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1. That is why English is a language with so many confusing rules. (p22) 正因为如此,英语才成


why 引导名词性从句做表语

1) That is why you must read, that is why you must look at the skies, that is why you must sing

and dance, and write poems, and suffer, and understand, for all that is life.

2) Indeed, that is why I came to the forum here and did a search.

3) That is why you have so many rules and enforced uniformity. And there is no need for this at


NMET99.    –I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.
          –Is that _____ you had a few days off?
          A. why            B. when           C. what             D. where
上海 98. I had neither a raincoat nor an umbrella. ____ I got wet through.
            A. It’s the reason     B. That’s why         C. There’s why         D. It’s how

江苏 2005. --Don't you think it necessary that he _______ to Miami but to New York?

                 --I agree, but the problem is ________ he has refused to.

                   A. will not be sent; that           B. not be sent; that

                   C. should not be sent; what        D. should not send; what

答案: ABB


vt. 1. put into disorder; mix up in the mind 把...弄糊涂,使困惑 They confused me by their

conflicting advice.      Only one question confused him.       They're trying to confuse you. I am

very confused with this at the moment.         Leave him to make up his mind. He's confused and he's

not sure what he wants. His is more confused and his production falls after the coaches work

with him.      It is not fair and I am so confused. I wish I had the money to pay for a lawyer to take

him to court first.   2. make one thing for another 把...混同,混淆[(+with)] You confused Australia

with Austria. Don't confuse skepticism(怀疑论) with science. I appreciate that you do not

confuse my opinions with those of the article's.

confusing: make people confuse 令人困惑的.

2. When we speak English today, we sometimes find it hard to decide which words or phrases to

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use. (p22) 如今,我们在说英语时,有时发现很难确定到底该选哪些单词或词组。

which words or phrases to use: 疑问词+动词不定式作宾语。动词不定式可以和疑问词 what,

which, how, when, where, who,whom,whether 等连用,构成不定式短语,在句子中作主语、宾


  1) The question is how to use the computer. = The question is how we should use the computer.

  2) I don’t know where to go for my holiday. =I don’t know where I can go for my holiday.

  3) He can’t decide which book to choose. = He can’t decide which book he can choose.

  4) I don’t know what to do next. = I don’t know what I should do next.

More examples:

  1) The ever romantic King Solomon knew how to say it with flowers.

  2) You have a two week vacation coming up soon. Are you trying to decide where to spend your

  vacation? 3) You decide how to spend your time.

  4) Which one to choose is simply up to you.

  5) Sometimes smart thinkers just don't know when to stop, and they create these absurd,

all-encompassing, high-level pictures of the universe that are all good and fine, but don't actually

mean anything at all.

  6) Anyone know how to solve this?

  7) Many people just don't know how to (or don't care to) send a combined message which is

both posted and E-mailed.

  8) Are you passing through a difficult time of your life and don’t know how to get out of it?

NMET 90. Last summer I took a course on _____.
          A. how to make dresses                     B. how dresses be made
          C. how to be made dresses                  D. how dresses to be made
NMET 92. There are so many kinds of tape-recorders on sale that I can’t make up my mind _____
     to buy.
               A. what           B. which              C. how                D. where
NMET 2000. I’ve worked with children before, so I know what ___ in my new job.
                 A. expected   B. to expect            C. to be expecting     D. expects
NMET 2002. The mother didn`t know ____ to blame for the broken glass as it happened while
     she was out.
                 A. who                B. when          C. how                D. what

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Frank's dream was to have his own shop ____ to produce the workings of his own hands. (2005 湖
               A. that    B. in which    C. by which     D. how

3. The English language is made up of the rules and vocabulary each group of people brought to

Britain with them. (p22) 英语是由每个进入不列颠的人群所说语言中的规则和词汇构成的。

be made up of: to form as a whole

1) The tea is made up from a mixture of several different types.

2) The UK is made up of the four separate countries of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern

Ireland, and each provides a different learning experience for the overseas student.

3) I'm always a little amazed by those pictures made up of a bunch of other tiny photos.

4) If water is made up of hydrogen and oxygen, why can't we breathe underwater?

5) How is the governing body made up? Governing bodies range in size from 9 - 20 members.

They include parents, staff from the school, people chosen by governors from the local


Relative phrases:

make up 1. to become friends again after (a quarrel): You don’t really hate each other, so why

don’t you shake hands and make up? It’s time you made up your quarrel. 你们吵架该和解了。

They had an argument, but they have already made up.      2. to use special paint and powder on the

face of(someone or oneself) so as to change or improve the appearance.化妆 She spends 20

minutes in the morning to make herself up/make up her face.        Be quick, you’ve got 10 minutes to

make up. 3. to invent(a story, poem, etc.), esp. in order to deceive: He made up a story, which I

found hard to believe. The student made up an excuse for his being late. Their father is good at

making up bed time stories. The students each is asked to make up a dialogue at the end of the

class. 4. to prepare (a drug), esp. according to a doctor’s note: The doctor made up a bottle of

cough medicine for him. 5. to make (an amount or number)complete: to make up the money(to the

right amount); 6. to repay or give ( an amount) in return: You must make up what you owe

before the end of the month.

make up for: be a compensation for 弥补: They made up for their inexperience by careful

preparation for each lesson.     She's making up for all the playing she missed.            You are

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responsible for the money and you will have to make up for the loss. I have not worked this term,

but I will make up for it next term.     He tried hard to make up for the damage he had caused.

Industry(勤奋) can make up for the lack of skill.勤能补拙。

make up for lost time: to work fast, because of time lost earlier

上海春 2000. Happily for John’s mother, he is working harder to ____ his lost time.
               A. make up for       B. keep up with     C. catch up with     D. make use of

江苏 2005.Everybody in the village likes Jack because he is good at telling and _________ jokes.

            A. turning up B. putting up C. making up D. showing up

答案:A C

4. They each had their own language and Anglo-Saxon (the base of Old English) developed from

mixing these languages with Celtic. (p22) 这三个日尔曼部落分别有自己的语言,作为古英语



vt. & vi 1. put, bring or come together so that the substances, etc., are no longer distinct; make or

prepare (sth.) by doing this 使混和,搀和[(+with)] The workmen mixed sand, gravel, and cement

to make concrete. Mix this oil with the paint and stir well. Oil doesn't mix with water. 2.   to be, be

put, or enjoy being the company of others 使结合;使结交[(+with)]: He’s such a friendly person

that he mixes well in any company.他为人和气,跟任何人相处都很好。We can sometimes mix

business with pleasure. He's mixing with the wrong people. At the party, everybody mixed

together happily. 3. to prepare (such a combination of different substances) (给...)配制;调制 His

wife mixed him a hot drink of milk, sugar, and chocolate. The doctor mixed him a bottle of

medicine. 4. mix thoroughly (with): confuse in the mind(with); be unable to distinguish (from)

混淆,搞混[(+with)] You’re always mixing me up with my twin brother.

5. At the end of the 9th century, the Vikings, people from the Scandinavian countries, including

Denmark and Norway began to invade Britain. (p22) 公元 9 世纪末,来自斯堪的纳维亚半岛国



prep. bring in, reckon, as part of the whole 包括; 包含 This atlas contains fifty maps, including

six of North America.      Price $2.75, including postage/postage included.         Creative writers,

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poets, and lyricists, including novelists, playwrights, and screenwriters, create original

works—such as prose, poems, plays, and song lyrics—for publication or performance.             Best

laptops come in a variety of brands and looks including larger screens, DVD abilities and high

quality sound.      Our company offers insurance products including auto insurance, home

insurance and insurance quotes.


vt. to contain sth. as a part of sth. else, or to make sth. part of sth. else: The following

devices have digitally signed device drivers that are included in Windows XP.       What should be

included in a sales agreement?      Children with only one immigrant parent were also included.

What's included with your house plan order. The following is a list of features included in each

and every new home built by Joshua Homes. Batteries Not Included,


vt. 1. enter (a country) with armed forces in order to attack; (fig) crowd into; enter 侵入,侵略 The

Normans invaded England in 1066. 2. violate; interfere with 侵犯,侵扰 invade sb’s rights 3.

拥入,大批进入 In the summer tourists invade the mountain village. 4. (疾病等)侵袭 Plague

invaded the town.

6. In fact, it is certain that we would not be able to understand it if we heard it today. (p22) 事实



adj. 1. sure; established beyond all doubt or question; known: There’s no certain cure for this

illness. 2. sure; having no doubt: I’m certain she saw me yesterday. She’s certain to do well in the

examination. Are you certain that you’ll get there in time?   He was certain to fail. He is certain

to come to my party. It is sure/certain that he will come to my party. In this life nothing seems

certain but death and taxes. Is he so certain that tax cuts that supposedly benefit the rich are

bad? 3. not named or described but taken as known; named, but not well known: A certain Mrs

Jones rang me up today but she’d got the wrong number. Your child may be looking for role

models. You won't know why he finds certain characters appealing until you talk to him about

what he thinks of as courageous, admirable or smart: Who do we know that does that? Is that

character truly admirable or does he just look cool? 4. some but not a lot of: He makes a certain

profit from his business but he’ll never be rich.      Some studies in clinical psychology have

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indicated that a certain amount of self-deception is necessary for a person to function.

7. The language consisted of an Anglo-Saxon base plus words from the languages of Denmark and

Norway. (p22) 它以盎格鲁-撒克逊语为基础,加上丹麦语和挪威语的词汇构成。


vi. 1. be made up of 组成,构成[(+of)] A university consists of teachers, administrators and

students. The House of Commons consisted of 658 members. The programme consisted of two

short plays.   What do your networks consist of?       Life does not consist mainly, or even largely,

of facts and happenings.    What does the air on Mars consist of? What does a solar cell consist

of? The question paper shall consist of three questions covering the topics as under: a) IT Tools

& Web Design b) Visual FoxPro c)….

2. have as the chief or only element 在于,存在于[(+in)] The beauty of the picture consists in its

balance of colors.   Tolerance consists in respecting the opinions of others. 3. in agreement 一致,

符合[(+with)] The information consists with his account.

8. Many factors contributed to the development of this new type of English. (p22) 很多因素使得



vt. & vi. 1. join with others in giving help, money, etc.     捐(款);捐献,捐助[(+to/towards)] He

contributed half of his savings to the relief fund. He contributed generously to the Red Cross. 2.

have a share in; help to bring out 有助于,促进,造成[(+to/towards)]: Plenty of fresh air

contributes to good health. Did Max Beckmann's experiences of war contribute to his success as

a painter? His television broadcast and journalist background contribute to his writing style,

which is exciting. The opportunity to work with people of varied national backgrounds during

graduate study will contribute to his success, Vinod believes. 3. supply (a written article) to a

magazine, newspaper, etc.投稿[(+to)] The scientist often contributes to an academic journal.

9. In 1066, the Normans conquered England and took control of the country. (p22) 1066 年,诺曼



vt. 1. have control, authority, power over 控制;支配;管理;克制;抑制 She is skillful enough to

control the machine now. The British government at that time controlled the island. You must

learn to control your temper. 2. check; verify (用对照物)核实;检验 to control the amounts

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n. power or authority to direct, order, or restrain 支配;控制;调节;抑制[U][(+of/over)] They have

no control over him.

be in control of: be in command, in charge 握有(对…的)控制力;控制

be/come/bring/get under control: be, become, cause to be, under authority, under restraint, in

order, working properly 在…控制之下: get flood water under control; Firemen helped by over

5,000 volunteers managed to bring under control a fire in southern Ethiopia's Nechsar national

park, home to the rare Swayne's hartebeest(大羚羊). The United Nations Food and Agriculture

Organization and the World Organization for Animal Health warned on Monday that the disease

would take years to bring under control and required great attention.

lose control of: be unable to manage or contain 不能驾御或控制;失去对…的控制 lose control

of one’s temper

take control of: take authority 控制;管理 He must find someone to take overall control of this


10. Despite this fact, French still had an impact on the English language. (p23) 然而,法语还是对



prep. in spite of, without taking any notice, not prevented by 不管,尽管,任凭 He went to

work despite his illness.   Despite repeated assurances that the product is safe, many people have

stopped buying it. He managed to eat a big lunch despite having eaten an enormous breakfast.

I still enjoyed the week despite the weather.
despite yourself: If you do sth. despite yourself, you do it although you do not want
to or although you know you should not: He laughed despite himself. She took the
money from her mother's purse, despite herself.
Despite such a big difference in               towards what one eats, there is no doubt
   that people in the west regard the Chinese food as something special. (2007 湖北)
  A. point         B. idea            C. attitude        D. sight

n. 1. the force or action of one object hitting another 冲击,撞击,碰撞: The impact of the

crash reduced the car to a third of its original length. The bullet explodes on impact

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(= when it hits another object). The impact of the stone against the windowpane shattered the
glass. 2. a powerful effect that sth., especially sth. new, has on a situation or person 影

响;作用 [(+on)] The book made a great impact on its readers. Our impact on society comes

with responsibilities that go beyond providing useful, safe and quality products. People are

realizing internet and its impact on society and education.         The anti-smoking campaign
had had/made quite an impact on young people.               The new proposals were intended
to soften the impact of the reformed tax system.
vt. & vi. to have an influence on sth.: Falling export rates have impacted (on) the
country's economy quite considerably.            A CHANGE in a company's ownership structure

does not impact its business.    How and in what we invest does impact the effectiveness of our

ministry.   It is obvious how bad movies will impact on children.

11. By the latter half of the 14th century, English was adopted by all classes in England. (p23) 到

14 世纪后半叶,英国各阶层都使用了英语。


vt. 1. to accept or start to use something new:采取;采纳;吸收 After much deliberation, the

president decided to adopt her suggestion.    I think it's time to adopt a different strategy in
my dealings with him. The new tax would force companies to adopt energy-saving
measures. He's adopted a remarkably light-hearted attitude towards the situation.
2. to take another person's child into your own family and legally raise him or her as

your own child 过继,收养[(+as)] Mr. Kern adopted the orphan as his own son. My question is,
if I adopt his son does the ex-wife still pay child support?    They've adopted a baby girl.
She had the child adopted (= She gave her baby to someone else to raise). They have
no children of their own, but they're hoping to adopt. An adoptive parent is one who
has adopted a child. 3. accept, e.g. a report or recommendation 正式通过,接受 The agenda was
adopted after some discussion. Dr Kennedy has been adopted as the party's candidate for

South Cambridge.
12. Pronunciation also underwent huge changes during this period. (p23) 在此期间,英语发音也



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vt. 1. experience; pass through 经历;经受;忍受 You may have to undergo disappointment and

failure before experiencing success. 2. 接受(治疗,检查等) All the freshmen will undergo a

medical examination.

13. Even today, where a person comes from will affect their style of speech. (p23) 即使是现在,



vt. 1. have an influence or impression on; act on 影响;对...发生作用 The amount of rain affects

the growth of crops. 2. move the feeling of 使感动,使震动 She was deeply affected by the news of

her father's death. 3. (of diseases) attack; cause a particular condition in (病)侵袭;罹患 Her

kidneys had become affected.

14. There are many different dialects of English depending on where people live. (p25)

depend on

1. trust; be certain about 相信;信赖[(+on/upon)] I knew he wasn't to be depended upon. You can

depend on him. 2. need, rely on (the support, etc of) in order to exist or to be true or to succeed 依

靠,依赖[(+on/upon)] Health depends on good food, fresh air and enough sleep. 3. 依...而定;取决

于 [(+on/upon)] It depends on the weather. The price depends on the quality.

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