Leadership Styles

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									Types of
Table of Contents
 Definition of
  Leadership………................. Slide 3 – 7
 Three Types of Leadership
  Styles ……………………….. Slide 8 – 11
 Leadership & Job
  Performance ……………….. Slide 12 – 14
 Leadership versus
  Management ……………….. Slide 15 – 19
 Theories of Leadership ……… Slide 20 - 22
Definition of
• Leadership is one of the
 most important              The ability to guide, direct or

 characteristics of an       influence

 organization’s framework.

• Defining leadership has
 been a challenge.
The information also
• The role of emotions &             The ability to guide, direct or

• Leadership effectiveness,
  and performance.
• Leadership in different
   How it can differ from related
• Critiques of leadership.
Leaders must fulfill
three functions:

1. Provide for the well being
   of those being led.
2. Offer a social organization
   in which people feel
   relatively secure.
3. Instill a set of principles.
Leadership styles

A Leader’s Behavior

In 1939, a group of researchers set out to
identify different styles of leadership. Further
research has identified more specific types
of leadership, however, this early study was
very influential because it defined three
major leadership styles.
In the study, groups of schoolchildren were
assigned to one of three groups with an
authoritarian, democratic, or laissez-fair
The children were then led in an arts and
crafts project. Researchers observed the
behavior of children’s responses to the
different styles of leadership.
The Three Types of

Authoritarian Leadership

• Makes independent           • Less creative decision
  decisions.                    making.
• Gives clear expectations:   • It is harder to move from an
   • What needs to be done      authoritarian style to a
   • When it should be done     democratic style.
   • How it should be done    • Abuse is viewed as
• Clear division between        controlling, bossy, and
  leadership and followers.     dictatorial.

        Strong Points                     Critiques

Participative Leadership

• Usually the most effective         • The leader retains the final
  style.                               decision.
• Offers guidance to team
   • Participates in the group.
   • Allows input from other group
• Contributions are of a higher
  quality because members feel

       Strong Points                           Critiques
Laissez-Faire (Free Reign Leaders)

Delegative Leadership

• Can be effective when team • Least productive because it
  members are highly                 offers little or no guidance.
  qualified in their respective   • Leaves decision making to
  areas.                             team members.
• Considered better than the • Often leads to poorly defined
  authoritarian style.               roles and lack of motivation.
                                  • Not as effective as the
                                     democratic style.

       Strong Points                          Critiques
Leadership Performance
• It has been argued that the actual
  influence of leaders on organizational
  outcomes is overrated and romanticized.
• Practitioners and researchers do
  recognize and accept that leadership is
• It is important to understand and
  accurately measure leadership
Job Performance
• Is expected to add to organizational
• There is no consistent, overall definition of
  leadership performance.
• Conceptualizations are often lumped
  together under:
   Leadership performance
   Leadership effectiveness
Leadership versus


Leadership can be viewed as:
• Centralized or decentralized
• broad or focused.
• Decision-oriented or morale-
• Intrinsic or derived from some
Leadership versus


One clear distinction could
provide the following definition:
• Management involves power by
• Leadership involves power by
Distinctions Between the Two

•   Administer         •   Innovate
•   Ask how & when     •   Ask what & why
•   Focus on systems   •   Focus on people
•   Do things right    •   Do the right things
•   Maintain           •   Develop
•   Control            •   Inspire trust

         Managers                 Leaders
Distinctions Between the Two

• Short term perspective      • Long term perspective
• Accept the status quo       • Challenge the status quo
• Have an eye on the bottom   • Have an eye on the
  line                          horizon
• Imitate                     • Originate
• Follow others               • Are their own person
• Copy                        • Show originality

        Managers                       Leaders
Theories of

Trait Theory

Describe the types of behavior and
personality tendencies associated with
effective leadership:
• Talents
• Skills
• Physical characteristics
Theories of

Criticism of the Trait Theory

Although trait theory has an intuitive appeal,
difficulties have risen in proving its beliefs, and
opposing beliefs which frequently challenge this
The "strongest" versions of the trait theory view these
"leadership characteristics" as innate, and
accordingly labels some people as "born leaders"
because of their psychological makeup.
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