Docstoc

Directing, Leadership and Motivation

Document Sample
Directing, Leadership and Motivation Powered By Docstoc
					Directing, Leadership and Motivation
                     Directing
• Directing is the process around which all performance
   revolves. It is a managerial function performed by all
   managers at all levels of the organization.
• Directing embraces three essential activities:
1. Issuing of orders and instructions to subordinates.
2. Guiding or counseling and teaching the subordinates the
   proper way of doing work ; and
3. Supervising subordinates to ensure that the work done
   by them conforms to the plans.
   Directing function as the means of achieving of important
   objectives, namely:-
1. Getting the work done, and
2. Developing future managers
           Principles of Direction
1.    Principle of individual contribution to objectives.
2.    Principle of efficiency of direction.
3.    Principle of harmony of objectives.
4.    Principle of unity of command.
5.    Principle of direct supervision
6.    Principle of appropriateness of direction technique.
7.    Principle of managerial communication.
8.    Principle of comprehension.
9.    Principles of information.
10.   Principle of strategic use of informal organization
11.   Principle of leadership.
                 Leadership
• Leadership is both a process and property. As a
  process, the use of non-coercive influence to
  shape the group’s or organization’s goals,
  motivate behavior toward the achievement of
  those goals, and help define group or
  organizational culture; as property, the set of
  characteristics attributed to individuals who are
  perceived to be leaders.
• Leaders: People who can influence the
  behaviors of others without having to rely on
  force; those accepted by others as leaders.
• Leadership and management
         Leadership and Power
• Power is the ability to affect the behaviors of others. In
  organizational settings there are five kinds of power.
• Legitimate Power: Power granted through the
  organizational hierarchy; The power defined by the
  organization to be accorded to people occupying
  particular positions.
• Reward Power: The power to give or withhold rewards
  such as salary increases, bonuses, promotions, praise,
  recognition and interesting job assignments.
• Coercive Power: The power to force compliance by
  means of psychological, emotional or physical threat.
• Referent power: The personal power that accrues to
  someone based on identification, imitation, loyalty or
  charisma.
• Expert power: The personal power that accrues to
  someone based on the information or expertise that they
  possess.
• Using power:
• Legitimate request
• Instrumental compliance
• Coercion
• Personal identification
• Information distortion
Techniques of leadership Practices
• Autocratic Leader centralizes and decision making in
  himself. There is no participation by subordinates. The
  leader takes full authority and assumes responsibility.
• Democratic Leader decentralizes authority. He invites his
  subordinates to participate in in tackling problems so that
  the leader are acting as a social unit.
• Bureaucratic leader depends upon rules and so reduces
  the process of management to a series of routine
  actions. The rule specify the obligations of the
  subordinates, directing them to do particular things in
  definite ways.
• Laissez faire or free rein leader depends
  largely upon the group to establish its own
  goals and work out its own problems.
  Group members train themselves and
  provide their own motivation. The leader is
  more or less passive and the initiative is
  with the subordinates
              Motivation
• Motivation is a general term applying to
  the entire class of drives , needs, wishes,
  and similar forces.
• To say that managers motivate their
  subordinates is to say that they do those
  things which they hope will satisfy these
  drives and desires and induce the
  subordinates to act in a desired manner.
Feelings that drive someone
toward a particular objective
        Wants                    Behavior




     Tension
    (Stimulus)                  Action toward Goal
 Unsatisfied Needs                Achievement




                     Feedback
      Difference Between Motivation and
                 Satisfaction
• Motivation refers to the drive and effort to satisfy a want or goal.

• Satisfaction refers to the contentment experienced when a what is
  satisfied. In other words, motivation implies a drive toward an
   outcome, and satisfaction is the outcome already experienced.



                                           Results
                       Motivation




                                         Satisfaction
• From a management point of view, a
  person might have high job satisfaction but
  a low level of motivation for the job, or the
  reserve might be true. The probability
  exists that highly motivated persons with
  low job satisfaction will look for other
  positions. Likewise, people who find their
  positions rewarding but are being paid
  considerably less than they deserve will
  probably search for other jobs.
  Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
• Abraham Maslow is a humanistic psychologist.
• developed a model in his book Motivation and
  Personality , low-level needs such as
  physiological requirements and safety must be
  satisfied before higher-level needs such as self-
  fulfillment are pursued.
• In this hierarchical model, when a need is mostly
  satisfied it no longer motivates and the next
  higher need takes its place
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
      Motivation-Maintenance Model
•   Frederick Herzberg, Observer of Management
•   Maintenance/ Hygiene factors :factors that prevent dissatisfaction but do
    not generate satisfaction or motivates workers to greater effort. These can
    be
•   Salary :- adequate wage, salary, fringe benefits
•   Job Security:- company grievance procedure and seniority privileges
•   Working condition :- adequate heat, light, ventilation, and hours of work
•   Status: privileges, job titles, ranks and positions
•   Company Policies: - policy of the organization and fairness of admin.
•   Quality of Technical Supervision :- whether or not an employee gets
    answers of the job related questions.
•   Quality of interpersonal relationships among peers, supervisors,
    subordinates, social opportunity and development of comfortable operating
    relationship.
  Motivation factors :Job factors that provides
 satisfaction and therefore motivation, but whose
          absence causes no satisfaction
• Achievement: opportunity for accomplishment,
  contributing something of value
• Recognition : acknowledgement that contributions is
  worth the effort and effort is noted and appreciated
• Responsibility: acquisition of new duties or
  responsibilities through expansion of job or by delegation
• Advancement : improvement of an employee’s
  organizational position as a result of job performance
• The work itself : opportunity for self-expression,
  personal satisfaction, and challenge.
McClelland’s Needs Theory of Motivation

David C. McClelland has identified three types of motivating needs.

Need for Power : people with a high need for power have a great
  concern for exercising influence and control. Such individuals
  generally are seeking positions for leadership. They are
  forceful, outspoken, hardheaded, and demanding, they enjoy
  teaching and public speaking.
Need for Affiliation : people with a high need for affiliation usually
  derive pleasure form being loved and tend to avoid the pain of
  being rejected by a social group. As individuals, they are likely
  to concerned with maintaining pleasant social relationships, to
  enjoy a sense of intimacy and understanding, to be ready to
  console and help others in trouble, and to enjoy friendly
  interaction with others.
Need for Achievement : people with a high need for
  achievement have an intense desire for success
  and equally intense fear for failure. They want to be
  challenged, and they set moderately difficult goals
  for themselves. They take a realistic approach to
  risk, they are not like gamblers, but prefer to analyze
  and access problems. They assume personal
  responsibility to get a job done, and like feedback on
  how they are doing. They tend to be restless, work
  long hours, and like to run their own shoes.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: Directing, Leadership and Motivation