revolution, parents
couldn’t teach their children at home and the only
place that children could attend were private schools.
Many teachers were not qualified and only the upper
class had a chance to attend private school.
In 1862 president Lincoln signed a law to build land
Land grant colleges- land given by the government
to the states to build free public colleges
Twice as many colleges in 1900 then in 1865
Women were allowed to attend all state universities
Land grant colleges are free public colleges built on land given by
the government to the states.
Today there are 56 land grant colleges from 1862.
Land Grant colleges started in 1862 when president Lincoln
signed a law.
The Morrill act was first presented in 1857 by
Justin Morrill but did not get passed through
congress until 1862.
The bill was designed to donate 30,000 acres
of federal land to each state so that the states
could teach Agriculture, military strategies,
engineering and home economics along with
some liberal arts.
The Morrill act of 1890 said that colleges who
had used to original act to educate white
students only either had to allow African
Americans in or create a separate but equal
The funds of the sale of the land were used to
finance new school and improve existing ones.
Were founded in the mid and late 1800’s
They were mostly located in the northeast.
The goal of these colleges was to provide an
education for women equal to the education men
A shortage of teacher because of the growth of
common schools and an increase of devices in the
home called for women to have a higher education.
The Women’s College of the
University of Denver built in 1800s
Advertisement for the Printz
Biederman Co. Womens College
in Cleveland, Ohio
Before the civil war it was illegal in most southern states to
teach African Americans how to read or write
In the north they were allowed to go to school but were
separated from the white children
These schools were very poor and had very few supplies.
North Carolina was the only state in the south with an
education system for white children.
African Americans of all ages were desperate for an education
once they were free.
The Freedmen’s Bureau and the state governments (after 1868)
gave the most funding for African American education
The first African American college included the Hampton
Institute in Virginia and Howard University in Washington D.C.
After the civil war public education came to everyone not just
Between the time of emancipation and 1900 African American
Literacy increased from less than 5% to over 50%.
American Indian and African American Freedmen’s Bureau schools
students at Hampton Institute
Parents did not need to worry about
educating their children. People who did not have
Education could now be offered to not just children did not want to their
the upper class. taxes spent on education.
Literacy rates began to increase which African Americans who were
started the creation of colleges and more slaves were not allowed to go
Children could now choose careers that
their parents never had the opportunity to There were not a lot of help
have. given to public schools.
Children could now communicate with
more people not just their family.
Horace Mann was born on May 4, 1796 into a
poor farming family.
He had a very basic education that only took
place about 3 months out of the year.
He took a great interest in reading and educated
himself by often just going to his public library
and reading volumes of the encyclopedia.
In his adolescence, he had a private tutor who
helped him get into the sophomore class at
Brown University, and after he graduated with
honors he went on to study law.
Between 1827 and 1848, Mann served as a State
Representative and Senator for Massachusetts.
In 1937, Mann became Secretary of Education.
He was devoted to his Unitarian religion and he believed
that school should be an equal right for all children, rich
One of his main goals was to have a “common” school, to
promote social harmony and educate children of all
backgrounds. In 1837 the first was established.
In his 11 years as Secretary, over 50 high schools had
been established, as well as teacher institutions
throughout the state. In addition, teacher wages were
doubled, and textbooks and other equipment were
Girls were not allowed to be taught in public school but were
allowed to be taught privately by other women.
In 1816 when she was 15 she opened a small private school for
6-8 year old girls.
She taught this school for three years.
Went to Boston opened another private school available to
Opened a free evening school for poor children (one of the first
in the nation).
Wrote a number of books for children and parents.
Never had a proper education but she always wanted to learn.
Also made huge reforms for people with mental illnesses.
What were some advantages and disadvantages
about the Education Reform of 1800’s?
Which group of people do you think were effected
the most by the Education Reform?
How do you think Land-Grant Colleges effected
colleges and universities today?