Directing, Leadership and Motivation
• Directing is the process around which all performance
revolves. It is a managerial function performed by all
managers at all levels of the organization.
• Directing embraces three essential activities:
1. Issuing of orders and instructions to subordinates.
2. Guiding or counseling and teaching the subordinates the
proper way of doing work ; and
3. Supervising subordinates to ensure that the work done
by them conforms to the plans.
Directing function as the means of achieving of important
1. Getting the work done, and
2. Developing future managers
Principles of Direction
1. Principle of individual contribution to objectives.
2. Principle of efficiency of direction.
3. Principle of harmony of objectives.
4. Principle of unity of command.
5. Principle of direct supervision
6. Principle of appropriateness of direction technique.
7. Principle of managerial communication.
8. Principle of comprehension.
9. Principles of information.
10. Principle of strategic use of informal organization
11. Principle of leadership.
• Leadership is both a process and property. As a
process, the use of non-coercive influence to
shape the group’s or organization’s goals,
motivate behavior toward the achievement of
those goals, and help define group or
organizational culture; as property, the set of
characteristics attributed to individuals who are
perceived to be leaders.
• Leaders: People who can influence the
behaviors of others without having to rely on
force; those accepted by others as leaders.
• Leadership and management
Leadership and Power
• Power is the ability to affect the behaviors of others. In
organizational settings there are five kinds of power.
• Legitimate Power: Power granted through the
organizational hierarchy; The power defined by the
organization to be accorded to people occupying
• Reward Power: The power to give or withhold rewards
such as salary increases, bonuses, promotions, praise,
recognition and interesting job assignments.
• Coercive Power: The power to force compliance by
means of psychological, emotional or physical threat.
• Referent power: The personal power that accrues to
someone based on identification, imitation, loyalty or
• Expert power: The personal power that accrues to
someone based on the information or expertise that they
• Using power:
• Legitimate request
• Instrumental compliance
• Personal identification
• Information distortion
Techniques of leadership Practices
• Autocratic Leader centralizes and decision making in
himself. There is no participation by subordinates. The
leader takes full authority and assumes responsibility.
• Democratic Leader decentralizes authority. He invites his
subordinates to participate in in tackling problems so that
the leader are acting as a social unit.
• Bureaucratic leader depends upon rules and so reduces
the process of management to a series of routine
actions. The rule specify the obligations of the
subordinates, directing them to do particular things in
• Laissez faire or free rein leader depends
largely upon the group to establish its own
goals and work out its own problems.
Group members train themselves and
provide their own motivation. The leader is
more or less passive and the initiative is
with the subordinates
• Motivation is a general term applying to
the entire class of drives , needs, wishes,
and similar forces.
• To say that managers motivate their
subordinates is to say that they do those
things which they hope will satisfy these
drives and desires and induce the
subordinates to act in a desired manner.
Feelings that drive someone
toward a particular objective
(Stimulus) Action toward Goal
Unsatisfied Needs Achievement
Difference Between Motivation and
• Motivation refers to the drive and effort to satisfy a want or goal.
• Satisfaction refers to the contentment experienced when a what is
satisfied. In other words, motivation implies a drive toward an
outcome, and satisfaction is the outcome already experienced.
• From a management point of view, a
person might have high job satisfaction but
a low level of motivation for the job, or the
reserve might be true. The probability
exists that highly motivated persons with
low job satisfaction will look for other
positions. Likewise, people who find their
positions rewarding but are being paid
considerably less than they deserve will
probably search for other jobs.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
• Abraham Maslow is a humanistic psychologist.
• developed a model in his book Motivation and
Personality , low-level needs such as
physiological requirements and safety must be
satisfied before higher-level needs such as self-
fulfillment are pursued.
• In this hierarchical model, when a need is mostly
satisfied it no longer motivates and the next
higher need takes its place
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
• Frederick Herzberg, Observer of Management
• Maintenance/ Hygiene factors :factors that prevent dissatisfaction but do
not generate satisfaction or motivates workers to greater effort. These can
• Salary :- adequate wage, salary, fringe benefits
• Job Security:- company grievance procedure and seniority privileges
• Working condition :- adequate heat, light, ventilation, and hours of work
• Status: privileges, job titles, ranks and positions
• Company Policies: - policy of the organization and fairness of admin.
• Quality of Technical Supervision :- whether or not an employee gets
answers of the job related questions.
• Quality of interpersonal relationships among peers, supervisors,
subordinates, social opportunity and development of comfortable operating
Motivation factors :Job factors that provides
satisfaction and therefore motivation, but whose
absence causes no satisfaction
• Achievement: opportunity for accomplishment,
contributing something of value
• Recognition : acknowledgement that contributions is
worth the effort and effort is noted and appreciated
• Responsibility: acquisition of new duties or
responsibilities through expansion of job or by delegation
• Advancement : improvement of an employee’s
organizational position as a result of job performance
• The work itself : opportunity for self-expression,
personal satisfaction, and challenge.
McClelland’s Needs Theory of Motivation
David C. McClelland has identified three types of motivating needs.
Need for Power : people with a high need for power have a great
concern for exercising influence and control. Such individuals
generally are seeking positions for leadership. They are
forceful, outspoken, hardheaded, and demanding, they enjoy
teaching and public speaking.
Need for Affiliation : people with a high need for affiliation usually
derive pleasure form being loved and tend to avoid the pain of
being rejected by a social group. As individuals, they are likely
to concerned with maintaining pleasant social relationships, to
enjoy a sense of intimacy and understanding, to be ready to
console and help others in trouble, and to enjoy friendly
interaction with others.
Need for Achievement : people with a high need for
achievement have an intense desire for success
and equally intense fear for failure. They want to be
challenged, and they set moderately difficult goals
for themselves. They take a realistic approach to
risk, they are not like gamblers, but prefer to analyze
and access problems. They assume personal
responsibility to get a job done, and like feedback on
how they are doing. They tend to be restless, work
long hours, and like to run their own shoes.