Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) by pC7J9D


									EMILE DURKHEIM (1858-1917)
                                                             “Man's characteristic privilege is
                                                             that the bond he accepts is not
                                                             physical but moral; that is,
                                                             social. He is governed not by a
                                                             material environment brutally
                                                             imposed on him, but by a
                                                             conscience superior to his own,
                                                             the superiority of which he feels.
                                                             Because the greater, better part
                                                             of his existence transcends the
                                                             body, he escapes the body's
                                                             yoke, but is subject to that of
Life and childhood
   Born in Lorraine April 15, 1858
   Son of a prominent Rabbi
   Raised in strict Jewish fashion
   Early schooling in a rabbinical school
   Decided not to become a rabbi
   Eventually became agnostic
   Schooled in many prestigious schools
       Colleged'Epinal
       Lycee Louis-Le-Grand in Paris
       Ecole Normale Superieure

Early Influences
   CharlesRenouvier-philosopher
   Emile Boutoux-philosopher

   Numas-Denis Fustel de Coulanges-historian

Rebelled against the generlalized education
   Preferred    training in scientific methods and moral
"The metaphysician"

Became an instructor of philosophy at the
University of Bordeaux in 1887
   Offered the first course in social science in a
    French university.
   Taught teaching classes to educators and believed
    in the morality of education
Married Louise Dreyfus
   Two   children Marie & Andre
   The Division of Labor in Society
       Unity and solidarity
       Modern society capable in principle of rational integration while
        providing an environment for individual autonomy
   The Rules of Sociological Method
       Formalization of the frameworks from The Division of Labor
   Le Suicide
       First application of the scientific method to study social phenomena
       Suicide is an individual and antisocial act, which can be understood
       Sociology is capable of understanding the rates of suicide and the
        factors which help determine such rates
   Full professorship at Bordeaux
L'Annee Sociologique
   First social science journal in France
   Led to the Durkheimian approach to sociology

Individual and Collective Representations
     Paper outlining the "manifesto" for the Durkheimian
The Elementary Forms of Religious Life
   Society could not exist independently of religious forms
    of sentiment and action
   The basis of religion lies in a social basis

Later Adulthood
       professorship at the Sorbonne in 1902.
   Full

   Education chair in the Science of Education
      Laterrenamed by Durkheim the Science of Education
       and Sociology
   Andre  Durkheim, who was Emile's son and bright
    linguist was killed in April 1916 during WWI. Emile
    Durkheim never recovered and suffered a stroke,
    dying a year later on November 15, 1917
   Rousseau
       Volante Generale (general will) influenced Durkheim's idea of "solidarity"
            Solidarity has body (organic component) and an attitude/sentiment (feeling of
             belonging) component. Functionalism and social psychological effect
            "Man is himself only in and through society. If man were not a part of society, he
             would be an animal like the rest"
       Durkheim disagreed with Rousseau on the thought that the political
        state was the essence of society. Durkheim believed that politics were
        borne of many influences on man
   Montesquieu
       Interrelatedness of social phenomena. The connectedness of social and
        cultural phenomena
       Belief that elements of society must be understood in context rather
        than by themselves
            Law and morality, trade, social structure, culture, religion etc…
   Renouvier
       Rationalism that believed in a scientific approach to socialness and
        morality while maintaining the idea of individual autonomy
       Durkheim disagreed with Renouvier's rejection of historical laws and
       Agreed with ethical and moral considerations are a central role in
            That there is a need for science of ethics
            Philosophy should guide social action
            Moral unity
   Gabriel Tarde
       "Imitation"
       Aggregater of individuals in action and human behavior was imitated at
        a social level from the actions of leaders.
       Durkheim instead believed that society is a reality and behavior must be
        structurally based instead of social-psychological
   Saint-Simon
       Ideas on socialistm
       Durkheim states "for all of us, all that is essential in socialist doctrine is found in the philosophy
        of Saint-Simon"
       Influenced Durkheim's belief in the ability to create an organic order of peace and stability by
        instituting the proper moral ideas
       Positivism (Saint-Simon being more consistent with positivism than Comte)
   Comte
       Recognized the division of labor as a source of solidarity.
       Durkheim believed in the division of labor as a way of binding people together and creating
       "Consensus" influenced Durkheim's notion of "collective conscience"
       Durkheim disagreed with Comtes "theological" ideas or metaphysics
       Did not like Comte's conception of social order with conservative values
       Durkheim advocated a distinction between cosmic and secular order, believing in secular order
        as the solution
       Durkheim didn't view Comte as a sociologist but a philosopher
   The English Liberal Tradition
     Major   liberal themes included:
        Constitutionalregulation and balance of powers
        Parliamentary government

        Economic individualism

        Market economy

        Minimal government
   Herbert Spencer
       Highly influential on Durkheim's Division of Labor
       Praised Spencer's classification of society as an organic or "natural" entity
       Durkheim's evolutionary views come from Spencer
            Durkheim's view that evolution is a movement from systems of mechanical to systems of
             organic solidarity (this is analogous to Spencer's movement from incoherent homogeneity
             to coherent heterogeneity )
       Durkheim did not view Spencer as a sociologist but as a philosopher
       Durkheim was not impressed by Spencer's particular social theories, especially
        the individualistic premises because Durkheim did not believe in self-interest
        maintaining social order
       Also believed that individuals property should reflect their contributions to
        society and not inheritance
       Durkheim created a new doctrine that synthesized the needs of the working
        class but upheld the tradition work ethic idealism of the democratic middle class
   German Idealism
     Durkheim published numerous critical reviews of
      German thinkers such as:
        Simmel

        Schaffle

        Gumplowicz

        Toennies
             In particular Toennies Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft is an
              influence on Durkheim's distinction between organic and
              mechanical societies
Immanuel Kant
     Once expanded rationalism then rejected the concept of
      ultimate rationalism
     Durkheim was most influenced by Kant's commitment to the
      examination of moral duty
     Durkheim's sociological outlook was an extension of Kant's
      notion of duty and moral obligation.
     "everything which is the source of solidarity is moral,
      everything which forces man to take account of other men is
      moral, everything which forces him to regulate his conduct
      through something other than the surviving of his ego is
      moral, and morality is as solid as these ties are numerous
      and strong"
Wilhelm Wundt
   Father of experimental psychology
   Durkheim was impressed by Wundt's commitment to
    scientific methodology and the research conducted at
    his famous laboratory in Leipzig
   Agreed with Wundt's "Volkseele" (the group soul) which
    Durkheim substituted for "Volksgeist" This view is
    similar to the concept of collective conscience
   Also believed in Wundt's explanation that moral
    phenomena must be treated as "facts of social
       Social   facts as "things"

Labeled as
   “Father of Functionalism”
   “Father of French Sociology”

   “Founder of Modern Sociology”

   First Full Professor of Sociology

Mechanical Solidarity
   Primitive   society which has no differentiated social
   No division of labor

Organic Solidarity
   Modern   society arises from the difference in the
    economic and social structure.
   High division and specialized labor

Defined as the bond between all individuals
within a society
   As society become more technologically advanced
    there has to be more specialization and increased
    division in labor
   This specialization causes a shift in the way people
    relate to each other.

2 types of Solidarity
   Mechanical    Solidarity - Primitive societies
      Similarities   and generalisms
   Organic   Solidarity - Modern societies
      Specialization of people
      A need for the services of others

Social Implications of Specialization
   Values   and norms change and subcultures emerge

“The totality of beliefs and sentiments common
to average citizens of the same society forms a
determinate system which has its own life; one
may call the collective or common conscience.”

Primitive societies
   Laws  are harsh, intense, rigid, and universally
   Law is repressive and the deviant is severally
Modern societies
   Laws   are less harsh, less punitive, less intensely
    felt, and less shared.
   Punishment is enforced by issuing fines

Agents of socialization of norms/moral facts
   Institutions   teach norms
      Family

      Religion

      Occupation

The more division in labor, the more individualism
becomes the moral compass of modern society

Sociology grew from philosophy and must
separate itself and become a science.

Social Phenomenon should be studied
empirically using the scientific method.

Provided an example of a sociology study that
emphasized social facts rather than individual

Rates of suicide varied from country to country
and there appeared to be a different
“predisposition to suicide” in different societies.
Four types of suicide
     Egoistic
        Low degree of integration
        Society has excessive individualism, separation from society
         and the individual
     Altruistic
        High  degree of integration
        Society forces people into killing themselves, lack of
         individualism and duty to country
     Anomic
        Low regulation
        Society is faced with economic disaster, despair or changing
         social status
     Fatalistic – High regulation and external constraints
Nothing more than collective representations of
the overwhelming power of society.
Religion is highly social and serves as a bonding
function and identification for the individuals
within a society.
Religion provides for:
   Meaning   in life
   Authority figures

   Reinforces the morals and social norms

Moral ideas and sentiments are to be preserved
but historical bonds with religion must be broken.
Educational institutions and wider society should
forge and create a new sense of morality that
emphasizes rights, privileges, and duties

Durkheim opposed socialism and tried to
construct a model of society that was in
opposition to Marx.
Even though Durkheim opposes socialism he
believes that people who acquire too much
wealth have a greater likelihood of becoming
corrupt, which is a function of socialism.

   Functionalist perspective views society as a
    sum total of the large number of persons,
    groups, organizations and social institutions.
   Society is a system, and its parts contribute to
    its stability and continued existence.
   Parts of the society are interconnected and try
    to meet the demands of each of the parts.

 Durkheim’s view of crime was that it serves as a
  function to help unite society's' members.
 A action does not shock the conscience collective
  because it is a crime but the action is a crime
  because it shocks the conscience collective.
 Punishment of violators reminds society as a
  whole to not risk deviating from the law.
 Punishment also reaffirms the sense of morality
  within a society.

Crime and Law
  A  society of Mechanical Solidarity is characterized
    by repressive law and crime would be punished
   A society of Organic Solidarity is characterized by
    restitutive law or trying to reintegrate the criminal
    back into society after treatment.
 Attempted to mold events to put his principles
  into practice.
 He founded and edited “L’Annee Sociologique”
  a professional sociological periodical.
 He provided the basic schematic for structural
  and functional analysis in sociology, and
  insisted on the usage of empirical methodology,
  so that sociology could accurately claim itself
  as a science.

 Durkheim hoped that scientific sociology would
  help create a moral re-education in the Third
  Republic and at the same time replace religion as
  the source of morality within a secular morality.
 He became the secretary of the Committee for the
  Publication of studies and documents on the war,
  publishing several pamphlets attacking pan-
  Germanism, to help France in WWI.
   He lost his son Andre, who had followed his father to
    Ecole Normale to pursue a promising career as a
    sociological linguist. The death hit him hard and was
    able to write very little afterwards and eventually died at
    the age of 59.
   Durkhiem’s works and thoughts continued to be
    relevant and significant in the third millennium.
   Rober Merton expanded Durkheim’s functional
    approach through his manifest and latent functions,
    utilizing the term dysfunctional as it applies to social
    systems and the creation of Anomie Theory.

 As initially developed by Durkheim the concept
  of anomie refers to a condition of relative
  normlessness, in a society or group.
 The core of Durkheim’s theory lies with the
  concept of social fact, especially with such
  nonmaterial social facts as the collective
  conscience, collective representations and
  social currents.
 Durkheim was very concerned with what he
  perceived as the lack of morality in French society,
  but its safe to say that in all societies today and in
  the future we will wrestle with the issue of
 “Cult of Personality”- taking over for religion.
 Crime serves a functional role in society because it
  helps to promote social change when a violation of
  a law caused such a public outrage that demands
  for change occurred. (Example, Rosa Parks)

   It can be argued that Durkheim envisioned
    globalization, “Global Solidarity.”

   Emile Durkheim was and remains one of the
    greatest social thinkers of all time and his
    works will remain relevant well into the third

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