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                        Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
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                        Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (pronounced: [ˈmoːɦənd aːs ˈkərəmtʃənd ˈɡaːnd ʱi]; 2
                                                                                      ̪              ̪       ̪
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                        October 1869    [1] – 30 January 1948), commonly known as Mahat ma Gandhi, was the                       Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
Co ntents               preeminent leader of Indian nationalism in British- ruled India. Employing non- violent civil
Featured co ntent
                        disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for non- violence,
Current events          civil rights and freedom across the world.[2][3]
Rando m article
                        Son of a senior government official, Gandhi was born and raised in a Hindu Bania community
Do nate to Wikipedia
                        in coastal Gujarat, and trained in law in London. Gandhi became famous by fighting for the civil
                        rights of Muslim and Hindu Indians in South Africa, using the new techniques of non- violent civil
Interactio n
                        disobedience that he developed. Returning to India in 1915, he set about organising peasants
Help                    to protest excessive land- taxes. A lifelong opponent of "communalism" (i.e. basing politics on
Abo ut Wikipedia        religion) he reached out widely to all religious groups. He became a leader of Muslims
Co mmunity po rtal      protesting the declining status of the Caliphate. Assuming leadership of the Indian National
Recent changes          Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for easing poverty, expanding women's
Co ntact Wikipedia      rights, building religious and ethnic amity, ending untouchability, increasing economic self-
                        reliance, and above all for achieving Swaraj—the independence of India from British
                                                                                                                             B o rn         2 October 1869
                        domination.
To o lbo x                                                                                                                                  Porbandar , Kathiawar
                        Gandhi led Indians in protesting the national salt tax with the 400 km (250 mi) Dandi Salt March                    Agency, British India [1 ]
What links here
                        in 1930, and later in demanding the British to immediately Quit India in 1942, during World War      D ie d         30 January 1948 (aged 78)
Related changes
                        II. He was imprisoned for that and for numerous other political offenses over the years. Gandhi                     New Delhi, Dominion of India
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                        sought to practice non- violence and truth in all situations, and advocated that others do the       C ause o f     Assassination by shooting
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                        same. He saw the villages as the core of the true India and promoted self sufficiency; he did        d e at h
Permanent link
                        not support the industrializ ation programs of his disciple Jawaharlal Nehru. He lived modestly
Cite this page                                                                                                               R e st ing     Cremated at Rajghat, Delhi.
                        in a self- sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven   p lace         28.6415°N 77.2483°E
                        with yarn he had hand spun on a charkha. His political enemy Winston Churchill ridiculed him as
                                                                                                                             N at io nalit y Indian
Print/expo rt           a "half- naked fakir." [4] He was a dedicated vegetarian, and undertook long fasts as means of
                                                                                                                             O t he r       Mahatma Gandhi, Bapu,
Create a bo o k         both self- purification and political mobiliz ation.
                                                                                                                             name s         Gandhiji
                                                                                                                                                                PDFmyURL.com
Do wnlo ad as PDF    In his last year, unhappy at the partition of India , Gandhi worked to stop the carnage between
                                                                                                                        Alma mater      Samaldas College,
Printable versio n   Muslims on the one hand and Hindus and Sikhs that raged in the border area between India                           Bhavnagar ,
                     and Pakistan. He was assassinated on 30 January 1948 by a Hindu nationalist who thought                            Inner Temple , London
Languages            Gandhi was too sympathetic to India's Muslims. 30 January is observed as Martyrs' Day in           K no wn f o r   Prominent figure of Indian
                     India. The honourific Mahatma (Sanskrit: mahāt̪ mā or "Great Soul", was applied to him by                          independence movement,
Адыгэбзэ
                     1914.[5] In India he was also called Bapu (Gujarati: bāpuː or "Father"). He is known in India as                   propounding the philosophy
Afrikaans
                     the Father of the Nation ;[6] his birthday, 2 October, is commemorated there as Gandhi Jayanti ,                   of Satyagraha and Ahimsa
Alemannisch                                                                                                                             advocating non- violence,
                     a national holiday, and world- wide as the International Day of Non- Violence . Gandhi's
አማርኛ                                                                                                                                    pacifism
                     philosophy was not theoretical but one of pragmatism, that is, practicing his principles in real
‫اﻟﻌرﺑﯾ ﺔ‬                                                                                                                R e lig io n    Hinduism
                     time. Asked to give a message to the people, he would respond, "My life is my message." [7]
arago nés                                                                                                               Sp o use        Kasturba Gandhi
অসমীয়া                                      Co nt e nt s
                                                                                                                        C hild re n     Harilal
asturianu             1 Early life and backgro und                                                                                      Manilal
azərbaycanca          2 English barrister                                                                                               Ramdas
বাংলা                 3 Civil rights mo vement in So uth Africa (18 9 3–19 14)                                                          Devdas
Bân-lâm-gú                                                                                                                              Child who died in infancy
                          3.1 Reactio ns to blacks
беларуская            4 Struggle fo r Indian Independence (19 15–47)                                                    Pare nt s       Putlibai Gandhi (Mother)
Беларуская                4.1 Ro le in Wo rld War I                                                                                     Karamchand Gandhi
(тарашкевіца)                                                                                                                           (Father)
                          4.2 Champaran and Kheda
भोजपुरी                                                                                                                 Sig nat ure
                          4.3 Khilafat mo vement
Biko l Central
                          4.4 No n-co o peratio n
български
                          4.5 Salt Satyagraha (Salt March)
bo sanski
                               4.5.1 Wo men
brezho neg
                               4.5.2 Gandhi as fo lk hero
català
                               4.5.3 Nego tiatio ns
česky
                          4.6 Wo rld War II and Quit India
co rsu
                          4.7 Partitio n and independence, 19 47
Cymraeg
                      5 Assassinatio n
dansk
                          5.1 Ashes
Deutsch
                      6 Principles, practices and beliefs
                          6 .1 Influences
eesti                     6 .2 To lsto y
Ελληνικά                  6 .3 Truth and Satyagraha
españo l                  6 .4 No nvio lence
Esperanto                      6 .4.1 Interventio n in Palestine
euskara                   6 .5 Vegetarianism and fasting
‫ﻓﺎرﺳﯽ‬                     6 .6 Celibacy
Fiji Hindi
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Fiji Hindi                6 .7 Nai Talim, Basic Educatio n
français                  6 .8 Swaraj, Self-Rule
Frysk                     6 .9 Gandhian eco no mics
Gaeilge               7 Literary wo rks
galego                8 Legacy and depictio ns in po pular culture
贛語                        8 .1 Fo llo wers and internatio nal influence
ગુજ રાતી                  8 .2 Glo bal ho lidays
한국어                       8 .3 Awards
Հայերեն                   8 .4 Film and literature
िह दी                     8 .5 Current impact within India
hrvatski              9 Citatio ns
Ido                   10 References
Ilo kano                  10 .1 Bo o ks
িব ু ি য়া মিণপুর ী        10 .2 Primary so urces
Bahasa Indo nesia         10 .3 Web sites
interlingua               10 .4 Jo urnal articles
íslenska                  10 .5 News repo rts
italiano              11 External links
‫ע ברית‬
Basa Jawa
                     Early life and background
ಕನಡ
ქართული              Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi[8] was born on 2 October 1869 [1] in Porbandar, a coastal town which
Қазақша              was then part of the Bombay Presidency, British India.[9] He was born in his ancestral home, now known
Kiswahili            as Kirti Mandir.[10] His father, Karamchand Gandhi (1822–1885), who belonged to the Hindu Modh
Kurdî                community, served as the diwan (a high official) of Porbander state , a small princely state in the
Кыргызча             Kathiawar Agency of British India.[10][11] His grandfather was Uttamchand Gandhi, also called Utta
Ladino               Gandhi.[10] His mother, Putlibai, who came from the Pranami Vaishnava community, was Karamchand's
Latina               fourth wife, the first three wives having apparently died in childbirth.[12] Jain ideas and practices
latviešu             powerfully influenced Gandhi particularly through his mother who was a devout Jain.[13][14]
Lëtzebuergesch       The Indian classics, especially the stories of Shravana and king Harishchandra, had a great impact on
lietuvių
                     Gandhi in his childhood. In his autobiography, he admits that they left an indelible impression on his mind.
lingála
                     He writes: "It haunted me and I must have acted Harishchandra to myself times without number." Gandhi's
lumbaart             early self- identification with truth and love as supreme values is traceable to these epic characters.[15][16]
magyar
                     In May 1883, the 13- year- old Mohandas was married to 14- year- old Kasturbai Makhanji (her first name
македо нски
                     was usually shortened to "Kasturba", and affectionately to "Ba") in an arranged child marriage, according
മലയാളം
                     to the custom of the region.[17] In the process, he lost a year at school. [18] Recalling the day of their
Malti

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Malti
                    marriage, he once said, "As we didn't know much about marriage, for us it meant only wearing new
मराठी
                    clothes, eating sweets and playing with relatives." However, as was prevailing tradition, the adolescent
‫ﻣﺻر ى‬
                    bride was to spend much time at her parents' house, and away from her husband.[19] In 1885, when                  Gandhi in his earliest
‫ﻣﺎزروﻧﯽ‬
    ِ                                                                                                                                 known photo, aged 7, c. 1876
                    Gandhi was 15, the couple's first child was born, but survived only a few days. Gandhi's father,
Bahasa Melayu
                    Karamchand Gandhi, had also died earlier that year.[20]
мо нго л
မြန်မာဘာသာ          Mohandas and Kasturba had four more children, all sons: Harilal, born in 1888; Manilal, born in 1892; Ramdas, born in 1897; and
Nederlands          Devdas, born in 1900.[17] At his middle school in Porbandar and high school in Rajkot, Gandhi remained a mediocre student. He shone
नेपाली              neither in the classroom nor on the playing field. One of the terminal reports rated him as "good at English, fair in Arithmetic and weak in
नेपाल भाषा          Geography; conduct very good, bad handwriting." He passed the matriculation exam at Samaldas College in Bhavnagar, Gujarat, with
日本語                 some difficulty. Gandhi's family wanted him to be a barrister as it would increase the prospects of succeeding to his father's post. [21] In
no rsk (bo kmål)    1926 Manilal Gandhi expressed his desire to marry Fatima Gool daughter of a Muslim Businessman in South Africa. Gandhi strongly
no rsk (nyno rsk)   advised against it, warning it would be a highly contentious move that would seriously damage Manilal's career. The son dropped the
o ccitan            idea.[22]
ଓଡ଼ିଆ
‫ﭘﻧﺟﺎﺑﯽ‬              English barrister
‫ﭘ ﺗو‬
                    In 1888, Gandhi travelled to London, England, to study law at University College London
                    where he studied Indian law and jurisprudence and to train as a barrister at the Inner
Piemo ntèis         Temple. His time in London, was influenced by a vow he had made to his mother upon
To k Pisin          leaving India, in the presence of a Jain monk, to observe the Hindu precepts of abstinence
po lski             from meat and alcohol as well as of promiscuity.[23] Gandhi tried to adopt "English"
po rtuguês          customs, including taking dancing lessons for example. However, he could not appreciate
ro mână             the bland vegetarian food offered by his landlady and was frequently hungry until he found
Ro mani             one of London's few vegetarian restaurants. Influenced by Henry Salt's writing, he joined the
Runa Simi           Vegetarian Society, was elected to its executive committee, [24] and started a local
Русиньскый          Bayswater chapter.[12] Some of the vegetarians he met were members of the Theosophical              Gandhi and his wife Kasturba (1902)
русский             Society, which had been founded in 1875 to further universal brotherhood, and which was
саха тыла           devoted to the study of Buddhist and Hindu literature. They encouraged Gandhi to join them
सं कतम्
    ृ               in reading the Bhagavad Gita both in translation as well as in the original.[24] Not having shown interest in religion before, he became
sardu               interested in religious thought.
Sco ts              Gandhi was called to the bar in June 1891 and then left London for India, where he learned that his mother had died while he was in
shqip               London and that his family had kept the news from him.[24] His attempts at establishing a law practice in Bombay failed because he was
sicilianu           too shy to speak up in court. He returned to Rajkot to make a modest living drafting petitions for litigants but was forced to close it when
  ංහල               he ran afoul of a British officer.[12][24] In 1893, he accepted a year- long contract from Dada Abdulla & Co., an Indian firm, to a post in the
Simple English      Colony of Natal, South Africa, then part of the British Empire.[12]
‫ﺳﻧڌ ي‬


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slo venčina         Civil rights movement in South Africa (1893–1914)
slo venščina
So o maaliga           Main article: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in South Africa
‫ﮐورد ی‬                                                              Gandhi spent 21 years in South Africa , where he developed his political views, ethics and
српски / srpski                                                     political leadership skills. Indians in South Africa were led by wealthy Muslims, who
srpsko hrvatski /                                                   employed Gandhi as a lawyer, and by impoverished Hindu indentured laborers with very
српско хрватски
                                                                    limited rights. Gandhi considered them all to be Indians, taking a lifetime view that
Basa Sunda
                                                                    "Indianness" transcended religion and caste. He believed he could bridge historic
suo mi
                                                                    differences, especially regarding religion, and he took that belief back to India where he
svenska
                                                                    tried to implement it. The South African experience exposed handicaps to Gandhi that he
Tagalo g
                                                                    had not known about. He realised he was out of contact with the enormous complexities of
த
                                                                    religious and cultural life in India, and believed he understood India by getting to know and
татарча/tatarça
                                                                    leading Indians in South Africa.[25]
    లుగు
ไทย
                                                                  In South Africa, Gandhi faced the discrimination directed at all coloured people. He was
Türkçe               Gandhi in South Africa (1895)                thrown off a train at Pietermaritz burg after refusing to move from the first- class. He protested
українська
                                                                  and was allowed on first class the next day.[26] Travelling farther on by stagecoach, he was
‫اردو‬
                                                                  beaten by a driver for refusing to move to make room for a European passenger.[27] He
vèneto
                    suffered other hardships on the journey as well, including being barred from several hotels. In another incident, the magistrate of a Durban
Tiếng Việt
                    court ordered Gandhi to remove his turban, which he refused to do.[28]
Võ ro               These events were a turning point in Gandhi's life and shaped his social activism and awakened him to social injustice. After witnessing
文言                  racism, prejudice and injustice against Indians in South Africa, Gandhi began to question his place in society and his people's standing in
Winaray             the British Empire.[29]
吴语
                    Gandhi extended his original period of stay in South Africa to assist Indians in opposing a bill to deny them the right to vote. Though
‫יי ִדיש‬
                    unable to halt the bill's passage, his campaign was successful in drawing attention to the grievances of Indians in South Africa. He helped
Yo rùbá
                    found the Natal Indian Congress in 1894, [12][26] and through this organisation, he moulded the Indian community of South Africa into a
粵語
                    unified political force. In January 1897, when Gandhi landed in Durban, a mob of white settlers attacked him and he escaped only through
Žemaitėška
                    the efforts of the wife of the police superintendent. He, however, refused to press charges against any member of the mob, stating it was
中文                  one of his principles not to seek redress for a personal wrong in a court of law.[12]
                    In 1906, the Transvaal government promulgated a new Act compelling registration of the colony's Indian population. At a mass protest
                    meeting held in Johannesburg on 11 September that year, Gandhi adopted his still evolving methodology of Satyagraha (devotion to the
                    truth), or non- violent protest, for the first time.[30] He urged Indians to defy the new law and to suffer the punishments for doing so. The
                    community adopted this plan, and during the ensuing seven- year struggle, thousands of Indians were jailed, flogged, or shot for striking,
                    refusing to register, for burning their registration cards or engaging in other forms of non- violent resistance. The government successfully
                    repressed the Indian protesters, but the public outcry over the harsh treatment of peaceful Indian protesters by the South African
                    government forced South African leader Jan Christiaan Smuts, himself a philosopher, to negotiate a compromise with Gandhi. Gandhi's

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ideas took shape, and the concept of Satyagraha matured during this struggle.

Reactions to blacks
After the black majority came to power in South Africa, Gandhi was proclaimed a national hero with
numerous monuments.[31] Gandhi focused his attention on Indians in South Africa, but historians have
also examined his changing ideas on the proper role for blacks. White rule enforced strict segregation
among all races and generated conflict between these communities. At first Gandhi shared racial notions
prevalent in the 1890s. Bhana and Vahed argue that Gandhi's experiences in jail sensitiz ed him to the
plight of blacks. "His negative views in the Johannesburg jail were reserved for hardened African
prisoners rather than Africans generally." [32]
In 1906, the British declared war against the Zulu kingdom in Natal. Gandhi actively encouraged the
British to recruit Indians. He argued that Indians should support the war efforts in order to legitimise their
claims to full citiz enship. The British accepted Gandhi's offer to let a detachment of 20 Indians volunteer
as a stretcher- bearer corps to treat wounded British soldiers. This corps was commanded by Gandhi
and operated for less than two months.[33] The experience taught him it was hopeless to directly
challenge the overwhelming military power of the British army—he decided it could only be resisted in
non- violent fashion by the pure of heart.[34]

Struggle for Indian Independence (1915–47)
   See also: Indian independence movement
In 1915, Gandhi returned to India permanently. He brought an international reputation as a leading Indian
                                                                                                                 M.K. Gandhi while serving
nationalist, theorist and organiz er. He joined the Indian National Congress and was introduced to Indian        in the Ambulance Corps during
issues, politics and the Indian people primarily by Gopal Krishna Gokhale. Gokhale was a key leader of           the Second Boer War (1899)
the Congress Party best known for his restraint and moderation, and his insistence on working inside the
system. Gandhi took Gokhale's liberal approach based on British Whiggish traditions and transformed it
to make it look wholly Indian.[35]
Gandhi took leadership of Congress in 1920 and began a steady escalation of demands (with Intermittent compromises or pauses) until
on 26 January 1930 the Indian National Congress declared the independence of India. The British did not recogniz e that and more
negotiations ensued, with Congress taking a role in provincial government in the late 1930s. Gandhi and Congress withdrew their support
of the Raj when the Viceroy declared war on Germany in September 1939 without consulting anyone. Tensions escalated until Gandhi
demanded immediate independence in 1942 and the British responded by imprisoning him and tens of thousands of Congress leaders
for the duration. Meanwhile the Muslim League did cooperate with Britain and moved, against Gandhi's strong opposition, to demands for
a totally separate Muslim state of Pakistan. In August 1947 the British partitioned the land, with India and Pakistan each achieving
independence on terms Gandhi disapproved.[36]


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Role in World War I
   See also: The role of India in World War I
In April 1918, during the latter part of World War I, the Viceroy invited Gandhi to a War Conference in Delhi. [37] Perhaps to show his
support for the Empire and help his case for India's independence, [38] Gandhi agreed to actively recruit Indians for the war effort. [39] In
contrast to the Zulu War of 1906 and the outbreak of World War I in 1914, when he recruited volunteers for the Ambulance Corps, this time
Gandhi attempted to recruit combatants. In a June 1918 leaflet entitled "Appeal for Enlistment", Gandhi wrote "To bring about such a state
of things we should have the ability to defend ourselves, that is, the ability to bear arms and to use them...If we want to learn the use of
arms with the greatest possible despatch, it is our duty to enlist ourselves in the army." [40] He did, however, stipulate in a letter to the
Viceroy's private secretary that he "personally will not kill or injure anybody, friend or foe." [41]
Gandhi's war recruitment campaign brought into question his consistency on nonviolence as his friend Charlie Andrews confirms,
"Personally I have never been able to reconcile this with his own conduct in other respects, and it is one of the points where I have found
myself in painful disagreement." [42] Gandhi's private secretary also had acknowledged that "The question of the consistency between his
creed of 'Ahimsa' (non- violence) and his recruiting campaign was raised not only then but has been discussed ever since." [39]

Champaran and Kheda
   Main article: Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha
Gandhi's first major achievements came in 1918 with the Champaran and Kheda agitations of Bihar and
Gujarat. The Champaran agitation pitted the local peasantry against their largely British landlords who
were backed by the local administration. The peasantry was forced to grow Indigo, a cash crop whose
demand had been declining over two decades, and were forced to sell their crops to the planters at a
fixed price. Unhappy wIth this, the peasantry appealed to Gandhi at his ashram in Ahmedabad. Pursuing
a strategy of non- violent protest, Gandhi took the administration by surprise and won concessions from
the authorities.[43]
In 1918, Kheda was hit by floods and famine and the peasantry was demanding relief from taxes. Gandhi
moved his headquarters to Nadiad, [44] organising scores of supporters and fresh volunteers from the
region, the most notable being Vallabhbhai Patel.[45] Using non- cooperation as a technique, Gandhi
initiated a signature campaign where peasants pledged non- payment of revenue even under the threat
of confiscation of land. A social boycott of mamlatdars and talatdars (revenue officials within the district)
accompanied the agitation. Gandhi worked hard to win public support for the agitation across the country.
For five months, the administration refused but finally in end- May 1918, the Government gave way on
important provisions and relaxed the conditions of payment of revenue tax until the famine ended. In
                                                                                                                Gandhi in 1918, at the time
Kheda, Vallabhbhai Patel represented the farmers in negotiations with the British, who suspended                of the Kheda and Champaran
revenue collection and released all the prisoners.[46]                                                          Satyagrahas


Khilafat movement
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In 1919 Gandhi, with his weak position in Congress, decided to broaden his base by an appeal to Muslims. The opportunity came from
the Khilafat movement , a worldwide protest by Muslims against the collapsing status of the Caliph, the leader of their religion. The
Ottoman Empire had lost the World War and was dismembered, as Muslims feared for the safety of the holy places and the prestige of
their religion.[47] Although Gandhi did not originate the All- India Muslim Conference, [48] which directed the movement in India, he soon
became its most prominent spokesman and attracted a strong base of Muslim support with local chapters in all Muslim centers in
India.[49] His success made him India's first national leader with a multicultural base and facilitated his rise to power within Congress,
which had previously been unable to reach many Muslims. In 1920 Gandhi became a major leader in Congress.[50][51] By the end of
1922 the Khilafat movement had collapsed.[52]
Gandhi always fought against "communalism," which pitted Muslims against Hindus in politics, but he could not reverse the rapid growth
of communalism after 1922. Deadly religious riots broke out in numerous cities, including 91 in U.P. (Uttar Pradesh) alone.[53][54] At the
leadership level, the proportion of Muslims among delegates to Congress fell sharply, from 11% in 1921 to under 4% in 1923.[55]

Non-cooperation
   Main article: Non-cooperation movement
                                          With Congress now behind him in 1920, Gandhi had the base to employ non- cooperation, non-
                                          violence and peaceful resistance as his "weapons" in the struggle against the British Raj. His
                                          wide popularity among both Hindus and Muslims made his leadership possible; he even
                                          convinced the extreme faction of Muslims to support peaceful non- cooperation.[56] The spark
                                          that ignited a national protest was overwhelming anger at the Jallianwala Bagh massacre (or
                                          Amritsar massacre) of hundreds of peaceful civilians by British troops in Punjab. Many Britons
                                          celebrated the action as needed to prevent another Mutiny like 1857, an attitude that caused
                                          many Indian leaders to decide the Raj was controlled by their enemies, and was more an
                                          obstacle than a pathway. Gandhi criticised both the actions of the British Raj and the retaliatory
 Mahatma Gandhi spinning yarn, in         violence of Indians. He authored the resolution offering condolences to British civilian victims and
 late 1920                                condemning the riots which, after initial opposition in the party, was accepted following Gandhi's
                                          emotional speech advocating his principle that all violence was evil and could not be
                                          justified.[57]
After the massacre and subsequent violence, Gandhi began to focus on winning complete self- government and control of all Indian
government institutions, maturing soon into Swaraj or complete individual, spiritual, political independence. [58] During this period, Gandhi
claimed to be a "highly orthodox Hindu" and in January 1921 during a speech at a temple in Vadtal, he spoke of the relevance of non-
cooperation to Hindu Dharma, "At this holy place, I declare, if you want to protect your 'Hindu Dharma', non- cooperation is first as well as
the last lesson you must learn up.".[59]
In December 1921, Gandhi was invested with executive authority on behalf of the Indian National
Congress. Under his leadership, the Congress was reorganised with a new constitution, with the
goal of Swaraj. Membership in the party was opened to anyone prepared to pay a token fee. A

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hierarchy of committees was set up to improve discipline, transforming the party from an elite
organisation to one of mass national appeal. Gandhi expanded his non- violence platform to
include the swadeshi policy—the boycott of foreign- made goods, especially British goods.
Linked to this was his advocacy that khadi (homespun cloth) be worn by all Indians instead of
British- made textiles. Gandhi exhorted Indian men and women, rich or poor, to spend time each
day spinning khadi in support of the independence movement. [60]
Gandhi even invented a small, portable spinning wheel that could be folded into the siz e of a
small typewriter.[61] This was a strategy to inculcate discipline and dedication to weeding out the
unwilling and ambitious and to include women in the movement at a time when many thought that
such activities were not respectable activities for women. In addition to boycotting British            Sabarmati Ashram, Gandhi's home in
                                                                                                        Gujarat
products, Gandhi urged the people to boycott British educational institutions and law courts, to
resign from government employment, and to forsake British titles and honours.[62]
"Non- cooperation" enjoyed widespread appeal and success, increasing excitement and participation from all strata of Indian society. Yet,
just as the movement reached its apex, it ended abruptly as a result of a violent clash in the town of Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh, in
February 1922. Fearing that the movement was about to take a turn towards violence, and convinced that this would be the undoing of all
his work, Gandhi called off the campaign of mass civil disobedience.[63] This was the third time that Gandhi had called off a major
campaign.[64] Gandhi was arrested on 10 March 1922, tried for sedition, and sentenced to six years' imprisonment. He began his
sentence on 18 March 1922. He was released in February 1924 for an appendicitis operation, having served only 2 years.[65]
Without Gandhi's unifying personality, the Indian National Congress began to splinter during his years in prison, splitting into two factions,
one led by Chitta Ranjan Das and Motilal Nehru favouring party participation in the legislatures, and the other led by Chakravarti
Rajagopalachari and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, opposing this move. Furthermore, cooperation among Hindus and Muslims, which had
been strong at the height of the non- violence campaign, was breaking down. Gandhi attempted to bridge these differences through many
means, including a three- week fast in the autumn of 1924, but with limited success.[66] In this year, Gandhi was persuaded to preside
over the Congress session to be held in Belgaum. Gandhi agreed to become president of the session on one condition that
Congressmen should take to wearing khadi (made of homespun cloth). In his long political career, this was the only time when he
presided over a Congress session.[67]

Salt Satyagraha (Salt March)
   Main article: Salt Satyagraha
Gandhi stayed out of active politics and, as such, the limelight for most of the 1920s. He
focused instead on resolving the wedge between the Swaraj Party and the Indian National
Congress, and expanding initiatives against untouchability, alcoholism, ignorance and poverty.
He returned to the fore in 1928. In the preceding year, the British government had appointed a
new constitutional reform commission under Sir John Simon, which did not include any Indian as
its member. The result was a boycott of the commission by Indian political parties. Gandhi

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pushed through a resolution at the Calcutta Congress in December 1928 calling on the British
government to grant India dominion status or face a new campaign of non- cooperation with
complete independence for the country as its goal. Gandhi had not only moderated the views of
younger men like Subhas Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru, who sought a demand for
immediate independence, but also reduced his own call to a one year wait, instead of two.[68]
                                                                                                         Original footage of Gandhi and his
The British did not respond. On 31 December 1929, the flag of India was unfurled in Lahore. 26        followers marching to Dandi in the Salt
January 1930 was celebrated as India's Independence Day by the Indian National Congress               Satyagraha
meeting in Lahore. This day was commemorated by almost every other Indian organisation.
Gandhi then launched a new Satyagraha against the tax on salt in March 1930. This was
highlighted by the famous Salt March to Dandi from 12 March to 6 April, where he marched 388 kilometres (241 mi) from Ahmedabad to
Dandi, Gujarat to make salt himself. Thousands of Indians joined him on this march to the sea. This campaign was one of his most
successful at upsetting British hold on India; Britain responded by imprisoning over 60,000 people.[69]

Women
Salt as a household necessity was of special interest to women. Gandhi strongly favoured the emancipation of women, and he went so
far as to say that "the women have come to look upon me as one of themselves." He opposed purdah, child marriage, untouchability, and
the extreme oppression of Hindu widows, up to and including sati. He especially recruited women to participate in the salt tax campaigns
and the boycott of foreign products.[70] Sarma concludes that Gandhi's success in enlisting women in his campaigns, including the salt
tax campaign, anti- untouchability campaign and the peasant movement, gave many women a new self- confidence and dignity in the
mainstream of Indian public life.[71]

Gandhi as f olk hero
Congress in the 1920s appealed to peasants by portraying Gandhi as a sort of messiah (the long- awaited savior of an entire people), a
strategy that succeeded in incorporating radical forces within the peasantry into the nonviolent resistance movement. In thousands of
villages plays were performed that presented Gandhi as the reincarnation of earlier Indian nationalist leaders, or even as a demigod.
The plays built support among illiterate peasants steeped in traditional Hindu culture. Similar messianic imagery appeared in popular
songs and poems, and in Congress- sponsored religious pageants and celebrations. The result was that Gandhi became not only a folk
hero but the Congress was widely seen in the villages as his sacred instrument.[72]

Negotiations
The government, represented by Lord Edward Irwin, decided to negotiate with Gandhi. The
Gandhi–Irwin Pact was signed in March 1931. The British Government agreed to free all political
prisoners, in return for the suspension of the civil disobedience movement. Also as a result of the
pact, Gandhi was invited to attend the Round Table Conference in London as the sole
representative of the Indian National Congress. The conference was a disappointment to Gandhi
and the nationalists, because it focused on the Indian princes and Indian minorities rather than on

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a transfer of power. Lord Irwin's successor, Lord Willingdon, taking a hard line against
nationalism, began a new campaign of controlling and subduing the nationalist movement.
Gandhi was again arrested, and the government tried and failed to negate his influence by
completely isolating him from his followers.[73]
In 1932, through the campaigning of the Dalit leader B. R. Ambedkar , the government granted
untouchables separate electorates under the new constitution. In protest, Gandhi embarked on a
six- day fast in September 1932. The resulting public outcry successfully forced the government
to adopt an equitable arrangement through negotiations mediated by Palwankar Baloo . This
was the start of a new campaign by Gandhi to improve the lives of the untouchables, whom he
named Harijans, the children of God. [74]                                                                 Mahadev Desai (left) reading out a
On 8 May 1933, Gandhi began a 21- day fast of self- purification to help the Harijan                      letter to Gandhi from the viceroy at Birla
                                                                                                          House, Bombay, 7 April 1939
movement.[75] This new campaign was not universally embraced within the Dalit community, as
prominent leader B. R. Ambedkar condemned Gandhi's use of the term Harijans as saying that
Dalits were socially immature, and that privileged caste Indians played a paternalistic role. Ambedkar and his allies also felt Gandhi was
undermining Dalit political rights. Gandhi had also refused to support the untouchables in 1924–25 when they were campaigning for the
right to pray in temples. Because of Gandhi's actions, Ambedkar described him as "devious and untrustworthy".[64] Gandhi, although born
into the Vaishya caste, insisted that he was able to speak on behalf of Dalits, despite the presence of Dalit activists such as
Ambedkar.[76]
In the summer of 1934, three attempts were made on Gandhi's life. [77][78]
When the Congress Party chose to contest elections and accept power under the Federation scheme, Gandhi resigned from party
membership. He did not disagree with the party's move, but felt that if he resigned, his popularity with Indians would cease to stifle the
party's membership, which actually varied, including communists, socialists, trade unionists, students, religious conservatives, and those
with pro- business convictions, and that these various voices would get a chance to make themselves heard. Gandhi also wanted to
avoid being a target for Raj propaganda by leading a party that had temporarily accepted political accommodation with the Raj.[79]
Gandhi returned to active politics again in 1936, with the Nehru presidency and the Lucknow session of the Congress. Although Gandhi
wanted a total focus on the task of winning independence and not speculation about India's future, he did not restrain the Congress from
adopting socialism as its goal. Gandhi had a clash with Subhas Chandra Bose, who had been elected president in 1938, and who had
previously expressed a lack of faith in non- violence as a means of protest.[80] Despite Gandhi's opposition, Bose won a second term as
Congress President, against Gandhi's nominee, Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramayya; but left the Congress when the All- India leaders resigned en
masse in protest of his abandonment of the principles introduced by Gandhi.[81][82] Gandhi declared that Sitaramayya's defeat was his
defeat.[83]

World War II and Quit India
   Main article: Quit India Movement
Gandhi initially favoured offering "non- violent moral support" to the British effort when World War II
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Gandhi initially favoured offering "non- violent moral support" to the British effort when World War II
broke out in 1939, but the Congressional leaders were offended by the unilateral inclusion of India in
the war without consultation of the people's representatives. All Congressmen resigned from office.[84]
After long deliberations, Gandhi declared that India could not be party to a war ostensibly being
fought for democratic freedom while that freedom was denied to India itself. As the war progressed,
Gandhi intensified his demand for independence, calling for the British to Quit India in a speech at
Gowalia Tank Maidan. This was Gandhi's and the Congress Party's most definitive revolt aimed at
securing the British exit from India.[85]
Gandhi was criticised by some Congress party members and other Indian political groups, both pro-
British and anti- British. Some felt that not supporting Britain more in its struggle against Naz i Germany
was unethical. Others felt that Gandhi's refusal for India to participate in the war was insufficient and
more direct opposition should be taken, while Britain fought against Naz ism yet continued to                      Gandhi and Nehru in 1942
contradict itself by refusing to grant India Independence. Quit India became the most forceful
movement in the history of the struggle, with mass arrests and violence on an unprecedented
scale.[86]
Thousands of freedom fighters were killed or injured by police gunfire, and hundreds of thousands were arrested. Gandhi and his
supporters made it clear they would not support the war effort unless India were granted immediate independence. He even clarified that
this time the movement would not be stopped if individual acts of violence were committed, saying that the "ordered anarchy" around him
was "worse than real anarchy." He called on all Congressmen and Indians to maintain discipline via ahimsa, and Karo ya maro ("Do or
die") in the cause of ultimate freedom.[87]
Gandhi and the entire Congress Working Committee were arrested in Bombay by the British on 9
August 1942. Gandhi was held for two years in the Aga Khan Palace in Pune. It was here that
Gandhi suffered two terrible blows in his personal life. His 50- year old secretary Mahadev Desai
died of a heart attack 6 days later and his wife Kasturba died after 18 months imprisonment on
22 February 1944; six weeks later Gandhi suffered a severe malaria attack. He was released
before the end of the war on 6 May 1944 because of his failing health and necessary surgery;
the Raj did not want him to die in prison and enrage the nation. He came out of detention to an
altered political scene—the Muslim League for example, which a few years earlier had
appeared marginal, "now occupied the centre of the political stage" [88] and the topic of Jinnah's            Gandhi and Muhammad Ali Jinnah ,
campaign for Pakistan was a major talking point. Gandhi met Jinnah in September 1944 in                       Bombay, 1944
Bombay but Jinnah rejected, on the grounds that it fell short of a fully independent Pakistan, his
proposal of the right of Muslim provinces to opt out of substantial parts of the forthcoming
political union.[89][90]
While the leaders of Congress languished in jail, the other parties supported the war and gained organiz ational strength. Underground
publications flailed at the ruthless suppression of Congress, but it had little control over events.[91] brought order to India by the end of
1943. At the end of the war, the British gave clear indications that power would be transferred to Indian hands. At this point Gandhi called
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off the struggle, and around 100,000 political prisoners were released, including the Congress's leadership.[62]

Partition and independence, 1947
   See also: Partition of India
As a rule, Gandhi was opposed to the concept of partition as it contradicted his vision of
religious unity.[92] Concerning the partition of India to create Pakistan, while the Indian National
Congress and Gandhi called for the British to quit India , the Muslim League passed a resolution
for them to divide and quit, in 1943.[93] Gandhi suggested an agreement which required the
Congress and Muslim League to cooperate and attain independence under a provisional
government, thereafter, the question of partition could be resolved by a plebiscite in the districts
with a Muslim majority.[94] When Jinnah called for Direct Action , on 16 August 1946, Gandhi was
infuriated and visited the most riot prone areas to stop the massacres, personally.[95] He made
strong efforts to unite the Indian Hindus, Muslims and Christians and struggled for the                Gandhi having tea with Lord
emancipation of the "untouchables" in Hindu society.[96]                                               Mountbatten, 1947

On 14 and 15 August 1947 the Indian Independence Act was invoked. In border areas some 10
—12 million people moved from one side to another and upwards of a half million were killed in communal riots pitting Hindus, Muslims
and Sikhs.[97] But for his teachings, the efforts of his followers, and his own presence, there perhaps could have been much more
bloodshed during the partition, according to prominent Norwegian historian, Jens Arup Seip .[98]
Stanley Wolpert has argued, The "plan to carve up British India was never approved of or accepted by Gandhi...who realised too late
that his closest comrades and disciples were more interested in power than principle, and that his own vision had long been clouded by
the illusion that the struggle he led for India's freedom was a nonviolent one." [99]

Assassination
   See also: Assassination of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
                                                On 30 January 1948, Gandhi was shot while he was walking to a platform from which he
                                                was to address a prayer meeting. The assassin, Nathuram Godse, was a Hindu nationalist
                                                with links to the extremist Hindu Mahasabha, who held Gandhi responsible for weakening
                                                India by insisting upon a payment to Pakistan.[100] Godse and his co- conspirator Narayan
                                                Apte were later tried and convicted; they were executed on 15 November 1949. Gandhi's
                                                memorial (or Samādhi) at Rāj Ghāt, New Delhi, bears the epigraph "Hē Ram", (Devanagari:
                                                हे ! राम or, He Rām), which may be translated as "Oh God". These are widely believed to
                                                be Gandhi's last words after he was shot, though the veracity of this statement has been
                                                disputed.[101] Jawaharlal Nehru addressed the nation through radio:[102]

 Raj Ghat, Delhi is a memorial to Mahatma       "Friends and comrades, the light has gone out of our lives, and there is darkness
 Gandhi that marks the spot of his cremation.
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 Gandhi that marks the spot of his cremation.
                                                everywhere, and I do not quite know what to tell you or how to say it. Our beloved
                                                leader, Bapu as we called him, the father of the nation, is no more. Perhaps I am
       wrong to say that; nevertheless, we will not see him again, as we have seen him for these many years, we will not run to him
       for advice or seek solace from him, and that is a terrible blow, not only for me, but for millions and millions in this country."
       —Jawaharlal Nehru's address to Gandhi[103]

Gandhi's death was mourned nationwide. Over 2 million people joined the 5 mile long funeral
procession that took over 5 hours to reach Raj Ghat from Birla house, where he was
assassinated. Gandhi's body was transported on a weapons carrier, whose chassis was
dismantled overnight to allow a high- floor to be installed so that people could catch a glimpse
of his body. The engine of the vehicle was not used, instead 4 drag- ropes manned by 50
people each pulled the vehicle.[104] All Indian owned establishments in London remained closed
in mourning as thousands of people from all faiths and denominations and Indians from all over
Britain converged at India House in London.[105]
Professor Yasmin Khan argues that Gandhi's death and funeral helped consolidate the authority
of the new Indian state. With Nehru and Patel in charge, the government made sure everyone
knew the guilty party was not a Muslim. Congress tightly controlled the epic public displays of      Funeral procession of Gandhi at
                                                                                                     New Delhi on 6 February 1948
grief over a two- week period—the funeral, mortuary rituals and distribution of the martyr's ashes
—as millions participated and hundreds of millions watched. The goal was to assert the power
of the government and legitimiz e the Congress Party's control. This move built upon the massive outpouring of Hindu expressions of grief.
The government suppressed the RSS, the Muslim National Guards, and the Khaksars, with some 200,000 arrests. Gandhi's death and
funeral linked the distant state with the Indian people and made more understand the need to suppress religious parties during the
transition to independence for the Indian people.[106]

Ashes
By Hindu tradition the ashes were to be spread on a river. Gandhi's ashes were poured into urns which were sent across India for
memorial services [107]. Most were immersed at the Sangam at Allahabad on 12 February 1948, but some were secretly taken away. In
1997, Tushar Gandhi immersed the contents of one urn, found in a bank vault and reclaimed through the courts, at the Sangam at
Allahabad.[108] [109] Some of Gandhi's ashes were scattered at the source of the Nile River near Jinja, Uganda, and a memorial plaque
marks the event. On 30 January 2008, the contents of another urn were immersed at Girgaum Chowpatty. Another urn is at the palace of
the Aga Khan in Pune [108] (where he had been imprisoned from 1942 to 1944) and another in the Self- Realiz ation Fellowship Lake Shrine
in Los Angeles.[110]

Principles, practices and beliefs
   Main article: Gandhism
Gandhism designates the ideas and principles Gandhi promoted. Of central importance is nonviolent resistance. A Gandhian can mean
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either an individual who follows, or a specific philosophy which is attributed to, Gandhism.[43] M.M.Sankhdher argues that Gandhism is not
a systematic position in metaphysics or in political philosophy. Rather, it is a political creed, an economic doctrine, a religious outlook, a
moral precept, and especially, a humanitarian world view. It is an effort not to systematiz e wisdom but to transform society and is based
on an undying faith in the goodness of human nature.[111] However Gandhi himself did not approve of the notion of "Gandhism". He
explained in 1936:
      There is no such thing as "Gandhism," and I do not want to leave any sect after me. I do not claim to have originated any
      new principle or doctrine. I have simply tried in my own way to apply the eternal truths to our daily life and problems...The
      opinions I have formed and the conclusions I have arrived at are not final. I may change them tomorrow. I have nothing new
      to teach the world. Truth and non- violence are as old as the hills.[112]


Influences
Historian R.B. Cribb argues that Gandhi's thought evolved over time, with his early ideas
becoming the core or scaffolding for his mature philosophy. In London he committed himself to
truthfulness, temperance, chastity, and vegetarianism. His return to India to work as a lawyer was
a failure, so he went to South Africa for a quarter century, where he absorbed ideas from many
sources, most of them non- Indian.[113] While Gandhi was born a Hindu, he grew up in an eclectic
religious atmosphere and throughout his life searched for insights from many religious
traditions.[114] He was exposed to Jain ideas through his mother who was a devout Jain and was
in contact with Jain leaders. Themes from Jainism that Gandhi absorbed included asceticism;
compassion for all forms of life; the importance of vows for self discipline; vegetarianism; fasting
for self- purification; mutual tolerance among people of different creeds; and "syadvad," the idea
that all views of truth are partial, a doctrine that lies at the root of Satyagraha.[14][115]
                                                                                                        Gandhi with famous poet
Gandhi's London experience provided a solid philosophical base focused on truthfulness,
                                                                                                          Rabindranath Tagore, 1940
temperance, chastity, and vegetarianism. When he returned to India in 1891, his outlook was
parochial and he could not make a living as a lawyer. This challenged his belief that practicality
and morality necessarily coincided. By moving in 1893 to South Africa he found a solution to this problem and developed the central
concepts of his mature philosophy.[116] N. A. Toothi [117] felt that Gandhi was influenced by the reforms and teachings of Swaminarayan,
stating "Close parallels do exist in programs of social reform based on to non- violence, truth- telling, cleanliness, temperance and
upliftment of the masses." [118] Vallabhbhai Patel, who grew up in a Swaminarayan household was attracted to Gandhi due to this aspect
of Gandhi's doctrine.[119]
Gandhi's ethical thinking was heavily influenced by a handful of books, which he repeatedly meditated upon. They included especially
Plato's Apology , (which he translated into his native Gujarati); William Salter's Ethical Religion (1889); Henry David Thoreau's On the Duty
of Civil Disobedience (1847); Leo Tolstoy's The Kingdom of God Is Within You (1893); and John Ruskin's Unto this Last (1862), which he
also translated into Gujarati . Ruskin inspired his decision to live an austere life on a commune, at first on the Phoenix Farm in Natal and
then on the Tolstoy Farm just outside Johannesburg, South Africa.[25]

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Balkrishna Gokhale argues that Gandhi took his philosophy of history from Hinduism and Jainism, supplemented by selected Christian
traditions and ideas of Tolstoy and Ruskin. Hinduism provided central concepts of God's role in history, of man as the battleground of
forces of virtue and sin, and of the potential of love as an historical force. From Jainism, Gandhi took the idea of applying nonviolence to
human situations and the theory that Absolute Reality can be comprehended only relatively in human affairs.[120]
Historian Howard Spodek argues for the importance of the culture of Gujarat in shaping Gandhi's methods. Spodek finds that some of
Gandhi's most effective methods such as fasting, noncooperation and appeals to the justice and compassion of the rulers were learned
as a youth in Gujarat. Later on, the financial, cultural, organiz ational and geographical support needed to bring his campaigns to a
national audience were drawn from Ahmedabad and Gujarat, his Indian residence 1915–1930.[121]

Tolstoy
In 1908 Leo Tolstoy wrote A Letter to a Hindu , which said that only by using love as a weapon
through passive resistance could the Indian people overthrow colonial rule. In 1909, Gandhi
wrote to Tolstoy seeking advice and permission to republish A Letter to a Hindu in Gujarati.
Tolstoy responded and the two continued a correspondence until Tolstoy's death in 1910. The
letters concern practical and theological applications of non- violence.[122] Gandhi saw himself a
disciple of Tolstoy, for they agreed regarding opposition to state authority and colonialism; both
hated violence and preached non- resistance. However, they differed sharply on political strategy.
Gandhi called for political involvement; he was a nationalist and was prepared to use nonviolent
force. He was also willing to compromise.[123] It was at Tolstoy Farm where Gandhi and                  Mohandas K. Gandhi and other
                                                                                                        residents of Tolstoy Farm, South Africa,
Hermann Kallenbach systematically trained their disciples in the philosophy of nonviolence. [124]
                                                                                                        1910

Truth and Satyagraha
                                                 Gandhi dedicated his life to the wider purpose of discovering truth, or Satya. He tried to
                                                 achieve this by learning from his own mistakes and conducting experiments on himself. He
                                                 called his autobiography The Story of My Experiments with Truth .[125]
                                                 Bruce Watson argues that Gandhi based Satyagraha on the Vedantic ideal of self-
                                                 realiz ation, and notes it also contains Jain and Buddhist notions of nonviolence,
                                                 vegetarianism, the avoidance of killing, and 'agape' (universal love). Gandhi also borrowed
                                                 Christian- Islamic ideas of equality, the brotherhood of man, and the concept of turning the
                                                 other cheek.[126]
                                                 Gandhi stated that the most important battle to fight was overcoming his own demons,
                                                 fears, and insecurities. Gandhi summarised his beliefs first when he said "God is Truth". He
 " God is truth. The way to truth lies through
 ahimsa (non- violence)" —Sabarmati 13 March     would later change this statement to "Truth is God". Thus, satya (truth) in Gandhi's
 1927                                            philosophy is "God".[127]
                                                 The essence of Satyagraha (a name Gandhi invented meaning "adherence to truth" [128]) is

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that it seeks to eliminate antagonisms without harming the antagonists themselves and seeks to transform or "purify" it to a higher level. A
euphemism sometimes used for Satyagraha is that it is a "silent force" or a "soul force" (a term also used by Martin Luther King Jr. during
his famous "I Have a Dream" speech). It arms the individual with moral power rather than physical power. Satyagraha is also termed a
"universal force," as it essentially "makes no distinction between kinsmen and strangers, young and old, man and woman, friend and
foe." [129]
Gandiji wrote: "There must be no impatience, no barbarity, no insolence, no undue pressure. If we want to cultivate a true spirit of
democracy, we cannot afford to be intolerant. Intolerance betrays want of faith in one's cause." [130] Civil disobedience and non-
cooperation as practised under Satyagraha are based on the "law of suffering", [131] a doctrine that the endurance of suffering is a means
to an end. This end usually implies a moral upliftment or progress of an individual or society. Therefore, non- cooperation in Satyagraha is
in fact a means to secure the cooperation of the opponent consistently with truth and justice.[132]

Nonviolence
Although Gandhi was not the originator of the principle of non- violence, he was the first to apply
it in the political field on a large scale.[133] The concept of nonviolence (ahimsa) and
nonresistance has a long history in Indian religious thought and has had many revivals in Hindu,
Buddhist, Jain, Jewish and Christian contexts. Gandhi explains his philosophy and way of life in
his autobiography The Story of My Experiments with Truth . Some of his remarks were widely
quoted, such as "An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind." [134] "There are many causes
that I am prepared to die for but no causes that I am prepared to kill for." [135] Gandhi realiz ed
later that this level of nonviolence required incredible faith and courage, which he believed
everyone did not possess. He therefore advised that everyone need not keep to nonviolence,
especially if it were used as a cover for cowardice, saying, "where there is only a choice
between cowardice and violence, I would advise violence." [136]
Gandhi thus came under some political fire for his criticism of those who attempted to achieve
independence through more violent means. His refusal to protest against the hanging of Bhagat
Singh, Sukhdev, Udham Singh and Rajguru were sources of condemnation among some
parties.[137][138]
Of this criticism, Gandhi stated, "There was a time when people listened to me because I
                                                                                                       Gandhi with textile workers at
showed them how to give fight to the British without arms when they had no arms [...] but today I      Darwen, Lancashire, 26 September
am told that my non- violence can be of no avail against the [Hindu–Moslem riots] and, therefore,      1931.
people should arm themselves for self- defense." [139]
Gandhi's views came under heavy criticism in Britain when it was under attack from Naz i Germany, and later when the Holocaust was
revealed. He told the British people in 1940, "I would like you to lay down the arms you have as being useless for saving you or humanity.
You will invite Herr Hitler and Signor Mussolini to take what they want of the countries you call your possessions... If these gentlemen
choose to occupy your homes, you will vacate them. If they do not give you free passage out, you will allow yourselves, man, woman,

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and child, to be slaughtered, but you will refuse to owe allegiance to them." [140]
In a post- war interview in 1946, he said, "Hitler killed five million Jews. It is the greatest crime of our time. But the Jews should have
offered themselves to the butcher’s knife. They should have thrown themselves into the sea from cliffs... It would have aroused the world
and the people of Germany... As it is they succumbed anyway in their millions." [141]

Intervention in Palestine
One of Gandhi major strategies first in South Africa and then in India was uniting Muslims and Hindus to work together in opposition to
British imperialism.[142] In 1919- 22 he won strong Muslim support for his leadership in the Khilafat Movement to support the historic
Ottoman Caliphate.[142] The root cause of this intervention was "for the sake of Indian Muslims only." [142][143] In 1931, he suggested that
while he could understand the desire of European Jews to emigrate to Palestine, this movement should support neither British colonialism
nor violence.[144][145] Muslims throughout India and the Middle East strongly opposed the Zionist plan for a Jewish state in Palestine,
and Gandhi (and Congress) supported the Muslims in this regard. By the 1930s all major political groups in India opposed a Jewish state
in Palestine.[146]
This led to discussions concerning the persecution of the Jews in Germany and the emigration of Jews from Europe to Palestine , which
Gandhi framed through the lens of Satyagraha.[144][145][147][148][149][150][151] In 1938, Gandhi stated that his "sympathies are all with the
Jews. I have known them intimately in South Africa. Some of them became life- long companions" [149] In 1937, Gandhi discussed Zionism
with his close friend Hermann Kallenbach.[142][147] He "did not, however, regard Zionism as the right answer to the Jewish
problem" [152][153] and instead responded through his vision of Satyagraha. [145] Gandhi thought the Zionists in Palestine represented
European imperialism and used violence to achieve its goals; he argued that "the Jews should disclaim any intention of realiz ing their
aspiration under the protection of arms and should rely wholly on the goodwill of Arabs. No exception can possibly be taken to the natural
desire of the Jews to found a home in Palestine. But they must wait for its fulfillment till Arab opinion is ripe for it." [147] Philosopher Martin
Buber was extremely critical of Gandhi's approach and in 1939 wrote an open letter to him on the subject. [147][149] Gandhi reiterated his
stance on the use of Satyagraha in Palestine in 1947.[145][150]

Vegetarianism and fasting
Stephen Hay argues that Gandhi in London looked into numerous religious and intellectual currents. He especially appreciated how the
theosophical movement encouraged a religious eclecticism and an antipathy to atheism. Hay says the vegetarian movement had the
greatest impact for it was Gandhi's point of entry into other reformist agendas of the time.[154] The idea of vegetarianism is deeply
ingrained in Hindu and Jain traditions in India, especially in his native Gujarat.[155] Gandhi was close to the chairman of the London
Vegetarian Society, Dr. Josiah Oldfield, and corresponded with Henry Stephens Salt, a vegetarian campaigner. Gandhi became a strict
vegetarian. He wrote the book The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism and wrote for the London Vegetarian Society's publication. [156]
Gandhi used fasting as a political device, often threatening suicide unless demands were met. Gandhi noted in his autobiography that
vegetarianism was the beginning of his deep commitment to Brahmacharya; without total control of the palate, his success in
Brahmacharya would likely falter. "You wish to know what the marks of a man are who wants to realiz e Truth which is God," he wrote. "He
must reduce himself to z ero and have perfect control over all his senses- beginning with the palate or tongue." [157][158]

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Congress publiciz ed the fasts as a political action that generated widespread sympathy. In response the government tried to manipulate
news coverage to minimiz e his challenge to the Raj. He fasted in 1932 to protest the voting scheme for separate political representation
for Dalits; Gandhi did not want them segregated. The government stopped the London press from showing photographs of his emaciated
body, because it would elicit sympathy. Gandhi's 1943 hunger strike took place during a two- year prison term for the anticolonial Quit
India movement. The government called on nutritional experts to demystify his action, and again no photos were allowed. However his
final fast in 1948, after India was independent, was lauded by the British press and this time did include full- length photos.[159]
Alter argues that Gandhi's fixation on diet and celibacy were much deeper than exercises in self- discipline. Rather, his beliefs regarding
health offered a critique of both the traditional Hindu system of ayurvedic medicine and Western concepts. This challenge was integral to
his deeper challenge to tradition and modernity, as health and nonviolence became part of the same ethics.[160]

Celibacy
A core Gandhian value that came in for much bantering and ribald music hall humour in Britain was his nakedness—Churchill publicly
called him a "half- naked fakir" [161] – and his experiments in " brahmacharya" or the elimination of all desire in the face of temptation. [162] In
1906 Gandhi, although married and a father, vowed to abstain from sexual relations. In the 1940s, in his mid- seventies, he brought his
grandniece Manubehn to sleep naked in his bed as part of a spiritual experiment in which Gandhi could test himself as a "brahmachari."
Two other women also sometimes shared his bed. Gandhi discussed his experiment with friends and relations; most disagreed and the
experiment ceased in 1947.[163]

Nai Talim, Basic Education
   Main article: Nai Talim
Gandhi's educational policies reflected Nai Talim ('Basic Education for all'), a spiritual principle which states that knowledge and work are
not separate. It was a reaction against the British educational system and colonialism in general, which had the negative effect of making
Indian children alienated and career- based; it promoted disdain for manual work, the development of a new elite class, and the
increasing problems of industrialisation and urbanisation. The three pillars of Gandhi's pedagogy were its focus on the life-long character
of education, its social character and its form as a holistic process. For Gandhi, education is 'the moral development of the person', a
process that is by definition 'life- long'.[164]
Nai Talim evolved out of the spiritually oriented education program at Tolstoy Farm in South Africa, and Gandhi's work at the ashram at
Sevagram after 1937.[165] After 1947 the Nehru government's vision of an industrializ ed, centrally planned economy had scant place for
Gandhi's village- oriented approach.[166]

Swaraj, Self-Rule
   Main article: Swaraj
Rudolph argues that after a false start in trying to emulate the English in an attempt to overcome his timidity, Gandhi discovered the inner
courage he was seeking by helping his countrymen in South Africa. The new courage consisted of observing the traditional Bengali way
of "self- suffering" and, in finding his own courage, he was enabled also to point out the way of 'Satyagraha' and 'ahimsa' to the whole of

                                                                                                                                       PDFmyURL.com
India.[167]
Gandhi was a self- described philosophical anarchist, [168] and his vision of India meant an India without an underlying government. [169]
He once said that "the ideally nonviolent state would be an ordered anarchy." [170] While political systems are largely hierarchical, with
each layer of authority from the individual to the central government have increasing levels of authority over the layer below, Gandhi
believed that society should be the exact opposite, where nothing is done without the consent of anyone, down to the individual. His idea
was that true self- rule in a country means that every person rules his or herself and that there is no state which enforces laws upon the
people.[171]
This would be achieved over time with nonviolent conflict mediation, as power is divested from layers of hierarchical authorities, ultimately
to the individual, which would come to embody the ethic of nonviolence. Rather than a system where rights are enforced by a higher
authority, people are self- governed by mutual responsibilities. On returning from South Africa, when Gandhi received a letter asking for his
participation in writing a world charter for human rights, he responded saying, "in my experience, it is far more important to have a charter
for human duties." [172]
A free India did not mean merely transferring the established British administrative structure into Indian hands. He warned, "you would
make India English. And when it becomes English, it will be called not Hindustan but Englishtan. This is not the Swaraj I want." [173] Tewari
argues that Gandhi saw democracy as more than a system of government; it meant promoting both individuality and the self- discipline of
the community. Democracy was a moral system that distributed power and assisted the development of every social class, especially the
lowest. It meant settling disputes in a nonviolent manner; it required freedom of thought and expression. For Gandhi, democracy was a
way of life.[174]

Gandhian economics
A free India for Gandhi meant the flourishing of thousands of self- sufficient small communities (an idea possibly from Tolstoy) who rule
themselves without hindering others. Gandhian economics focused on the need for economic self- sufficiency at the village level. His
policy of "sarvodaya" [175] called for ending poverty through improved agriculture and small- scale cottage industries in every village. [176]
Gandhi challenged Nehru and the moderniz ers in the late 1930s who called for rapid industrializ ation on the Soviet model; Gandhi
denounced that as dehumaniz ing and contrary to the needs of the villages where the great majority of the people lived.[177] After
Gandhi's death Nehru led India to large- scale planning that emphasiz ed moderniz ation and heavy industry, while moderniz ing agriculture
through irrigation. Historian Kuruvila Pandikattu says "it was Nehru's vision, not Gandhi's, that was eventually preferred by the Indian
State." [178] After Gandhi's death activists inspired by his vision promoted their opposition to industrializ ation through the teachings of
Gandhian economics.

Literary works
Gandhi was a prolific writer. One of Gandhi's earliest publications, Hind Swaraj , published in Gujarati in
1909, is recognised [by whom? ] as the intellectual blueprint of India's freedom movement. The book was
translated into English the next year, with a copyright legend that read "No Rights Reserved".[179] For
decades he edited several newspapers including Harijan in Gujarati, in Hindi and in the English language;
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Indian Opinion while in South Africa and, Young India, in English, and Navajivan, a Gujarati monthly, on his
return to India. Later, Navajivan was also published in Hindi. In addition, he wrote letters almost every day
to individuals and newspapers.[180]
Gandhi also wrote several books including his autobiography, The Story of My Experiments with Truth
(Gujarātī " સ યના યોગો અથવા આ મકથા"), of which he bought the entire first edition to make sure it was
reprinted.[64] His other autobiographies included: Satyagraha in South Africa about his struggle there,
Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule , a political pamphlet, and a paraphrase in Gujarati of John Ruskin's
Unto This Last .[181] This last essay can be considered his programme on economics. He also wrote
extensively on vegetarianism, diet and health, religion, social reforms, etc. Gandhi usually wrote in
                                                                                                                   Young India, a weekly journal
Gujarati, though he also revised the Hindi and English translations of his books.[182]
                                                                                                                   published by Gandhi from
Gandhi's complete works were published by the Indian government under the name The Collected Works                 1919 to 1932
of Mahatma Gandhi in the 1960s. The writings comprise about 50,000 pages published in about a
hundred volumes. In 2000, a revised edition of the complete works sparked a controversy, as it
constituted large number of errors and omissions.[183] The Indian government later withdrew the revised edition. [184]

Legacy and depictions in popular culture
   See also: List of artistic depictions of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
The word Mahatma, while often mistaken for Gandhi's given name in the West, is taken from the
Sanskrit words maha (meaning Great ) and atma (meaning Soul). Rabindranath Tagore is said to
have accorded the title to Gandhi.[185] In his autobiography, Gandhi nevertheless explains that
he never valued the title, and was often pained by it.[186]

Followers and international influence

             “      Christ gave us the goals and Mahatma Gandhi the tactics.
                                                                                         ”
                                                      —Martin Luther King Jr , 1955 [1 8 7]
                                                                                                         A wall graffiti in San Francisco
Gandhi influenced important leaders and political movements. Leaders of the civil rights            containing a quote and image of
movement in the United States, including Martin Luther King and James Lawson, drew from the         Gandhi

writings of Gandhi in the development of their own theories about non- violence.[188][189][190]

Anti- apartheid activist and former President of South Africa, Nelson Mandela, was inspired by Gandhi.[191]
Others include Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan , [192] Steve Biko, and Aung San Suu Kyi.[193]
In his early years, the former President of South Africa Nelson Mandela was a follower of the non- violent
resistance philosophy of Gandhi.[191] Bhana and Vahed commented on these events as "Gandhi inspired
succeeding generations of South African activists seeking to end White rule. This legacy connects him to Nelson
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Mandela...in a sense Mandela completed what Gandhi started." [32]
Gandhi's life and teachings inspired many who specifically referred to Gandhi as their mentor or who dedicated
their lives to spreading Gandhi's ideas. In Europe, Romain Rolland was the first to discuss Gandhi in his 1924
book Mahatma Gandhi, and Braz ilian anarchist and feminist Maria Lacerda de Moura wrote about Gandhi in her
work on pacifism. In 1931, notable European physicist Albert Einstein exchanged written letters with Gandhi, and
                                                                                                                      Mahatma Gandhi on
called him "a role model for the generations to come" in a later writing about him.[194] Einstein said of Gandhi:
                                                                                                                      a 1969 postage stamp
                                                                                                                      of the Soviet Union
      Mahatma Gandhi's life achievement stands unique in political history. He has invented a completely new
      and humane means for the liberation war of an oppressed country, and practised it with greatest energy
      and devotion. The moral influence he had on the consciously thinking human being of the entire civiliz ed world will probably
      be much more lasting than it seems in our time with its overestimation of brutal violent forces. Because lasting will only be
      the work of such statesmen who wake up and strengthen the moral power of their people through their example and
      educational works.We may all be happy and grateful that destiny gifted us with such an enlightened contemporary, a role
      model for the generations to come.

      Generations to come will scarce believe that such a one as this walked the earth in flesh and blood. [195]

Lanz a del Vasto went to India in 1936 intending to live with Gandhi; he later returned to Europe to spread Gandhi's philosophy and
founded the Community of the Ark in 1948 (modelled after Gandhi's ashrams). Madeleine Slade (known as "Mirabehn") was the daughter
of a British admiral who spent much of her adult life in India as a devotee of Gandhi.[196][197]
In addition, the British musician John Lennon referred to Gandhi when discussing his views on non- violence.[198] At the Cannes Lions
International Advertising Festival in 2007, former U.S. Vice- President and environmentalist Al Gore spoke of Gandhi's influence on
him.[199]
President of the United States Barack Obama in an address to a Joint Session of the Parliament of India said that:

      "I am mindful that I might not be standing before you today, as President of the United States, had it not been for Gandhi
      and the message he shared with America and the world."—Barack Obama in an address to a Joint Session of the
      Parliament of India , 2010 [200]

Obama in September 2009 said that his biggest inspiration came from Mahatma Gandhi. His reply was in response to the question 'Who
was the one person, dead or live, that you would choose to dine with?'. He continued that "He's somebody I find a lot of inspiration in. He
inspired Dr. King with his message of nonviolence. He ended up doing so much and changed the world just by the power of his
ethics." [201]
Time Magazine named The 14th Dalai Lama, Lech Wałęsa, Martin Luther King , Cesar Chavez , Aung San Suu Kyi, Benigno Aquino, Jr.,
Desmond Tutu, and Nelson Mandela as Children of Gandhi and his spiritual heirs to non- violence.[202] The Mahatma Gandhi District in
Houston, Texas, United States, an ethnic Indian enclave, is officially named after Gandhi. [203]


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Global holidays
In 2007, the United Nations General Assembly declared Gandhi's birthday 2 October as "the International Day of Non- Violence ." [204] First
proposed by UNESCO in 1948, as the School Day of Non- violence and Peace (DENIP in Spanish), [205] 30 January of every year is
observed the School Day of Non- violence and Peace in schools of many countries [206] In countries with a Southern Hemisphere school
calendar, it is observed on 30 March.[206]

Awards
Time magazine named Gandhi the Man of the Year in 1930. Gandhi was also the runner- up to Albert
Einstein as "Person of the Century " [207] at the end of 1999.The Government of India awards the annual
Gandhi Peace Priz e to distinguished social workers, world leaders and citiz ens. Nelson Mandela, the
leader of South Africa's struggle to eradicate racial discrimination and segregation, is a prominent non-
Indian recipient. In 2011, Time magaz ine named Gandhi as one of the top 25 political icons of all
time.[208]
Gandhi did not receive the Nobel Peace Priz e, although he was nominated five times between 1937 and
1948, including the first- ever nomination by the American Friends Service Committee, [209] though he
made the short list only twice, in 1937 and 1947.[96] Decades later, the Nobel Committee publicly
declared its regret for the omission, and admitted to deeply divided nationalistic opinion denying the
award.[96] Gandhi was nominated in 1948 but was assassinated before nominations closed. That year,
the committee chose not to award the peace priz e stating that "there was no suitable living candidate"
and later research shows that the possibility of awarding the priz e posthumously to Gandhi was              Monument to M.K. Gandhi
discussed and that the reference to no suitable living candidate was to Gandhi.[96] When the 14th Dalai      in New Belgrade, Serbia. On
Lama was awarded the Priz e in 1989, the chairman of the committee said that this was "in part a tribute     the monument is written " Non-
                                                                                                             violence is the essence of all
to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi." [96]
                                                                                                             religions" .

Film and literature
Mahatma Gandhi has been portrayed in film, literature, and in the theatre. Ben Kingsley portrayed Gandhi in the 1982 film Gandhi, which
won the Academy Award for Best Picture. The 2007 film, Gandhi, My Father explores the relationship between Gandhi and his son Harilal.
Gandhi is also a central figure in the 2006 Bollywood comedy Lage Raho Munna Bhai . The 1996 film, The Making of the Mahatma ,
documents Gandhi's time in South Africa and his transformation from an inexperienced barrister to recognised political leader.[210]
Several biographers have undertaken the task of describing Gandhi's life. Among them are: D. G. Tendulkar with his Mahatma. Life of
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in eight volumes, and Pyarelal and Sushila Nayyar with their Mahatma Gandhi in 10 volumes. There is also
another documentary, titled Mahatma: Life of Gandhi, 1869–1948 , which is 14 chapters and 6 hours long.[211]
The April 2010 biography, Great Soul: Mahatma Gandhi and His Struggle With India by Joseph Lelyveld contained controversial material
speculating about Gandhi's sexual life.[212] Because of this material, the book was banned in the Indian state of Gujarat, Gandhi's
birthplace.[213] Lelyveld, however, stated that the press coverage "grossly distort[s]" the overall message of the book. [214]

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Current impact within India
India, with its rapid economic moderniz ation and urbaniz ation, has rejected Gandhi's
economics [216] but accepted much of his politics and continues to revere his memory. Reporter Jim
Yardley notes that, "modern India is hardly a Gandhian nation, if it ever was one. His vision of a
village- dominated economy was shunted aside during his lifetime as rural romanticism, and his call
for a national ethos of personal austerity and nonviolence has proved antithetical to the goals of an
aspiring economic and military power." By contrast Gandhi is "given full credit for India’s political
identity as a tolerant, secular democracy." [217]
Gandhi's birthday, 2 October, is a national holiday in India, Gandhi Jayanti. Gandhi's image also
                                                                                                                       The Gandhi Mandapam, a temple
appears on paper currency of all denominations issued by Reserve Bank of India , except for the                        in Kanyakumari. This temple was
one rupee note.[218] Gandhi's date of death, 30 January, is commemorated as a Martyrs' Day in                          erected to honour M.K.Gandhi.[2 1 5 ]
India.[219]
There are two temples in India dedicated to Gandhi.[220] One is located at Sambalpur in Orissa and the other at Nidaghatta village near
Kadur in Chikmagalur district of Karnataka.[220] The Gandhi Memorial in Kanyakumari resembles central Indian Hindu temples and the
Tamukkam or Summer Palace in Madurai now houses the Mahatma Gandhi Museum. [221]

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156 . ^ Wo lpert, Gandhi's passion p. 22
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  Andrews, C. F. (2008) [1930]. "VII – The Teaching of Ahimsa"        . Mahatma Gandhi's Ideas Including Selections from His Writings .
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  Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand (1940). An Autobiography or The Story of My Experiments With Truth (2 ed.). Ahmedabad: Navajivan
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  Jack, Homer A., ed. (1994). The Gandhi reader: a source book of his life and writings     . Grove Press. ISBN 978- 0- 8021- 3161- 4.
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  Keen, Shirin (Spring, 1998). "The Partition of India"   . Emory University. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
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Journal articles
  Cribb, R. B. (August 1985). "The Early Political Philosophy of M. K. Gandhi, 1869- 1893". Asian Profile 13 (4): 353–360.
  Hardiman, David (April 2001). "Champaran and Gandhi: Planters, Peasants and Gandhian Politics by Jacques Pouchepadass
  (Review)". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 11 (1): 99–101. JSTOR 25188108 .
  Khan, Yasmin (January 2011). "Performing Peace: Gandhi's assassination as a critical moment in the consolidation of the Nehruvian
  state" (abstract). Modern Asian Studies 4 5 (1): 57–80. DOI:10.1017/S0026749X10000223 . Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  Mohanty, Rekha (2011). "From Satya to Sadbhavna"          . Orissa Review (January 2011): 45–49. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  Murali, Atlury (January 1985). "Non- Cooperation in Andhra in 1920–22: Nationalist Intelligentsia and the Mobiliz ation of Peasantry".
  Indian Historical Review 12 (1/2): 188–217. ISSN 0376- 9836 .
  Norvell, Lyn (1997). "Gandhi and the Indian Women's Movement". British Library Journal 23 (1): 12–27. ISSN 0305- 5167         .
  Prashad, Ganesh (September 1966). "Whiggism in India"         . Political Science Quarterly 81 (3): 412–431.
  Sarkar, Jayabrata (18 April 2006). "Power, Hegemony and Politics: Leadership Struggle in Congress in the 1930s". Modern Asian
  Studies 4 0 (2): 333–370. DOI:10.1017/S0026749X0600179X .
  Sarma, Bina Kumari (January 1994). "Gandhian Movement and Women's Awakening in Orissa". Indian Historical Review 21 (1/2): 78
  –79. ISSN 0376- 9836 .
  Spodek, Howard (February 1971). "On the Origins of Gandhi's Political Methodology: The Heritage of Kathiawad and Gujarat". The
  Journal of Asian Studies 30 (2): 361–372. JSTOR 2942919 .

News reports
  Ferrell, David (27 September 2001). "A Little Serenity in a City of Madness"     (Abstract). Los Angeles Times: pp. B 2. Retrieved 14
  January 2012.
  Ramesh, Randeep (16 January 2008). "Gandhi's ashes to rest at sea, not in a museum"            . The Guardian (London). Retrieved 14
  January 2012.
  Roberts, Andrew (26 March 2011). "Among the Hagiographers (A book review of " Great Soul: Mahatma Gandhi and His Struggle
  With India" by Joseph Lelyveld)". BookShelf (Wall Street Journal) . Retrieved 14 January 2012.
  Unattributed (31 January 1948). "Of all faiths and races, together they shed their silent tears"   . The Indian Express: p. 5 (top centre).

                                                                                                                                    PDFmyURL.com
  Retrieved 19 January 2012.
  Unattributed (1 February 1948). "Over a million get last darshan"              . The Indian Express: p. 1 (bottom left). Retrieved 19 January 2012.

External links
  Gandhi Smriti — Government of India website                                                                       Find more about Mo hand as K aramchand
  Mani Bhavan Gandhi Sangrahalaya Gandhi Museum & Library                                                             G and hi on Wikipedia's sister projects :
  Gandhi Research Foundation - One- Stop info on Gandhi                                                                  Images and media from Commons
  Works by or about Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi                     in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
                                                                                                                         Quotations from Wikiquote

                                                                                                                         Source texts from Wikisource


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 V · T· E ·                                                          Mo handas Karam chand Gandhi
                 Kasturba · Harilal · Manilal · Ramdas · Devdas · Samaldas · Arun · Rajmohan · Tushar · Gopalkrishna ·
 Family
                 Ramchandra · Leela ·
                 Ahimsa · Ashram · Bhagavad Gita · Henry David Thoreau · Civil disobedience · Fasting · Hinduism · Jainism ·
 Inf lue nce s   John Ruskin · Leo Tolstoy · The Kingdom of God Is Within You · The Masque of Anarchy · Pacifism ·
                 Sermon on the Mount · Shrimad Rajchandra · Unto This Last · Vegetarianism ·
                 C ivil rig ht s mo ve me nt in So ut h Af rica · Bardoli Satyagraha · Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha ·
 Lif e           Non- cooperation · Chauri Chaura · Purna Swaraj · Salt Satyagraha · Vaikom Satyagraha · Poona Pact ·
                 Quit India · Assassination ·
 Philo so p hy   Gandhism · Economics · Sarvodaya · Satyagraha · The Story of My Experiments with Truth · Swadeshi · Swaraj ·

                 Vinoba Bhave · Vallabhbhai Patel · Acharya Kripalani · Mirabehn · C. F. Andrews · Narhari Parikh ·
 Asso ciat e s   Ravi Shankar Vyas · Mohanlal Pandya · Mahadev Desai · Abbas Tyabji · Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan ·
                 Dada Dharmadhikari · J. C. Kumarappa · Hermann Kallenbach ·
                 Artistic depictions · Gandhigiri · Gandhi Peace Priz e · Gujarat Vidyapith · Jamia Millia Islamia ·
 Le g acy
                 Kashi Vidyapeeth · Memorial Hospital · Seven Blunders of the World ·
                 James Bevel · Steve Biko · 14th Dalai Lama · Maria Lacerda de Moura · James Lawson ·
 Inf lue nce d
                 Martin Luther King, Jr. · Nelson Mandela · Aung San Suu Kyi · Lanz a del Vasto ·
                                    Gandhi Smriti · Kanyakumari · Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site ·
                  Physical
 Me mo rials                        National Gandhi Museum · Pietermaritz burg · Rajghat ·
                  O b se rvance s   Gandhi Jayanti · International Day of Non- Violence · Season for Nonviolence ·

                                                         C at e g o ry ·   C o mmo ns ·   Wikiq uo t e s ·
                                                                                                                                                   PDFmyURL.com
 V · T· E ·                                                           Indian Nat io nal Co ngre ss
                                 Bonnerjee · Naoroji · Tyabji · Yule · Wedderburn · Mehta · Charlappa · Bonnerjee · Dadabhai Naoroji · Webb · Banerjea ·
                                 Sayani · Nair · A. M. Bose · Dutt · Chandavarkar · Wacha · Banerjea · L. Ghosh · H. Cotton · Gokhale · Naoroji · R. Ghosh ·
                                 (1907- 1908) Malaviya · Wedderburn · Dar · Mudholkar · Bahadur · B. N. Bose · Sinha · Maz umdar · Besant · Malaviya ·
                                 Imam · M. Nehru · Rai · C. Vijayaraghavachariar · Khan · Das · M. Ali · A. K. Az ad · M. G and hi · Naidu · Iyengar · Ansari ·
               Pre sid e nt s    M. Nehru · J. Nehru · S. V. Patel · Malaviya (1932- 1933) · Nellie Sengupta · Rajendra Prasad (1934- 1935) · J. Nehru (1936-
                                 1937) · S. C. Bose · (1938- 1939) · A. K. Az ad (1940- 1946) · Kripalani · Sitaramayya (1948- 1949) · Tandon · J. Nehru (1951-
                                 1954) · Dhebar (1955- 1959) · I. Gandhi · Reddy (1960- 1963) · K. Kamaraj (1964- 1967) · S. Nijalingappa (1968- 1969) ·
                                 J. Ram (1970- 1971) · D. Sharma (1972- 1974) · Baruah (1975- 1977) · I. Gandhi (1978- 1984) · R. Gandhi (1985- 1991) ·
                                 Narasimha Rao (1992- 1996) · Kesri (1996- 1998) · S. Gandhi (1998- present)
                                 Seva Dal · Mahila Congress · Indian Youth Congress · National Students Union of India ·
  Fro nt al O rg aniz at io ns
                                 Indian National Trade Union Congress
                                 Congress President · Working President · Congress Working Committee · Central Election Committee ·
 Int e rnal O rg aniz at io ns
                                 All India Congress Committee · Pradesh Congress Committee
                                 Andhra Pradesh PCC · Assam PCC · Bihar PCC · Chhatisgarh PCC · Delhi PCC · Gujarat PCC · Haryana PCC ·
                                 Himachal Pradesh PCC · Jammu & Kashmir PCC · Jharkhand PCC · Karnataka PCC · Kerala PCC · Maharashtra PCC ·
   Prad e sh co mmit t e e s
                                 Madhya Pradesh PCC · Meghalaya PCC · Miz oram PCC · Mumbai PCC · Nagaland PCC · Orissa PCC · Pondicherry PCC ·
                                 Punjab PCC · Rajasthan PCC · Tamil Nadu PCC · Tripura PCC · Uttarakhand PCC · Uttar Pradesh PCC · West Bengal PCC
                                 Statewise Election history of Congress Party · Nehru- Gandhi family · Congress Radio · 10 Janpath · The Emergency ·
                     Hist o ry
                                 Bofors scandal · INA Defence Committee · Indian National Congress (Organisation) · Breakaway parties

 V · T· E ·                                                              Time Pe rso ns o f t he Ye ar
                                                                                 19 27 – 19 5 0
              Charles Lindbergh (1927) · Walter Chrysler (1928) · Owen D. Young (1929) · Mahat ma G and hi (1930) · Pierre Laval (1931) ·
      Franklin D. Roosevelt (1932) · Hugh Samuel Johnson (1933) · Franklin D. Roosevelt (1934) · Haile Selassie I (1935) · Wallis Simpson (1936) ·
     Chiang Kai- shek / Soong May- ling (1937) · Adolf Hitler (1938) · Joseph Stalin (1939) · Winston Churchill (1940) · Franklin D. Roosevelt (1941) ·
           Joseph Stalin (1942) · George Marshall (1943) · Dwight D. Eisenhower (1944) · Harry S. Truman (1945) · James F. Byrnes (1946) ·
                   George Marshall (1947) · Harry S. Truman (1948) · Winston Churchill (1949) · The American Fighting- Man (1950) ·

                                                                                 19 5 1– 19 7 5
          Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) · Eliz abeth II (1952) · Konrad Adenauer (1953) · John Foster Dulles (1954) · Harlow Curtice (1955) ·
      Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) · Nikita Khrushchev (1957) · Charles de Gaulle (1958) · Dwight D. Eisenhower (1959) · U.S. Scientists:
  George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg / Willard Libby / Linus Pauling / Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi /
      Emilio Segrè / William Shockley / Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen / Robert Woodward (1960) · John F. Kennedy (1961) ·
                  Pope John XXIII (1962) · Martin Luther King, Jr. (1963) · Lyndon B. Johnson (1964) · William Westmoreland (1965) ·
The Generation Twenty- Five and Under (1966) · Lyndon B. Johnson (1967) · The Apollo 8 Astronauts : William Anders / Frank Borman / Jim Lovell (1968) ·
       The Middle Americans (1969) · Willy Brandt (1970) · Richard Nixon (1971) · Henry Kissinger / Richard Nixon (1972) · John Sirica (1973) ·
    King Faisal (1974) · American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly / Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford / Ella Grasso / Carla Hills /

                                                                                                                                                     PDFmyURL.com
                                     Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King / Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975) ·
                                                                                   19 7 6 – 20 0 0
   Jimmy Carter (1976) · Anwar Sadat (1977) · Deng Xiaoping (1978) · Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) · Ronald Reagan (1980) · Lech Wałęsa (1981) ·
     The Computer (1982) · Ronald Reagan / Yuri Andropov (1983) · Peter Ueberroth (1984) · Deng Xiaoping (1985) · Coraz on Aquino (1986) ·
       Mikhail Gorbachev (1987) · The Endangered Earth (1988) · Mikhail Gorbachev (1989) · George H. W. Bush (1990) · Ted Turner (1991) ·
     Bill Clinton (1992) · The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat / F. W. de Klerk / Nelson Mandela / Yitz hak Rabin (1993) · Pope John Paul II (1994) ·
  Newt Gingrich (1995) · David Ho (1996) · Andrew Grove (1997) · Bill Clinton / Ken Starr (1998) · Jeffrey P. Bez os (1999) · George W. Bush (2000) ·

                                                                                 20 0 1– pre se nt
     Rudolph Giuliani (2001) · The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley / Sherron Watkins (2002) · The American Soldier (2003) ·
George W. Bush (2004) · The Good Samaritans: Bono / Bill Gates / Melinda Gates (2005) · You (2006) · Vladimir Putin (2007) · Barack Obama (2008) ·
                                    Ben Bernanke (2009) · Mark Z uckerberg (2010) · The Protester (2011) ·
                                                                  B o o k:T ime Pe rso ns o f t he Ye ar

V · T· E ·                                                          Asian o f t he Ce nt ury T he Big Five
                                                       20t h ce nt ury · Asian p e o p le · Asian C e nt ury ·

         Po lit ics and G o ve rnme nt    D e ng Xiao p ing (China)

         B usine ss and Eco no mics       Akio Mo rit a (Japan)

     Art s, Lit e rat ure and C ult ure   Akira K uro sawa (Japan)

         Scie nce and Te chno lo g y      C harle s K . K ao (China/U.S.)

Mo ral and Sp irit ual Le ad e rship      Mo hand as K . G and hi (India)

                                                               AsianWe e k · C N N · T IME Asia ·

V · T· E ·                                                            Indian inde pe nde nce m o ve m e nt
                         Colonisation · East India Company · British India · French India · Portuguese India · Plassey · Buxar ·
             Hist o ry   Anglo- Mysore Wars · Anglo- Maratha Wars (First · Second · Third) · Polygar War · Vellore Mutiny ·
                         First Anglo- Sikh War · Second Anglo- Sikh War · Rebellion of 1857 · British Raj · more ·
   Philo so p hie s      Indian nationalism · Swaraj · Hindu nationalism · Gandhism · Satyagraha · Muslim nationalism in South Asia ·
and id e o lo g ie s     Swadeshi · Socialism · Khilafat Movement ·

                         Partition of Bengal · Revolutionaries · Delhi- Lahore Conspiracy · The Indian Sociologist ·
                         The Sedetious conspiracy · Champaran and Kheda · Rowlatt Committee · Rowlatt Bills · Jallianwala Bagh Massacre ·
      Eve nt s and       Non- Cooperation · Kakori conspiracy · Qissa Khwani Baz aar massacre · Flag Satyagraha · Bardoli · 1928 Protests ·
     mo ve me nt s       Nehru Report · Fourteen Points of Jinnah · Purna Swaraj · Salt Satyagraha · Round table conferences · Act of 1935 ·
                         Legion Freies Indien · Cripps' mission · Quit India · Indian National Army · Bombay Mutiny · Coup d'État de Yanaon ·
                         Provisional Government of India ·




                                                                                                                                                PDFmyURL.com
                           Provisional Government of India ·
                           Indian National Congress · All- India Muslim League · Anushilan Samiti · Jugantar · Arya Samaj ·
                           Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh · India House · Berlin Committee · Ghadar · Home Rule · Khaksar Tehrik ·
 O rg anisat io ns
                           Khudai Khidmatgar · Hindustan Republican Association · Swaraj Party · Indian Independence League ·
                           All India Kisan Sabha · Az ad Hind · more ·
                           Bal Gangadhar Tilak · Muhammad Ali Jinnah · Muhammad Iqbal · Mo hand as K aramchand G and hi ·
                           Acharya Kripalani · Rahul Sankrityayan · Mahatma Jyotirao Phule · Gopal Ganesh Agarkar · Shahu Maharaj ·
                So cial
                           Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar · Dhondo Keshav Karve · Vitthal Ramji Shinde · Mahadev Govind Ranade ·
       re f o rme rs
                           Swami Dayananda Saraswati · Vinayak Damodar Savarkar · Swami Vivekananda · Swami Sahajanand Saraswati ·
                           Vinoba Bhave · Baba Amte · Ram Mohan Roy · Gopal Hari Deshmukh ·
                           Puli Thevar · Yashwantrao Holkar · Rahul Sankrityayan · Swami Sahajanand Saraswati · Tipu Sultan ·
                           Veerapandiya Kattabomman · Sangolli Rayanna · Baba Ram Singh · Mangal Pandey ·
                           Rae Ahmed Nawaz Khan Kharal · Bakht Khan · Veer Kunwar Singh · Rani of Jhansi · Bahadur Shah Z afar ·
                           Swami Dayanand Saraswati · Bal Gangadhar Tilak · Gopal Krishna Gokhale · Dadabhai Naoroji · Bhikaiji Cama ·
                Ind ian    Shyamji Krishna Varma · Annie Besant · Shyama Prasad Mukherjee · Har Dayal · Subramanya Bharathi ·
 ind e p e nd e nce        Lala Lajpat Rai · Bipin Chandra Pal · Rash Behari Bose · Chittaranjan Das · Bidhan Chandra Roy ·
             act ivist s   Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan · Maulana Az ad · Ashfaqullah Khan · Ram Prasad Bismil · Chandrasekhar Az ad · Rajaji ·
                           K. M. Munshi · Bhagat Singh · Hemu Kalani · Sarojini Naidu · Achyut Patwardhan · Purushottam Das Tandon ·
                           Alluri Sitaramaraju · Muhammad Ali Jinnah · Sardar Patel · Acharya Kripalani · Subhash Chandra Bose ·
                           Vinayak Damodar Savarkar · Jawaharlal Nehru · Mo hand as K aramchand G and hi · Allama Mashriqi ·
                           Kotwal Dhan Singh Gurjar · V. K. Krishna Menon · more ·
B rit ish le ad e rs       Clive · Outram · Dalhousie · Irwin · Linlithgow · Wavell · Cripps · Mountbatten · more ·
                           Simla Conference · Cabinet Mission · Indian Independence Act · Partition of India · Political integration ·
 Ind e p e nd e nce
                           Constitution · Republic of India ·

V · T· E ·                                                                 Hindu re f o rm m o ve m e nt s
             Ayyavaz hi · Arya Samaj · Divine Life Society · Hindutva · ISKCON · Ramakrishna Mission · Sri Aurobindo Ashram · Swadhyay Parivar ·

      To p ics       Bhakti · Caste · Persecution of Hindus · Shuddhi · Women in Hinduism ·

                     Raja Ram Mohun Roy · B.G. Tilak · Tatyasaheb Kelkar · Mahat ma G and hi · Sri Aurobindo · Yogananda · M.S. Golwalkar ·
                     Harsh Narain · The Mother · Ramakrishna · Swami Vivekananda · Maharshi Dayananda Saraswati · Satsvarupa dasa Goswami ·
R e f o rme rs
                     V.D. Savarkar · Swami Sivananda · Swami Vipulananda · Arumuga Navalar · Pandurang Shastri Athavale · Ram Swarup ·
                     Sita Ram Goel · Arun Shourie · more ·

V · T· E ·                                                              So cial and po lit ical philo so phy
                            Plato · Vaisheshika · Chanakya · Augustine · Sri Aurobindo · Marsilius · Machiavelli · Grotius · Montesquieu · Comte ·
                            Bosanquet · Spencer · Malebranche · Durkheim · Santayana · Royce · Russell · Confucius · Hobbes · Leibniz · Hume · Kant ·
    Philo so p he rs        Rousseau · Locke · Burke · Smith · Bentham · Mill · Thoreau · Marx · Gentile · Maritain · Berlin · Schmitt · Debord · Camus ·
                            Sartre · Foucault · Rawls · Popper · Đilas · Habermas · Kirk · Oakeshott · Noz ick · Rabindranath Tagore · Alinsky · Chomsky ·
                            Baudrillard · Badiou · Strauss · Rand · Ž iž ek · Walz er · Moz i ·
                            Anarchism · Authoritarianism · Conflict theory · Confucianism · Conservatism · Consensus theory · Liberalism · Libertarianism ·
 So cial t he o rie s
                            Mohism · National liberalism · Neo- Confucianism · Socialism · Utilitarianism ·

                                                                                                                                                   PDFmyURL.com
                             Civil disobedience · Democracy · Dharma · Justice · Law · Mandate of Heaven · Peace · Revolution · Rights · Rta ·
 So cial co nce p t s
                             Social contract · Society · War · mo re ... ·
                             Philosophy of economics · Philosophy of education · Philosophy of history · Jurisprudence · Philosophy of social science ·
 R e lat e d art icle s
                             Philosophy of love · Philosophy of sex ·
                                                          Portal · Category · Task Force · Discussion · Changes ·

 V · T· E ·                                                                           Sim ple living
                                      Barter · DIY ethic · Downshifting · Forest gardening · Freeganism · Frugality · Gift economy · Intentional community ·
                      Pract ice s     Local currency · No frills · Off- the- grid · Self- sufficiency · Subsistence agriculture · Sustainable living · Thrifting ·
                                      Veganism · War tax resistance · WWOOF ·
                                      Asceticism · Aparigraha · Cynicism · Detachment · Jesus movement · Mendicant · Monasticism · New Monasticism ·
 R e lig io us and sp irit ual
                                      Plain dress · Plain people · Rastafari movement · Temperance · Testimony of Simplicity · Tolstoyan movement ·
                                      Back- to- the- land · Car- free · Compassionate Living · Ecological · Environmental · Hippie · Slow · Small house ·
     Se cular mo ve me nt s
                                      Transition Towns · Open Source Ecology ·
                                      Wendell Berry · Ernest Callenbach · Duane Elgin · Mo hand as K . G and hi · Richard Gregg · Tom Hodgkinson ·
              N o t ab le writ e rs   Harlan Hubbard · Satish Kumar · Helen and Scott Nearing · Peace Pilgrim · Vicki Robin · Nick Rosen · Dugald Semple ·
                                      E. F. Schumacher · Henry David Thoreau · Leo Tolstoy ·
 Mo d e rn- d ay ad he re nt s        Mark Boyle · Jim Merkel · Suelo · Thomas ·
                                      Escape from Affluenza · The Good Life · The Moon and the Sledgehammer · Mother Earth News · The Power of Half ·
                          Me d ia
                                      Small Is Beautiful · Walden ·
                                      Agrarianism · Anarcho- primitivism · Anti- consumerism · Appropriate technology · Bohemianism · Deep ecology ·
              R e lat e d t o p ics   Degrowth · Ecological footprint · Food miles · Green anarchism · The good life · Global warming · Intentional living ·
                                      Itinerant · Low- technology · Nonviolence · Peak oil · Sustainability · Work–life balance ·

                                      Aut ho rit y co nt ro l: PND: 118639145   | LCCN: n79041626      | VIAF: 71391324     | WorldCat



Categories: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi 20th- century philosophers Alumni of University College London Anarcho- pacifists
 Anti- poverty advocates Anti–World War II activists Ascetics Assassinated Indian politicians Attempted assassination survivors
 Deaths by firearm in India Expatriates in South Africa Founders of Indian schools and colleges Gujarati literature Gujarati people
 Gujarati- language writers Hindu pacifists Indian anarchists Indian anti- war activists Indian autobiographers Indian barristers
 Indian civil rights activists Indian expatriates in the United Kingdom Indian Hindus Indian humanitarians
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 People of the Second Boer War Presidents of the Indian National Congress Recipients of the Kaisar- i- Hind Medal
 South African Indian Congress politicians Tolstoyans 1869 births 1948 deaths People from Porbandar
 Indian emigrants to South Africa Prisoners and detainees of British India Relief workers in Noakhali
 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi family


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