Artificial Intelligence

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					Artificial Intelligence

   December 11, 2001
              Administrivia
• Assignment 9b is due 5PM Wednesday
  (12/12)
• Assignment 9c is ready
  – you need to go to the web site and do the
    experiment
  – for a local research project in web searching
  – intended to be fun
  – complete before midnight 12/14
            Natural Progression
• You can build a machine
   – Make the machine replace you
• Roots in science fiction
   – Androids
      • An android is an anthropomorphic robot - i.e. a robot that looks
        like a human. For example Valerie
• Turing test
   – Inability to differentiate between human and computer
        What do humans do well
• Process information
    – Language
    – Images
•   Reason
•   Create
•   Relate to other humans
•   Make intuitive decisions
•   Enjoy entertainment
    What do computers do well
• Process data quickly
• Handle large amounts of data
  Computers simulating humans
• Have to understand the process
• Build a good model
• Resolve complexities
               Example -- chess
• Number of possible unique chess games is 10120.
• In 1957, artificial intelligence pioneers Herbert Simon and
  Allen Newell predicted that a computer would beat a
  human at chess within 10 years.
• BELLE, a chess program by Ken Thompson and Joe
  Condon, became the first computer to be awarded the title
  of US chess master, in 1983.
• BELLE didn’t try to do what a human would do. Instead,
  BELLE took advantage of what computers do well.
• In May 1997, IBM's Deep Blue Supercomputer
  played a fascinating match with the reigning
  World Chess Champion, Garry Kasparov and won
  3 ½ to 2 ½
           Example -- chess
• Does this count as AI?
  – Computer beating best human
  – Computer not playing as human would
            Other successes
• Language understanding
  – Eliza 1967
• Speech recognition
  – Dragon Naturally speaking
  – Phone company systems
  – Voice mail systems
• Language translation
                      Difficulties
• Humans are complex beings and understand
   – Language issues
      • Time flies like an arrow
      • Fruit flies like a banana
   – Searching for tables
      • Table
      • table chair
• 98% correct is often not enough
   – 40 typos in a page
• The search space can get very large
                 Techniques
• Build a search tree to model the state space
• Find good methods of evaluating possibilities
• Use your evaluation methods to prune the tree
                  First steps in TicTacToe
                                    First move


         center                                      corner       side


corner             side    center   opp. corener   adj. corner   adj side   opp side



                          . . .
. . .                     . O.
. X.                      . . X
. . O
                  . . .
                  . XO
                  . . .
               Turing test
• A person tries to distinguish between a man
  and a woman (responses over a typewriter).
  If you replace one by a machine, does the
  game change?
• A person and a machine are behind a
  curtain. An interrogator sends questions to
  each, can the interrogator tell which is
  which?
       Strong AI vs. Weak AI
• strong artificial intelligence states that a
  computer with the right program would be
  mental.
• weak artificial intelligence just aims to
  solve problems, not necessarily to be mental
  or model human behavior.
           MAJOR CITED IDEAS
•   Turing test
•   Universal machines
•   States in a machine
•   Important ideas for AI
    –   symbol system hypothesis
    –   programs that modify behavior
    –   reinforcement learning
    –   attribution of thinking, intelligence
    –   importance of consciousness and reflection
    –   program that surprises
    –   software not hardware the main bottleneck
                 Turing ideas
• PREDICTIONS:
  – 50 year conjectures pretty close on hardware
  – say "machines thinking" without being contradicted
  – 70% chance of making right identification after 5
    minutes of conversation
• GENERAL SYSTEMS IDEAS:
  – loops
  – virtual memory
• BRAIN SCIENCE CONNECTION
  – chemical and electrical properties of neurons
     • Now fMRI, neural nets, …
       Work in other sciences
• Neural nets
  – Build models of machines that think and learn
• Brain mapping
  – Determine what clumps of neurons do
  – Eventually map individual neurons
                  Your questions
• State of art
   – State of the art in AI
   – Technology in general
• Nature of thinking
   – How does the brain do it?
   – Must a machine duplicate the brain?
• What is learning?
• Philosophical
   – What makes a machine human
• Science Fiction
                    State of the art
What would happen if we kept asking the Chinese robot why it just gave
  the answer that it gave an infinite number of times.Could it explain?

For example:
Input: How are you today?
Output: Good.
Input: Why "good"?
Output: I'm having a lovely day.
Input: Why?
Output: I don't know.
Input: Why don't you know?
...and so on
              State of the art
• 1:is there really any way that the computer
  can create random numbers or is it always
  just numbers that appear random to a human
  such as the digits of pi, as cited in the article
  or for instance e?
                 Nature of thinking
In the article the author discusses the machine and how it has set rules and
    guidelines from which it may not deviate. My question is do these
    rules make the machine nothing like the brain, seeing as the brain has
    no rules or guidelines to work within, or can these rules and guideline
    be equated to the capacity an individual's brain has to learn and make
    sense of problems, ideas, objects, ect.?
Are modern definitions of a computer "thinking by itself" still dependent
    on continual human programming as the only means of progress, or are
    there computers somewhere in the distant or even near future that can
    actually be programmed to program themselves based on input of users
    or even just experiences (the way that human beings learn and are
    taught to think)?
      Nature of thinking (cont)
• Can machine language and thought be
  superior to human thought? If so, what does
  this say for the future of society?

• If scientists can ever figure out the exact
  code for the brain, would it be possible to
  simulate it in a strong AI computer?
                     Learning
• Is it possible for a computer to learn? Can it adapt to
  unfamiliar situations and "reprogram" itself?
• Because a machine cannot have experiences, how is it that
  a machine can learn from experiences and acquire the same
  type of conditioning that humans acquire throughout their
  lives?
• Could a machine ever write a sonnet with the same
  intensity and meaning as a human poet or truly enjoy the
  taste of summer strawberries and cream.
• Can machines ever be programmed to experience
  emotions?
                  Philosophical
• We now accept that a computer can beat a chess champion,
  but we don't easily accept that a computer could
  experience human emotions in the same way that we do.
  Is this resistance a general belief that human consciousness
  is so unique that it could not be replicated by man? Or is it
  another idea that will be commonly accepted in a few more
  decades?
• I am not convinced by Turing's counter to the "Arguments
  fromVarious Diabilites", particularly the question of the
  computer having itself as the subject of its thoughts.
• If a computer can map out responses through a network of
  possible answers and connecting ideas, would that make it
  more human?
          Computers vs. humans
• If we create a machine that is a replica of a human brain,
  using electrons in place of neurotransmitters, is that
  machine a thinking machine? Even if it cannot think on its
  own and needs to be able to read the brain activity of a
  person in order to function. If it is able to follow human
  neurotransmitter patterns is it thinking or merely copying?
• Is programming a "life history" into a computer possible?
  (Think about the 3 components of the mind)
• Is if possible for a computer to simulate creativity, which I
  define as the ability to figure out a solution without the
  inputs necessary to draw that conclusion from pure logic.
                Science Fiction
• Do you think that it will be possible one day to store
  information in the human's brain or to educate humans by
  using computer programs?(Like in the movie the Matrix
  when the main character gets fighting techniques and jump
  programs stored in his brain)
• I was curious as to how much the technical aspects of the
  movie AI are plausible-- I'm not talking about the mushy
  non-technical stuff, but how far are we from robots that
  look and move- in ways so similar to humans?
• Do you think that if in a point in time we develop
  machines that could think and be human-kind that they
  would represent a danger for humans?

				
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