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					SET Procedures 2011




  Update briefings
      Purpose of briefing

• To give practitioners in the local
  children’s workforce an understanding
  of what has changed in the latest SET
  procedures

• Identify how the Procedures can now
  be accessed
Latest SET Child Protection Procedures available at:
www.escb.co.uk
        How to use the SET
           Procedures
• These procedures are a reference
  document

• Paper copies will not be available (under
  review nationally-Munro review)

• The pdf document is searchable and the
  index will allow users to jump to specific
  sections
     So what has changed?
• All sections have been reviewed by a
  multi-agency group comprising of the three
  LSCBs within Essex in line with latest
  guidance and best practice.

• Some new additions to Agency roles and
  responsibilities reflecting the wider
  involvement of agencies in child protection
    So what has changed?
• Sections 5 and 10 in the old 2006
  Procedures have been amalgamated in
  one section (Section 9) to avoid
  duplication

• Section 9 – Additional Procedures is the
  area where guidance on protection in
  specific circumstances is now given
Some new additions for 2011
• Animal abuse and links to abuse of
  children and domestic abuse (9.3)
• Child abuse linked to belief in spirit
  possession (9.5)
• Child victims of trafficking (9.6)
• Children missing from education (9.7)
• Hate crime /harassment (9.14)
• Honour based abuse (9.17)
Some new additions for 2011

• Safeguarding children and young people
  affected by gangs (9.31)
• Unaccompanied children and young
  people arriving in the UK (9.38)
• Child Sex Offender Disclosure Scheme
  (12.7)
                    Animal Abuse
 Recognition of links between animal abuse
 and child abuse.

 Protocol developed to work with RSPCA.

 A child displaying intentional cruelty to
 animals could indicate that the child has
 been a victim of neglect and/or abuse

9.3 SET Procedures 2011
       Child Abuse and Spirit
            Possession
• Defined as the belief that an evil force has
  entered a child and is controlling him or her
  (9.5.1)
• Whilst the number of identified cases is currently
  small, the nature of child abuse is disturbing and
  impact on child is substantial and serious
• Procedures give advice on how best to respond
  to this form of abuse
   Child Victims of Trafficking

• Defined as the recruitment, transportation,
  transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons by
  means of threat, or use of force or other forms of
  coercion for the purpose of sexual or
  commercial exploitation or domestic servitude
  (9.6.1)
• Procedures outline a list of risk indicators and
  appropriate way to respond if trafficking is
  suspected
                    Gangs
• All practitioners who have contact with children
  and young people should be able to recognise
  when a child is vulnerable to, or at risk of harm
  from, gang involvement or activity (9.31.1)

• Range of risk factors identified and appropriate
  response for different situations – this may be
  initially at CAF level or in more serious cases,
  requiring emergency protective action
    Specific areas strengthened
              for 2011
    In addition to those new sections, some existing
    areas have been revised and strengthened in
    the new Procedures.
    These include:
•   Domestic Abuse
•   MAPPA
•   Serious Case Reviews
•   Child Death Reviews
Guidance for Threshold of
 Need and Intervention
Local authorities have a statutory duty to
publish guidance on thresholds for access
to Children’s Social Care

The guidance is regularly reviewed and
updated

Please ensure that you are using the most
up to date guidance – January 2011
Guidance for Threshold of
 Need and Intervention

                    Level Two    Level Three
                    Vulnerable   Complex
                    Children     Children
                    with         with
                    additional   complex
                     needs       needs

 Level One                              Level Four
 Universal                              Acute
 Children with no                       Children whose needs
 additional needs                       are complex, prolonged
                                        or critical
                            Duty to Refer
   Everybody who works or has contact
   with families (or pregnant women)
   should be able to recognise and know
   how to act upon, evidence a child’s
   health or development (or that of an
   unborn baby) is being or maybe
   impaired
5.1.1 SET Procedures 2011
     Referrals to Social Care
• Referrals to Social Care Direct can be made
  via telephone, (0845 603 7627) fax, post or
  email

• Referrals need to be submitted on an
  ECC999 form, if a CAF has been completed
  then attach it

• The Initial Response Team (IRT) offer a
  consultation service Mon-Fri, office hours on
  01206 266068
          Listening to the Child

   If the child or young person can
   understand the significance and
   consequences of making a referral to
   Children’s Social Care, s/he should
   be asked her/his view

   This should be recorded on the
   referral form
4.5.18 SET Procedures 2011
 Informing parent/s of referral
   Where practicable, concerns should be
   discussed with the parent and agreement
   sought for referral to Children’s Social Care
   unless seeking agreement is likely to:

• Place the child at risk of significant harm
  through delay or the parent’s action or
  reactions

• Lead to the risk of loss of evidential material
4.5.20 SET Procedures 2011
  When not to inform parents
Generally DO NOT contact parents

  – Where discussion would impede a police
     investigation or social work enquiry
  – Where sexual abuse is suspected
  – Where organised or multiple abuse is
     suspected
  – Where the fabrication of an illness is
     suspected
  – ‘One Chance Rule’
 Do not delay referral where it is not possible to
 contact parents/carers
 If in doubt discuss with Social Care
  Parental refusal for referral
 If it is still considered that there is a need
 for a referral:

• The reason for proceeding            without
  agreement must be recorded

• Children’s Social Care should be told the
  parent has withheld permission and a
  discussion held about when and how s/he
  should be told of the referral
       Parental refusal for referral
     The parent should be contacted to inform
     him/her that after considering his/her
     wishes, a referral has been made

     (unless discussion with Children’s Social
     Care concluded this action might increase
     the risk of harm to the child)

4.5.27 SET Procedures 2011
   Resolution of Professional
        Disagreement

• Problem resolution is an integral part of
  professional co-operation and joint
  working to safeguard children

• The safety of individual child/ren and focus
  on child/ren are the paramount
  considerations in any professional
  disagreement
13.6 SET Procedures 2011
           Children Missing from
                 Education
•As a result of daily registration, schools are particularly
well placed to notice when a child has gone missing
•Specific Children Missing Education Policy
•There is a named point of contact in every local
authority and every practitioner working with a child has
a responsibility to inform this person if s/he knows or
suspects that a child is not receiving education


ECC contact is Rachel Thorogood, Tel: 01245 437900
rachel.thorogood@essex.gov.uk
9.7 SET Procedures 2011
         Private Fostering
When a child under 16 (or 18 if disabled) is
cared for and provided with accommodation, by
an adult who is not a relative, for 28 days or
more, it is called private fostering.

A relative in this situation is either a grandparent,
brother, sister, uncle or aunt. They can be a full
or half relation and could be related by marriage.
Relatives also include step-parents.
        Private Fostering

Professionals who work with children also
have a duty to notify the Council of any
private fostering arrangements they know
of.

Essex contact number 0800 801 530 or
email
adoptionandfostering@essexcc.gov.uk
               Domestic Abuse

   Domestic abuse is defined by the Home
   Office as

   “Any incident of threatening behaviour,
   violence or abuse (psychological, physical,
   sexual, financial or emotional) between
   adults who are or have been intimate
   partners or family members, regardless of
   gender or sexuality”.
9.10 SET Procedures 2011
             Domestic Abuse
• On average two women a week are killed by a
  current or former partner This constitutes nearly
  40% of all female homicide victims

• 30% of domestic abuse starts in pregnancy 52%
  of child protection cases involve domestic abuse

• 70% of children in UK refuges have been abused
  by their father


• 90% of domestic abuse incidents occurs with the
  children in the same or the next room (4)
What is MARAC?
• Monthly Multi-agency formal meeting
• Highest risk domestic abuse victims
• Considers risk to victims, children and other
  vulnerable people in the household
• Includes same sex relationships, interfamily as
  well as heterosexual relationships.
• Mainly female victims of male partner or ex-
  partner violence
• Any signed up agency can refer in cases which
  meet the threshold
• Essex county MARAC coordinator is employed
  by Essex Police
Aims of MARAC
• To share information to increase the safety,
  health and well being of victims, adults and their
  children
• To determine whether the perpetrator poses a
  significant risk to any particular individual or to
  the general community
• To jointly construct and implement a risk
  management plan
• To reduce repeat victimisation
• To improve agency accountability
• Improve support for staff involved in high risk DV
  cases
 Key Outcome
One of the key outcomes of MARAC
is that it moves the responsibility for
addressing the domestic abuse from
   the victim to a broader group of
               agencies

          MARAC Co-ordinator
     MARACESSEX@essex.pnn.police.uk
Domestic Homicide Reviews

•Are multi agency reviews following a
domestic homicide

• To ensure lessons are learned and to
identify what needs to change to
reduce the risk of such tragedies
happening again in the future
      Honour Based
         Abuse
   Honour based abuse is a crime or
   incident which has or may have been
   committed to protect or defend the
   ‘honour’ of the family and/or the
   community.


9.16 SET Procedures 2011
             Recognition

• Some of the behaviours may be the same
  as those used in domestic abuse

• Practitioners should be aware that a child
  could be the victim of violence/abuse in
  the name of honour for what an outside
  person may perceive to be a minor issue
               Response
• ‘One chance rule’
• Involving families in cases of forced
  marriage is dangerous
• Consider the safety of other siblings in the
  family
• Accurate, detailed and clear record
  keeping that is only available to those
  directly involved in the case
             Forced Marriage

 ‘a marriage conducted without the valid
 consent of both parties, where duress is a
 factor’ (A Choice by Right, HM Govt, 2000)

 There is a clear distinction between forced
 marriage and an arranged marriage


9.13 SET Procedures 2011
    Female Genital Mutilation

  A collective term for illegal procedures
  which include the removal of part/all
  external female genitalia for cultural or
  other non therapeutic reasons

  FGM is illegal in this country by the
  Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003

9.12 SET Procedures 2011
            Risk Factors
• Parents from community that practise
  FGM.
• Mother has had FGM
• Parents indicate prolonged holiday
• Frequent trips to country of origin
• Child may talk of long holiday
• Older sibling may have had FGM
• Child may confide she is to have ‘special
  procedure’ or ‘celebration’
   Child Sex Offender Disclosure
              Scheme
       Right To Ask – Sarah’s Law
                 THE BACKGROUND

The Review of the Protection of Children from Sexual
Offenders (June 2007) focused on how child sexual
offenders are managed, how sexual offending against
children can be prevented and how to provide greater
reassurance to the public.

This report created 20 actions, of which Actions 1 and
4 were of particular importance to the process.
Child Sex Offender Disclosure
           Scheme
       Right To Ask – Sarah’s Law
ACTION 1
Pilot a community awareness programme, in partnership
with non-governmental organisations, to provide better
child protection and develop messages to help parents
and carers safeguard children effectively.

ACTION 4
Pilot a process where members of the public can register
their child protection interest in a named individual.
Where this individual has convictions for child sex
offences and is considered a risk, there will be a
presumption that this information will be disclosed to the
relevant member of the public.
              Right to Ask in Essex

•Went live August 2010
•Enquiries can be made by anyone either in person or over
the phone if they are concerned that a child may be at risk of
sexual harm from a specific individual
•Police will then research all information given
•Checks are made with partner agencies
•Police will then decide if there is any information to disclose
•This information will only be disclosed to the most
appropriate person who has responsibility for safeguarding
that child
       The Purpose & Stages of
               MAPPA
                    Identifying
                    Offenders

                             Information
                             Exchange

                                        Risk
                                     Assessment

                                               Risk
                                            Management

12.3 SET Procedures 2011
     'Relevant Offenders'
        (Sec 68 CJCSA 2000)
All Registered Sexual Offenders. (Category 1)

All Violent & Other Sexual Offenders sentenced
to imprisonment of 12 months or detained under
a Hospital Order (Sec 37 MHA). (Category 2)

Any other Offender considered to ‘Pose a
Significant risk of Serious Harm to the Public’.
(Category 3).
Local Authority Designated
      Officer (LADO)
All County level and unitary authorities
must have a LADO

An initial discussion must always take
place between the employer and the
LADO when the concern or allegation
meets the criteria
     What is an
     allegation?
Covers any concern that indicates a person
who works with children has:
  – behaved in a way that has harmed, or
    may have harmed, a child, or
  – possibly committed a criminal offence
    against or related to a child, or
  – behaved towards a child/ren in a way
    that indicates unsuitability to work with
    children
  Chapter 11 SET Procedures 2011
  Allegations Management
Essex has 2 Local Authority Designated
Officers who can be contacted through the
Quality Assurance and Safeguarding
Service on 01245 436744

The Emergency Duty Service needs to be
contacted should advice be needed
outside office hours
These procedures apply to
    situations when:
there are suspicions, complaints or
allegations of abuse by a person who
works with children in either a paid or
unpaid capacity

It is discovered that an individual known to
have been involved previously in child
abuse, is or has been working with
children
 Recruitment, Selection and
        Supervision
• SET Procedures outlines the minimum
  standards for safer recruitment-ESCB website
  has safer recruitment guidance and audit tool

• Good practice requires at least one member of
  an interview panel to be safer recruitment
  trained

• Safer recruitment training can be accessed via
  your LSCB and Children’s Workforce
  Development Council
   Vetting and Barring Scheme
The following requirements, which came into effect
  in October 2009, remain in place:
• it is now a criminal offence for barred individuals
  to apply to work with children or vulnerable
  adults in a wider range of posts than previously.
• Employers also face criminal sanctions for
  knowingly employing a barred individual across
  a wider range of work
• the three previous barring lists (POVA, POCA
  and List 99) are replaced by the creation of two
  new barred lists administered by the ISA rather
  than several government departments.
 Serious Case Reviews
Working Together Chapter 8

   SET Procedures 13.3
   Purpose of Serious Case
          Reviews
• Establish whether there are lessons to be learned
  from the case about the way organisations work
  individually and together to safeguard and promote
  the welfare of children;
• Identify lessons both within and between agencies,
  how and within what timescale they will be acted on
  and what is expected to change as a consequence
Overall

• To improve intra and inter agency working and better
  safeguard and promote the welfare of children
           Referrals for SCR
• An SCR should always be undertaken when a child dies
  (including by suicide) and abuse or neglect are known or
  suspected to be a factor in the death

• The LSCB should consider whether an SCR should be
  undertaken in cases of:
   – Potentially life-threatening injury or serious and
     permanent impairment of physical and / or mental
     health or development through abuse or neglect
   – Serious harm resulting from sexual abuse
   – A parental homicide which is being subjected to a
     domestic homicide review
   – Serious harm to a child following violent assault
     perpetrated by another child or adult
    Key changes to SCRs:
• For any SCR commissioned from June
  2010 LSCBs are obliged to publish SCR
  overview reports in addition to an
  Executive Summary for the case (subject
  to appropriate redaction)

• SCRs and IMRs are subject to evaluation
  by Ofsted
      Serious Case Reviews

• Current process is under review
• Recommendation 9 of the Munro Review
  on Child Protection (May 2011) proposed
  changes to the way SCRs are conducted
• Government will consider this further in
  late 2011
 Themes from Essex serious
       case reviews
• Composition of household
• Frequent visitors to the household
• Who has parental responsibility including
  absent parents
• Race, ethnicity, religion and disability are
  recorded and considered in assessments
  about children’s needs and in planning to
  meet those needs in all agencies.
Themes from Essex serious
      case reviews
Frequent household moves within Essex
as well as across local authority
boundaries

Missed medical appointments
  Child Death Reviews

Working Together Chapter 7

   SET Procedures 13.4
               Requirements
• All unexpected deaths of children should be subject to a
  rapid response by designated local professionals
  including a police officer and a nurse or paediatrician

• All deaths of children whether expected or unexpected
  and irrespective of cause should be reviewed at a local
  child death review panel

• The death of any child occurring in Southend, Essex or
  Thurrock should be notified to the ESCB via the agreed
  procedures – www.escb.co.uk
               Changes
• Statutory definition provided for a
  ‘preventable death’ – those in which
  modifiable factors may have contributed to
  the death

• Addition guidance added to procedures –
  communication with parents, retention and
  destruction of records, protocol re CDR /
  Corner interface
                Changes
• For SET area the majority of neo-natal deaths
  will no longer be discussed at local CDR panel
  meetings unless concerning factors are
  identified

• When there is a death of a child in a household
  and abuse and neglect are suspected to be
  factors action must be taken by agencies to
  ensure that the safety and welfare of other
  children in the household or family network is
  secured – senior managers should take
  responsibility for actions taken and for
  monitoring these (recommendation from Child B
  / 2008 SCR)
                Key data (08-10)
• 224 deaths – Essex resident children

• 173 deaths discussed at panel – 29 deaths identified as
  preventable or potentially preventable

• Key themes:
   – Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy – presence of modifiable
     factors
   – Road Traffic Accidents
   – Recognition of the onset of serious illness
   – Infections and immunisations
   – Safety in the home and around water
Multi-agency Policies coming
           soon
•   Authoritative Practice
•   Neglect Guidance
•   Meetings Matrix
•   Drug & Alcohol Use in Pregnancy
•   Pre-birth Assessment
•   Supervision of parents of children in
    hospital where there are safeguarding
    concerns
         Munro Review

June 2010 Government commissioned a
review of child protection by Prof Munro

Munro has now reported and the
Government has responded to the
recommendations
           Useful contacts
Essex Safeguarding Children Board
escb@essex.gov.uk

MARAC Co-ordinator
MARACESSEX@essex.pnn.police.uk
Children Missing Education, ECC contact
rachel.thorogood@essex.gov.uk
Notification of private fostering arrangements
adoptionandfostering@essexcc.gov.uk
          Useful websites
Essex Safeguarding Children Board-
www.escb.co.uk
Integrated Working-
www.ecclms.co.uk/goecclms.asp
Essex County Council-www.essex.gov.uk
www.nspcc.org.uk/Inform- child protection
resources for anyone working to safeguard
children
Policy briefings and reports www.tri-x-
childcare.co.uk
Safer recruitment training and information
www.cwdcouncil.co.uk

				
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