Physical Interaction in Communication Design - keremodabasi_1_

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					Physical Computing

    Introduction to ELECTRONICS
                “Transducer”


INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Introduction to Digital World




                         Digitus (latin) = Finger




    INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Electronics
deals with the controlled
  flow of electrons



 The ability to control electron flow is usually applied
  to information handling or device control.




        INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Electricity
phenomena resulting from the
Presence and flow of electric charge



 deals with the generation, distribution, control and
 application of electrical power




        INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Electric potential




     INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Electric current
   a flow of electric charge


  unit for rate of flow of electric
  charge is the ampere.


  conductive metal



      INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Electric ~ Trafic




     INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Electric Components




    INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Wires

 carry
 electricity and
 telecommunications signals




      INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Switch (anahtar)
electrical component
that can break an electrical circuit




        INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Resistors (direnç)
 produces a voltage across its terminals
 that is proportional to
 the electric current



                   V = IR

        INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Potentiometer                                                           ?
three-terminal resistor with
a sliding contact that forms
an adjustable voltage divider




       INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Diode (diyot)

  allow an electric current in one
  direction and to block the current
  in the opposite direction




       INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Light Emiting Diode
(LED)
electronic light source

lower energy consumption, longer lifetime,
improved robustness, smaller size
and faster switching




        INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Circuit


a closed path or paths formed
by the interconnection of
electronic components through
which an electric current can flow




         INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Breadboard




                                            Resistor Value
    INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Transducers
 A transducer is a device that converts one type
 of energy to another.

 Transducers may be categorized by
 application: Sensor, actuator, or combination.




        INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Sensors
 A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity
 and converts it into a signal which can be read by an
 observer or by an instrument.

 •Acoustic, sound, vibration                     •Navigation instruments
 •Automotive, transportation                     •Position, angle, displacement
 •Chemical                                       •distance, speed, acceleration
 •Electric current, electric potential           •Optical, light, imaging
 •magnetic, radio                                •Pressure
 •Environment, weather, humidity                 •Force, density, level
 •Flow, fluid velocity                           •Thermal, heat, temperature
 •Radiation, subatomic particles                 •Proximity, presence



           INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Acoustic, sound, vibration
Geophone
Hydrophone
Lace Sensor a guitar pickup
Microphone
Seismometer
Accelerometer

Automotive, transportation
Air-fuel ratio meter
Crank sensor
Curb feeler, used to warn driver of curbs
Defect detector, used on railroads to detect axle and signal problems in passing trains
MAP sensor
Parking sensors, used to alert the driver of unseen obstacles during parking manoeuvres
Radar gun, used to detect the speed of other objects
Speedometer, used measure the instantaneous speed of a land vehicle
Speed sensor, used to detect the speed of an object
Throttle position sensor, used to monitor the position of the throttle in an internal combustion engine
Variable reluctance sensor, used to measure position and speed of moving metal components
Water sensor or water-in-fuel sensor, used to indicate the presence of water in fuel
Wheel speed sensor, used for reading the speed of a vehicle's wheel rotatio



               INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Optical, light, imaging                 Position, angle, displacement
                                        Distance, speed, acceleration
Charge-coupled device
Colorimeter                             Accelerometer
Contact image sensor                    Capacitive displacement sensor
Electro-optical sensor                  Free fall sensor
Flame detector                          Inclinometer
Infra-red sensor                        Laser rangefinder
LED as light sensor                     Linear encoder
Nichols radiometer                      Linear variable differential transformer
Fiber optic sensors                     Liquid capacitive inclinometers
Photodetector                           Odometer
Photodiode                              Piezoelectric accelerometer
Photomultiplier tubes                   Position sensor
Phototransistor                         Rotary encoder
Photoelectric sensor                    Rotary variable differential transformer
Photoionization detector                Selsyn
Photomultiplier                         Sudden Motion Sensor
Photoresistor                           Tilt sensor
Photoswitch                             Tachometer
Phototube                               Ultrasonic thickness gauge
Proximity sensor
Scintillometer
Shack-Hartmann
Wavefront sensor

         INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
What Can Be Sensed?
 Light
   Presence, color, intensity, content, direction
 Sound
   Presence, frequency, intensity, content , direction
 Heat
   Temperature, wavelength, magnitude, direction
 Chemicals
   Presence, concentration, identity, etc.
 Object Proximity
   Presence/absence, distance, bearing, color, etc.
 Physical orientation/attitude/position
   Magnitude, pitch, roll, yaw, coordinates, etc.
          INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Button-Switchs




    INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Potentiometers

                         Slide Potentiometer
                         SoftPot Membrane
                         Potentiometer




                                                          Rotary Potentiometer




    INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Light

                                Color light sensor
Photocell                                                           CMOS Camera




                                                                                    IR Camera

                                       IR Photo Transistor




            INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Infra Red                                          Infrared Emitters and Detectors




                                                                 Photo Interrupter
                                                                              Description: This sensor is
Infrared Proximity Sensor                                                     composed of an infrared emitter on
                                                                              one upright and a shielded infrared
                                                                              detector on the other. By emitting a
  Description: Infrared proximity sensor made                                 beam of infrared light from one
  by Sharp. Part # GP2Y0A21YK has an                                          upright to the other, the sensor can
  analog output that varies from 3.1V at 10cm                                 detect when an object passes
  to 0.4V at 80cm. The sensor has a Japanese                                  between the uprights, breaking the
  Solderless Terminal (JST) Connector. We                                     beam. Used for many applications
  recommend purchasing the related pigtail                                    including optical limit switches,
  below or soldering wires directly to the back                               pellet dispensing, general object
  of the module.                                                              detection, etc. Gap width = 10mm


                   INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
 Proximity


                                                                                                    ePIR
                                                                                   Features:
                                                                                   •fully functional motion detection
                                                                                   •based motion detection algorithms
                                                                                   •2.7-3.6VDC operating voltage
Ultrasonic Range Finder                     PIR Motion Sensor                      •Typical current draw: 8.9mA
 Features:                                                                         •Wide 5 x 5m, 60 degree detection pattern
 •42kHz Ultrasonic sensor                                                          •Simple hardware or advanced serial
                                    Red wire is power (5 to 12V). Brown wire is    •Adjustable sensitivity, delay and
 •Operates from 2.5-5.5V
                                    GND. Black wire is open collector Alarm.This   •ambient light threshold
 •Low 2mA supply current
                                    unit works great from 5 to 12V (datasheet
 •20Hz reading rate
                                    shows 12V). You can also install a jumper
 •RS232 Serial Output - 9600bps
                                    wire past the 5V regulator on board to make
 •Analog Output - 10mV/inch
                                    this unit work at 3.3V. Sensor uses
 •PWM Output - 147uS/inch
                                    1.6mA@3.3V.
 •Small, light weight module

                    INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
 Magnetic

                                                                                           3-Axis Magnetometer
                                                                                           Description: PNI Corp's 3-axis
                                                                                           magnetometer. Ready for the big time?
                                                                                           Low noise, large resolution magnetic field
                                                       Compass Module                      sensing all packed into a user-friendly DIP
Hall Effect Sensor                                                                         module at your disposal. Stable over a
                                                       Features:                           wide temperature range, the MicroMag3 is
 Description: The US1881 is an integrated Hall         •Simple I2C interface               a must have for orientation sensing and
 effect latched sensor. That's nice but what does it   •2.7 to 5.2V supply range           navigation.
                                                                                           Features:
 do? Holding a magnet near the sensor will cause       •1 to 20Hz selectable update rate
                                                                                           •500uA @ 3.3V DC
 the output pin to toggle. This makes for a robust     •True drop-in solution
                                                                                           •Field measurement range +/-1100uT
 presence sensor. A reed sensor also works             •0.5 degree heading resolution
                                                                                           •Resolution as low as 0.015uT
 nicely, but can be limited by the glass               •1 degree repeatability             •SPI interface - no additional circuitry
 encapsulation and size. A hall effect sensor is       •Supply current : 1mA @ 3V          needed
 much smaller, but can handle less current than a
 reed switch.



                     INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
 Temperature


                                                                                        Thermistor 10K
                                                                                        Description: 10K thermistor with a
                                             Infrared Thermometer                       negative temperature
                                                                                        coefficient. Good choice for temp-
                                                                                        sensing aplications.
                                              Description: Melexis' MLX90614ESF-
                                              BAA is an infrared thermometer
Digital Temperature Sensor                    designed for non-contact temperature
                                              sensing. An internal 17-bit ADC and a
                                              powerful DSP contribute to the
 Description: This is a breakout board for
                                              MLX90614's high accuracy and
 the incredibly small TMP102 digital          resolution. It has a huge number of
 temperature sensor. The TMP102 is a          applications including body temperature
 digital sensor (I2C a.k.a. TWI), has a       measurment and movement detection.
 resolution of 0.0625°C, and is accurate
 up to 0.5°C. The sensor requires very
 low-current, and is loaded with features.


                     INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Weather

                                                                                                 Weather Meters
                                                                                                Description: This is a simple
                                             Barometric Pressure Sensor                         weather station that includes an
                                                                                                anemometer, wind vane, and rain
                                                                                                gauge. Includes mounting hardware
                                                    Description: The SCP1000-D01 is a great
                                                                                                and RJ11 connections to the
                                                    IC - now you can play with it! This is a
                                                                                                sensors.
     Humidity Sensor                                simple breakout board bringing the SPI
                                                                                                The anemometer uses a reed switch,
                                                    interface pins to a 0.1" header. Please
                                                                                                so simple frequency detection can be
                                                    note, we now stock the latest ASIC rev C
 Description: This is a breakout board for                                                      used to measure wind speed. The
                                                    (IC label 'D01').
 Honeywell's HIH-4030 humidity sensor. The                                                      wind vane uses a potentiometer to
                                                    The SCP1000 is the very first absolute
 HIH-4030 measures relative humidity (%RH)                                                      detect wind direction. The rain gauge
                                                    pressure sensor on the market to use
 and delivers it as an analog output voltage. You                                               acts as a switch that closes at
                                                    MEMS technology to grant 17-bit
 can connect the output of the sensor directly to                                               measured increments. Please see
                                                    resolution. Under ideal conditions, this
 an ADC on a microcontroller; and, thanks to the                                                the datasheet for more information.
                                                    sensor can detect the pressure difference
 sensor's near linear voltage output, the data is
                                                    within a 9cm column of air.
 very easy to process.



                INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.
Biometrics

                                                                                              Polar Heart Rate Module
                                                                                                  Description: This is a OEM module for
                                                   Fingerprint Scanner                            the Polar Heart Rate system. This
  Alcohol Gas Sensor                                                                              device works with any Polar heart rate
                                                                                                  strap to pickup the electromagnetic
                                                  Description: The Nitgen RS232 serial            pulse and output a 1ms pulse indicating
 Description: This alcohol sensor is suitable     fingerprint scanner is a powerful ADSP-         a heart beat has occurred. Embed
 for detecting alcohol concentration on your      BF531 Blackfin based system. This scanner       a heart ratereading into your next
 breath, just like your common breathalyzer. It   is capable of gathering and storing unique      project!
 has a high sensitivity and fast response time.   finger prints. Simply hold your finger on the
 Sensor provides an analog resistive output       optical scanner, query the device over
 based on alcohol concentration. The drive        serial, and you will be issued a unique ID.
 circuit is very simple, all it needs is one      Use that ID within your embedded system to
 resistor. A simple interface could be a 0-3.3V   determine access levels, time clocks, door
 ADC.                                             locks, etc.




               INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.

				
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posted:6/28/2012
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