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EMILE DURKHEIM (1858-1917) “Man's characteristic privilege is that the bond he accepts is not physical but moral; that is, social. He is governed not by a material environment brutally imposed on him, but by a conscience superior to his own, the superiority of which he feels. Because the greater, better part of his existence transcends the body, he escapes the body's yoke, but is subject to that of society.” http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/24/Emile _Durkheim.jpg LIFE AND CHILDHOOD Life and childhood Born in Lorraine April 15, 1858 Son of a prominent Rabbi Raised in strict Jewish fashion Early schooling in a rabbinical school Decided not to become a rabbi Eventually became agnostic Schooled in many prestigious schools Colleged'Epinal Lycee Louis-Le-Grand in Paris Ecole Normale Superieure EARLY INFLUENCES Early Influences CharlesRenouvier-philosopher Emile Boutoux-philosopher Numas-Denis Fustel de Coulanges-historian Rebelled against the generlalized education Preferred training in scientific methods and moral principles "The metaphysician" EARLY ADULTHOOD Became an instructor of philosophy at the University of Bordeaux in 1887 Offered the first course in social science in a French university. Taught teaching classes to educators and believed in the morality of education Married Louise Dreyfus Two children Marie & Andre PUBLISHED WORKS The Division of Labor in Society Unity and solidarity Modern society capable in principle of rational integration while providing an environment for individual autonomy The Rules of Sociological Method Formalization of the frameworks from The Division of Labor Le Suicide First application of the scientific method to study social phenomena Suicide is an individual and antisocial act, which can be understood sociologically Sociology is capable of understanding the rates of suicide and the factors which help determine such rates Full professorship at Bordeaux L’ANEE SOCIOLOGIQUE L'Annee Sociologique First social science journal in France Led to the Durkheimian approach to sociology Individual and Collective Representations Paper outlining the "manifesto" for the Durkheimian School The Elementary Forms of Religious Life Society could not exist independently of religious forms of sentiment and action The basis of religion lies in a social basis LATER ADULTHOOD Later Adulthood professorship at the Sorbonne in 1902. Full Education chair in the Science of Education Laterrenamed by Durkheim the Science of Education and Sociology Andre Durkheim, who was Emile's son and bright linguist was killed in April 1916 during WWI. Emile Durkheim never recovered and suffered a stroke, dying a year later on November 15, 1917 THE FRENCH TRADITION Rousseau Volante Generale (general will) influenced Durkheim's idea of "solidarity" Solidarity has body (organic component) and an attitude/sentiment (feeling of belonging) component. Functionalism and social psychological effect "Man is himself only in and through society. If man were not a part of society, he would be an animal like the rest" Durkheim disagreed with Rousseau on the thought that the political state was the essence of society. Durkheim believed that politics were borne of many influences on man Montesquieu Interrelatedness of social phenomena. The connectedness of social and cultural phenomena Belief that elements of society must be understood in context rather than by themselves Law and morality, trade, social structure, culture, religion etc… THE FRENCH TRADITION Renouvier Rationalism that believed in a scientific approach to socialness and morality while maintaining the idea of individual autonomy Durkheim disagreed with Renouvier's rejection of historical laws and society Agreed with ethical and moral considerations are a central role in philosophy That there is a need for science of ethics Philosophy should guide social action Moral unity Gabriel Tarde "Imitation" Aggregater of individuals in action and human behavior was imitated at a social level from the actions of leaders. Durkheim instead believed that society is a reality and behavior must be structurally based instead of social-psychological THE FRENCH TRADITION Saint-Simon Ideas on socialistm Durkheim states "for all of us, all that is essential in socialist doctrine is found in the philosophy of Saint-Simon" Influenced Durkheim's belief in the ability to create an organic order of peace and stability by instituting the proper moral ideas Positivism (Saint-Simon being more consistent with positivism than Comte) Comte Recognized the division of labor as a source of solidarity. Durkheim believed in the division of labor as a way of binding people together and creating dependency "Consensus" influenced Durkheim's notion of "collective conscience" Durkheim disagreed with Comtes "theological" ideas or metaphysics Did not like Comte's conception of social order with conservative values Durkheim advocated a distinction between cosmic and secular order, believing in secular order as the solution Durkheim didn't view Comte as a sociologist but a philosopher THE ENGLISH LIBERAL TRADITION The English Liberal Tradition Major liberal themes included: Constitutionalregulation and balance of powers Parliamentary government Economic individualism Market economy Minimal government THE ENGLISH TRADITION Herbert Spencer Highly influential on Durkheim's Division of Labor Praised Spencer's classification of society as an organic or "natural" entity Durkheim's evolutionary views come from Spencer Durkheim's view that evolution is a movement from systems of mechanical to systems of organic solidarity (this is analogous to Spencer's movement from incoherent homogeneity to coherent heterogeneity ) Durkheim did not view Spencer as a sociologist but as a philosopher Durkheim was not impressed by Spencer's particular social theories, especially the individualistic premises because Durkheim did not believe in self-interest maintaining social order Also believed that individuals property should reflect their contributions to society and not inheritance Durkheim created a new doctrine that synthesized the needs of the working class but upheld the tradition work ethic idealism of the democratic middle class GERMAN IDEALISM German Idealism Durkheim published numerous critical reviews of German thinkers such as: Simmel Schaffle Gumplowicz Toennies In particular Toennies Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft is an influence on Durkheim's distinction between organic and mechanical societies GERMAN IDEALISM Immanuel Kant Once expanded rationalism then rejected the concept of ultimate rationalism Durkheim was most influenced by Kant's commitment to the examination of moral duty Durkheim's sociological outlook was an extension of Kant's notion of duty and moral obligation. "everything which is the source of solidarity is moral, everything which forces man to take account of other men is moral, everything which forces him to regulate his conduct through something other than the surviving of his ego is moral, and morality is as solid as these ties are numerous and strong" GERMAN IDEALISM Wilhelm Wundt Father of experimental psychology Durkheim was impressed by Wundt's commitment to scientific methodology and the research conducted at his famous laboratory in Leipzig Agreed with Wundt's "Volkseele" (the group soul) which Durkheim substituted for "Volksgeist" This view is similar to the concept of collective conscience Also believed in Wundt's explanation that moral phenomena must be treated as "facts of social existence" Social facts as "things" CONCEPTS & CONTRIBUTIONS Labeled as “Father of Functionalism” “Father of French Sociology” “Founder of Modern Sociology” First Full Professor of Sociology THE DIVISION IN LABOR/SOLIDARITY Mechanical Solidarity Primitive society which has no differentiated social structure No division of labor Organic Solidarity Modern society arises from the difference in the economic and social structure. High division and specialized labor DIVISION IN LABOR/SOLIDARITY Defined as the bond between all individuals within a society As society become more technologically advanced there has to be more specialization and increased division in labor This specialization causes a shift in the way people relate to each other. DIVISION IN LABOR/SOLIDARITY 2 types of Solidarity Mechanical Solidarity - Primitive societies Similarities and generalisms Organic Solidarity - Modern societies Specialization of people A need for the services of others Social Implications of Specialization Values and norms change and subcultures emerge COLLECTIVE CONSCIENCE “The totality of beliefs and sentiments common to average citizens of the same society forms a determinate system which has its own life; one may call the collective or common conscience.” COLLECTIVE CONSCIENCE Primitive societies Laws are harsh, intense, rigid, and universally shared. Law is repressive and the deviant is severally punished Modern societies Laws are less harsh, less punitive, less intensely felt, and less shared. Punishment is enforced by issuing fines COLLECTIVE CONSCIENCE Agents of socialization of norms/moral facts Institutions teach norms Family Religion Occupation The more division in labor, the more individualism becomes the moral compass of modern society METHODOLOGY Sociology grew from philosophy and must separate itself and become a science. Social Phenomenon should be studied empirically using the scientific method. STUDY OF SUICIDE (1897) Provided an example of a sociology study that emphasized social facts rather than individual experiences. Rates of suicide varied from country to country and there appeared to be a different “predisposition to suicide” in different societies. STUDY OF SUICIDE (1897) Four types of suicide Egoistic Low degree of integration Society has excessive individualism, separation from society and the individual Altruistic High degree of integration Society forces people into killing themselves, lack of individualism and duty to country Anomic Low regulation Society is faced with economic disaster, despair or changing social status Fatalistic – High regulation and external constraints RELIGION Nothing more than collective representations of the overwhelming power of society. Religion is highly social and serves as a bonding function and identification for the individuals within a society. Religion provides for: Meaning in life Authority figures Reinforces the morals and social norms MORALITY Moral ideas and sentiments are to be preserved but historical bonds with religion must be broken. Educational institutions and wider society should forge and create a new sense of morality that emphasizes rights, privileges, and duties SOCIALISM Durkheim opposed socialism and tried to construct a model of society that was in opposition to Marx. Even though Durkheim opposes socialism he believes that people who acquire too much wealth have a greater likelihood of becoming corrupt, which is a function of socialism. FUNCTIONALISM Functionalist perspective views society as a sum total of the large number of persons, groups, organizations and social institutions. Society is a system, and its parts contribute to its stability and continued existence. Parts of the society are interconnected and try to meet the demands of each of the parts. CRIME Durkheim’s view of crime was that it serves as a function to help unite society's' members. A action does not shock the conscience collective because it is a crime but the action is a crime because it shocks the conscience collective. Punishment of violators reminds society as a whole to not risk deviating from the law. Punishment also reaffirms the sense of morality within a society. CRIME Crime and Law A society of Mechanical Solidarity is characterized by repressive law and crime would be punished severely. A society of Organic Solidarity is characterized by restitutive law or trying to reintegrate the criminal back into society after treatment. RELEVANCY Attempted to mold events to put his principles into practice. He founded and edited “L’Annee Sociologique” a professional sociological periodical. He provided the basic schematic for structural and functional analysis in sociology, and insisted on the usage of empirical methodology, so that sociology could accurately claim itself as a science. RELEVANCY Durkheim hoped that scientific sociology would help create a moral re-education in the Third Republic and at the same time replace religion as the source of morality within a secular morality. He became the secretary of the Committee for the Publication of studies and documents on the war, publishing several pamphlets attacking pan- Germanism, to help France in WWI. RELEVANCY He lost his son Andre, who had followed his father to Ecole Normale to pursue a promising career as a sociological linguist. The death hit him hard and was able to write very little afterwards and eventually died at the age of 59. Durkhiem’s works and thoughts continued to be relevant and significant in the third millennium. Rober Merton expanded Durkheim’s functional approach through his manifest and latent functions, utilizing the term dysfunctional as it applies to social systems and the creation of Anomie Theory. RELEVANCY As initially developed by Durkheim the concept of anomie refers to a condition of relative normlessness, in a society or group. The core of Durkheim’s theory lies with the concept of social fact, especially with such nonmaterial social facts as the collective conscience, collective representations and social currents. RELEVANCY Durkheim was very concerned with what he perceived as the lack of morality in French society, but its safe to say that in all societies today and in the future we will wrestle with the issue of morality. “Cult of Personality”- taking over for religion. Crime serves a functional role in society because it helps to promote social change when a violation of a law caused such a public outrage that demands for change occurred. (Example, Rosa Parks) RELEVANCY It can be argued that Durkheim envisioned globalization, “Global Solidarity.” Emile Durkheim was and remains one of the greatest social thinkers of all time and his works will remain relevant well into the third millennium.
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