Docstoc

Aquatic Pollution

Document Sample
Aquatic Pollution Powered By Docstoc
					      COURSE CODE: ZOO 883




1.0   INTRODUCTION

      The word “Pollution” is derived from a Latin word Pollutonis

which means to defile. (Uchola & Ogbe 2003). Don-Pedro (2009)

define Pollution as the production and introduction by man, directly

or indirectly of substances or energy into the environment resulting in

deleterious effects of such as to endanger human health, living

resources and ecosystems and impairs of interferes with amenities

and other legitimate uses of the environment. Pollution is a creation

of man, although the threat of pollution crisis extends beyond man. It

should be noted that disagreeable change in the environment. For

instance, disappearance of fish may be due to overfishing or

pollution, also it could be due to changes in the sea temperature and

climate. Hence, when investigating whether a river is polluted or

not, there is need to examine the biota (plants and animals) of that

river in respect of what could be expected if there is no pollution?

                                    1
Aquatic pollution is therefore, the contamination of water bodies such

as lakes, rivers, oceans etc, or it can also be defined as any man made

alteration of the physical, mechanized or biological quality which

resulted in unacceptable depression of the unity of the environmental

value of water. The aquatic environment such as the sea, lagoon or

pond is characterised by the presence of both flora and fauna species

such    as   phytoplankton   and   zooplankton,   water   weeds    fishes,

mammals, crustaceans, corals etc.

Pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water

mentioned above and in almost all cases, the effect is damaging not

only to individual species and populations, but, also to the natural

biological communities.

       Aquatic pollution occurs when pollutants are discharge directly

or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove

harmful compounds, it is a major problem in the global context. In the

last few years, there has been a significant increase in population

growth all over the world, but particularly in many countries including

Nigeria. This has been accompanied by intensive urbanization and

increase in industrial activities and a greater exploitation of cultivable

land. These transformations have provoked a huge increase both in

quality discharge and the range of pollutants that could reach the

river among others and have undesirable effects on fish and fisheries

(Adeboyejo et al 2009). Mino –Kahozi and Mbantshi ,1997 had earlier

                                    2
reported that the inland and coastal waters in Nigeria are usual

resources for waste disposal. The London Broad Steel Pump epidemic

in 1854 was one of the famous pollution. However, pollution resultant

problems became steadily more widespread in the 20th century.

      Aquatic systems are considered as suitable sites for disposal of

and recycling of sewage and toxic waste However, the increasing

pollutant load and the over-exploitation of the water resources for

portable supplies, irrigation, industries and thermal power plants to

meet the requirements of the ever-increasing population, significantly

reduces their assimilative capacity. Thus, the dual stress exerted on

the water course is ultimately faced by biological communities

inhabiting them. The problem of aquatic pollution is becoming a

reality in developing world with evidence of more and more water

bodies getting polluted (Ajao et al 1996 & FAO 1992).

1.1        INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS DISCHARGES

      Industrial estates are established to fulfill the demand of growing

population. The introduction of industries to manufacture useful

products generates waste products in the form of solid, liquid or gas

that leads to the creation of hazards, pollution and losses of energy

(Tariq et al 2006). In Africa, the main origins of aquatic pollution are

agriculture (run off of fertilizers and pesticides), domestic sewage and

industrial wastes.   Most of these wastes are discharged into the soil

and water bodies and thus ultimately, pose a serious threat to human

                                    3
and routine functioning of         the ecosystem. However, of all the

classification of wastes available, industrial wastes is the most

occurring source of water pollution (Sikoki and Kolo 1993; NEST1995,

Oyediran, 1997). The inventiveness and curiosity of man have

eventually resulted into two complementary factors; the industrial

revolution   and   tremendous      population   expansion.   As   long   as

localisation of industry could be an advantage for economic purposes,

it also carries along the hazard of environmental population with it.

(Ogedengbe and Akinbile, 2004). Nubi 2002, reported transboundary

movement of toxic and hazardous wastes which are caused directly or

indirectly by industrialization.

      However, the rapid increase in domestic, agricultural, municipal

and industrial wastes in developing world under the combined effects

of increasing population, industries and urbanization has been

reported by various researchers which include Sangodoyin, 1991,

Osibanjo, 2001, Nubi, 2002; NEST (1991), Ongley 1998, Ogedengbe

and Akinbile, 2004). These researchers reported that most developing

countries such as Nigeria suffer from problems arising from effluent

discharge into river coursed and agricultural pollution in surface

runoff and ground water sources.

      In the industrialized world, many rivers have been very seriously

polluted, at least during the 19th and the first half of the 20th

centuries. In addition to the acute problems of aquatic pollution in

                                     4
developing countries, industrialized countries continue to struggle

with pollution problems as well (Okieimen and Okudaye, 1989).

          Industrial effluents are liquid wastes that are discharged from

industries (Jaman & Ahmed 2000). Each industry discharges waste

depending        on    their      raw   materials,    products,    and    handling

methodology of operation and the machines being used.

          The characteristics and concentration of heavy metals of these

effluents varies with industry which include the following textile,

metal, dying, chemicals, fertilizers, pesticides, cement, petrochemicals,

energy and power , leather, sugar processing, steel construction, food

processing, mining and others. This may be due to the nature of raw

materials in the industry. (Ogedengbe and Akinbile, 2010). Industrial

effluents from these industries are carried by drains and canals to

rivers that worsen and broaden water pollution.



1.1.1           Types of Industrial Effluents

Industrial effluent discharges are:

    (a)     Organic water pollutants

    (b)     Inorganic water pollutants

Organic water pollutants include the following:

         Detergents from laundries

         Raw   or    partially    treated   sewage   coming      from   household

          discharge into water.

                                             5
   Food processing wastes which include oxygen demanding

    substances, fats and grease.

   Disinfection   by    products   found   in   chemically   disinfected

    drinking water such as chloroform.

   Insecticides and Herbicides, a huge range of, organohalides and

    other chemical compounds.

   Petroleum hydrocarbons, including fuels, (gasoline, diesel, fuel,

    jet fuels and fuel oil and lubricants (motor oil) and fuel

    combustion by products from storm water runoff. Accidental oil

    spills, refinery operation and natural seepage of oil underwater

    and oil reservoir.

   Trees and bush from bogging operations, volatile organic

    compounds (VOCs); such as industrial solvents from improper

    storage. Chlorinated solvent, which are dense non-aqueous

    phase liquids may fall to the bottom of reservoirs, since they do

    not mix well with water and are denser.

   Various chemical compounds found in personal hygiene and

    cosmetic products.

    Inorganic water pollutants include:

   Acidity caused by industrial discharges especially sulphur

    dioxide from power plants.

   Ammonia from food processing wastes.

   Chemical waste as industrial by-products

                                    6
     Fertilizers containing nutrients in water runoff from agriculture

      as well as commercial and residential use.

     Heavy metals from motor vehicles (via urban storm water runoff)

      and acid mine drainage.

     Silt (sediment) in runoff from construction sites, logging, slash

      and burn practices or land clearing sites.

     Release of cold or hot water into a natural body of water in a

      situation whereby water is used as a coolant by power plants

      manufacturers.



1.2   EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS ON AQUATIC LIFE.

One of the most critical problems of developing countries is improper

management of      vast amount     of   wastes generated by various

anthropogenic activities. More challenging is the unsafe disposal of

these wastes into the ambient environment. Water bodies especially

freshwater reservoirs are the most affected. This has often rendered

these natural resources unsuitable for both primary and or secondary

usage (Fakayode, 2005). Anetekhai et al,( 2007) reported that most

water bodies in Lagos State, South West Nigeria serve as a sink for the

disposal of wastes from about 2000medium and large scale industries

located in urban centres. Ologe Lagoon is one of such aquatic

ecosystems which receives industrial effluents throughout the year



                                   7
from neighbouring Agbara Industrial Estate, Ogun State.(Kusemiju et

al 2001)

     Wastes entering these water bodies are both in solid and liquid

forms.     As a result, water bodies which are major receptacles of

treated and untreated or partially treated industrial wastes have

become highly polluted. The resultant of this on public health and the

environment are usually great in magnitude (Osibanjo et al 2011).

These     include   endangering   of       aquatic   resources   and   other

commercially important marine flora and fauna. Total Dissolved Solid

affects aquatic life in the receiving ecosystem causing low penetration

of light Also high COD implies toxic conditions and the presence of

biologically resistant organic substances. (Onwordi&Dan Suilaiman,

2010) .

     A lot of studies on aquatic pollution have been carried out on

biological means of assessing aquatic pollution. (Schreck et al 2001 &

Oyewo, 1998). Recent population assessment is even broadened by

including the study of chronic exposure to sub-lethal levels of

toxicants and their effects on vulnerable stages in the life cycle of

aquatic    life. (Solbe, & Calow, 1995). The chains and webs between

plants and animals their physical environment. Harm of one species,

in the environment might affect other aspects in the food chain.

     Industrial pollutants may interfere with nutrition of organisms

by affecting their ability to find prey through interfering with digestion

                                       8
or assimilation of food, by contaminating the pre species so that it is

not acceptable by the predator. On the other hand, if predator species

is eliminated by pollution, the prey species may have an improved

chance of survival.

     Heavy metals and halogenated hydrocarbons e.g. DDT, DHC,

Endosulfan and others are particularly harmful because they tend to

bioaccumulate. These chemicals are easily absorbed into the body but

excreted very slow resulting in bioaccumulation, which may further

have negative effects on the food chain.

     Organisms at the bottom of the food chain absorb the chemicals

from the water and accumulate it in their tissues. Animals at the

second trophic level such as fish, feeding on these organisms receive a

higher dose and further accumulation takes place in their tissues.

Thus, organisms at the top of the food chain receive the chemical at a

much higher level. This concentration of the toxic chemicals through

the food chain is called “biomagnifications”.

     The release of chemicals substances from chemical industries

into aquatic environment is toxic. The discharge of these chemical

substances into aquatic environment usually alters the physical

chemistry   which     includes   acidity,   (changes    in    pH),     electrical

conductivity, temperature and eutrophication. They could also cause

increase in the organic load, increased turbidity, as well as damage to

nursery     and     spawning     groups      (Adewolu        et   al     2009).

                                     9
Jaji et al, 2007 reported very high level of turbidity, oil and greese,

feacal coliform and iron in a study on water quality of Ogun River

(Nigeria) in which industrial effluent   from Lagos     and Abeokuta is

discharged .

          Eutrophication   depending    on   the   degree   has   negative

environmental effects such as anoxia (oxygen depletion) and severe

reductions in water quality may occur, affecting fish and other animal

populations. Eutrophication and organic pollutants responsible for

depletion of dissolve oxygen increases the C02 level in water bodies

due to decomposition of undecomposed or partially decomposed

organic matter.(Metcalf & Eddy 1991). High levels of total phosphorus

and other nutrients have been reported to encourage eutrophication.

(Fakayode, 2005; Mirareci et al, 2009). Possible source of phosphate

might involve the use of phosphorus acid and phosphate salts as

industrial raw materials. In addition, the extensive uses of phosphate

based detergents for washing purposes in industries is another

source.

     The survival of aquatic organisms is also greatly influenced byb

the pH of water bodies in which they are found. This is because most

of the metabolic activities are pH dependent (Chen and Lin, 1995;

Wang et al 2002).

Mining activities leads to production of inorganic salts, mineral acids

and production of finely divided metals or metal compounds. The

                                   10
presence of these pollutants in water usually resulted in the increase

in the acidity, salinity and toxicity of the water (Adesiyan, 2005).

     The actual pollutants present in mine drainage are sulphuric

acid and soluble compounds of iron. The acid mine drainage usually

lead to fall in pH levels to below 4.0. This usually leads to death of

aquatic   organisms,    killing    fish,   other   vertebrates   and   most

invertebrates. It also leads to agricultural crop damage when the pH

drops below 4.5. Moreover the acid water increases the solubility of

substances such as Fe, al and Mg salts.               These ions at high

concentration are toxic to plants. In natural aquatic ecosystems,

metals occur in low concentrations, normally at the nano gram to

microgram per litre level. In recent times, however, the occurrence of

metal contaminants especially the heavy metals in excess of natural

loads has become a problem of increasing concern (FAO,1992) Water,

sediments and biota       are     generally metal reservoir      in aquatic

environments (Ndimele et al 2009). The concentrations of heavy metals

in water may vary considerably depending on animal and seasonal

fluctuations.( Kumolu –Johnson et al, 2010). Bower (1979) noted the

extent of accumulation in biota is dependent on the chemical effects of

the metal, its tendency to bind to particular materials and on the lipid

content and composition of the biological tissue. At low levels, some

heavy metals such as Copper, Cobalt, Zinc, Iron and Manganese are

essential for enzymatic activities and many biological processes. Other

                                      11
metals, such as Cadmium, Mercury and Lead have no known essential

role in living organisms and are toxic at high concentrations (Kumolu-

Johnson et al 2010). There is bioaccumulation of metals such as Lead,

Copper, Lead, and Zinc in vital organs and tissues of aquatic animals.

Omitoyin et al (2003) reported different levels of bioaccumulation of

Lead, Copper and Zinc in the gills, in testis and muscle of Clarias

gariepinus in Eleyele Lake, Ibadan. Previous studies carried out by

Linder (1991) confirmed absorption of Cu through diffusion into small

intestine. Renfro et al (1975) and Spry et al (1988) also reported the

uptake   of   Zn   from     the   environment    through      the    gills   and

gastrointestinal system in both fresh and sea water.

     Other workers have explained that heavy metals constitute a

significant threat to the aquatic environment; hindrance to fishing

(Edgardo, 1993); impairment of water quality and injury to living

organisms (UNEP, 1982, 1984); contamination of benthic fauna via bio

accumulation    and   bio     magnification     and   changes       in   benthic

communities    (Odiete,     1999);   indirect   effect   on   man        through

consumption of sea foods (Odiete, 1999) such changes have ecological

and commercial importance on trophic levels. Kumolu-Johnson et al

2010)

     Thermal pollution has become a problem of a great concern in

recent years. This is due to the addition of heated waters to rivers and

lakes from the industrial stream electrical plants as well as nuclear

                                     12
power station. Since there is a very slight temperature increase, water

is considered as the most economical coolant.           Heating of water

creates a stress on aquatic life. However, with slow fluctuations, the

organism    gradually   adjusts.   Since   the   body    temperature   of

poikilothermic animals change by environmental temperatures, their

metabolic rates increase with a corresponding increase in oxygen

demand. The changed temperature also affects migratory behaviour of

the fish (Sharma, 1986). Moreover, heat discharge from industries lead

to disappearance of macro-algae and sea grass which act as shelter for

juvenile of commercial species of food organisms, thus reducing food

for associated herbivores.

     Most of the industrial chemical wastes are non-bio degradable

unlike sewage. (Sarojin 2005).      They remain in water and cause

extensive damage to aquatic organisms. It is evident that these

chemical effluents also produce metabolic stress in fish. Fafioye et al

2008.

     The physiological process of aquatic organisms may be interfered

due to release of industrial effluents into aquatic environment which

may not lead to death but interfere with the survival of aquatic

animals. The toxic substances and suspended sediments released

from industries injure the mucous membrane of the gills thus

affecting respiration of aquatic animals. The effluents lower the

dissolved oxygen level of the water, expose fish to stress factors, lower

                                   13
their body resistance and increase their susceptibility to disease

attack which can eventually lead to deaths or wipe out the aquatic

organisms out rightly (Wikipedia 2010).

     The presence of metals in rivers and streams, results of

discharge   from    metallurgical   or   mining   industries    leads   to

accumulation of these metals in fish and other aquatic organism.

(Prabu and Handy, 1977). This is subsequently passed to the

consumer with adverse consequences on health. Fosset (1980) and

Waldron, (1980).

     Most of industrial chemical are non bio –degradable unlike

sewage (Sarojins 2005). They remain in water and cause extensive

damage to aquatic organism. Wastes associated with tanning and the

manufacturing of certain chemicals do contain caustic soda (Na0H).

Sodium carbonate or lime. Thus alkaline effluents do have a pH of 12-

14 and lethal to all types of stream life, including bacteria. Salinity of

water is usually increased by excessive amount of salts brought by

sewage and effluents from chloro-alkali industries. The increase in the

chloride level leads to increase in salinity of water which is responsible

for increase in the osmotic pressure. Thus, salinity reduces dissolved

oxygen level in the aquatic environment. Most of the industrial

chemicals are non-biodegradable unlike sewage. (Sarojin, 2005). They

remain in water and cause extensive damage to aquatic organism.



                                    14
      A long-term exposure of sub-lethal concentration of industrial

effluents may make an organism more susceptible to disease

(Ogedengbe et al 2003). Some organic pollutants will provide an

environment suitable for the development of diseases producing

bacteria and viruses. Excessive amount of organic nutrients discharge

changes the algae community from one of great diversity of species to

one of a few species. The species, which are eliminated, are those

which form the food of the fishes. The species, which grow in

abundance, are generally the blue-green algae and other species,

which are mostly unsuitable as feed for fishes.

      Fish eggs and frys are affected by industrial discharge.

Pollutants affect the pH of water. Thus, if the water is more acidic

than pH 4.0, the eggs display exomosis and collapse, but if the water

is more alkaline than pH 9.0, there will be endosmosis, the eggs swells

and yolk becomes white.

      The nature of substrate is important in successful spawning of

any fish species. Eggs are usually affected to particular substrates

which are usually aquatic vegetation.

      High level of turbidity as a result of industrial discharge from

textile industries often peduncles the development of substantial

littoral zone vegetation which affects fish breeding and spawning.

s Many pollutants produce genetic effects which can have long range

significance for the survival of species.

                                    15
         Radioactive contamination can cause mutations directly by the

action of radiation on the genetic material. Oil and other organic

pollutants may include both mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds.

A large majority of those mutations is detrimental to the survival of the

young and many are lethal.




Table 1: Physico-chemical characteristics of industrial effluents in

Nigeria

Parameter     Sugar   Paper Brewery Textile Soft          Petroleum Steel      Tannery *FEPA

              factory mill           factory drink        refinery   making           ’s

                                               factory               plant            effluent

                                                                                      limit

Temperature NA        NA     32.0    39.0      31-44      7.0-8.2    NA        29     <40

(0C)

pH            4.8     4.4    9.0     7.1       3.2-11.4   NA         6.90      10.2   6-9

T/soil (mg/l) 1415    905    3170    2200      130-680    560-740    NA        6960   2000

S/soil (mg/l) 468     790    406     10        10-30      5-620      NA        2470   30

D.O(mg/l)     NA      NA     NA      NA        5.0        Nil-7.3    0.7-4.8   4.50   NA

BOD(mg/l)     1688    100    2110    103       NA         NA         NA        2000   50

COD(mg/l)     1954    730    3000    710       10002600 72-800       NA        4650   NA

Chloride      2.0     NA     1.0     285       6-30       268-720    28        2300   2000

(mg/l)


                                          16
Phosphate      1.7    NA     1.9    NA        0.04-1.60   17-64       NA     NA     5.0

(mg/l)

Iron (mg/l)    0.35   0.65   NA     0.5       2.4         0.20-6.30   NA     NA     20

Chromium       NA     NA     NA     NA        NA          NA          NA     39     NA

(mg/l)

Oil         & NA      NA     NA     10        25          3.7-260     NA     NA     20

Grease

(mg/l)

Sulphide       NA     NA     NA     3.0       0.98        0.85-1.0    NA     127    0.20

(mg/l)

Nitrate        NA     NA     NA     NA        1.1         1.0-1.5     1.0    NA     20

(mg/l)

Sulphate       NA     NA     NA     NA        32.5        0.03-2.30   6.50   1500   500

(mg/l)

Colour         Yes    Yes    Yes    Purple    Yellow      Yellow      NA     NA     NA

Odour          Yes    Yes    Yes    Yes       Yes         Yes         NA     NA     NA

Source: (Adeyemo, 2003; Osibanjo et al., FEPA, 1991; FEPA, 1996).

NA: No data Available



1.3 INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT DISCHARGE; A CASE STUDY OF

OLUYOLE INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, IBADAN

          Oluyole Industrial Estate is located in Ibadan, State South West

Nigeria. There is a stream, Ona River which is a major stream in

Ibadan flowing through the entire length of the city from North to


                                         17
South through receiving water from other smaller rivers within the

city.

        Majority of the industries at Oluyole are cited very close to a

stream, Ona River which serves as a means of disposing         waste and

effluents.    Some of these industries include Vital foods, Yale foods,

seven up Bottling Company, Interpark packaging and Zar Tech

Agricultural limited.

        Ogedengbe and Akinbile (2010) evaluated some parameters that

gave evidence of pollution due to industrial effluent discharge in this

stream.      Temp, Dissolved Oxygen, (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand

and Bio chemical Oxygen Demand have values above the Federal

Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) maximum allowable limit for

effluent discharge into surface water.         Other parameters also

evaluated include total suspended solids (TSS) Dissolved Solids (TDS),

Oil and Grease. Statistical analysis showed significant differences in

all the physico- chemical and heavy metal parameters analyzed at 5%

significance level.

        This finding also   shows   the   presence   of   feacal coliform

confirmation and presence of heavy metal pollution in large quantities

in Ona stream. This is as a result of untreated effluent discharges by

some industries, surface run offs, leakages and vehicular emissions. It

is evident that industries within Oluyole estate rarely treat their

effluents before discharging them into Ona stream (Ogedengbe &

                                    18
Akinbile, 2010). High alkalinity levels usually associated with increase

in presence of biocarbonates and carbonates from effluents and

leachates was reported in Ona stream.

        A similar finding by Osibanjo et al (2010) confirmed the

discharge of industrial effluents into River Alaro and River ona at

Oluyole Industrial Estate Ibadan.         However, a higher value of total

dissolved solids was recorded in the industrial zone of River Ona.

        In the developed world, domestic sewage, industrial and

agricultural waste are treated at sewage central works to reduce its

toxicity and discharged into rivers and streams. However, the case is

not so in respect of Oluyole Industrial Estate, Ibadan where untreated

waste are discharged directly into the streams that flow through the

area.

        There is need therefore to apply appropriate policies to compel

industries in the area to treat effluent before discharging into the river,

the use of mathematical models for predicting pollution levels and to

develop     clean   water    technology    for   water   pollution   control.

(Ogedengbe & Akinbile, 2010).



1.4     CONTROL     OF      INDUSTRIAL      EFFLUENT     DISCHARGE        AT

AGBARA ESTATE, OGUN STATE.

        Agbara industrial Estate is an Industrial Estate located outside

Lagos. The Industrial areas constitute 41.55% (188.289 hectares) of

                                     19
the whole estate. Most of these factories belong to the food, beverages

and pharmaceutical group.       There are a lot of discharges are from

these industries, however, there is a sewage treatment plant, an

aerated Lagoon system that collects and treats both domestic and

industrial effluents through oxidation process before discharging the

treated effluents into the Ologe Lagoon through a stream. The plant

is first of its type in Nigeria sewage pipes are laid to connect individual

residential, commercial and industrial properties to the treatment

plant and manholes are provided at road boundaries to all plots.

   Onwordi and Dan-Suilaiman reported that the temperature mean

values and pH values for the samples analysed on physico chemical

characterization and heavy metals of effluents from glass processing

plant in Agbara Industrial estate are all within the FMENV and that of

WHO standard. The mean concentration of the phosphate, nitrate,

sulphate are also all within the limit standard except the mean value

of total suspended solids which value is above the FMENV standard

The Dissolved Oxygen and Biological Oxygen Demand are all within

the limit. The levels of Zn, Fe. Pb. Cr &. Cd metal concentrations of

the effluents from the sampling points were generally within the

regulatory limits (FMENV). The Glass processing plant at Agbara is the

leading hollow glass container manufacturing company and one of the

biggest industries in the estate generating an estimated volume of

20,000 litres of waste water daily (Onwordi & Dan Suilaiman.

                                    20
However, the effluent from Glass Industry is still within the limit for

most of the parameters analyzed except for the colour, TSS and COD.




2.0   OIL INDUSTRIES AND THE AQUATIC EVIRONMENT

      Crude   oil   is   a   complex    mixture   of   mainly   hydrocarbon

components    having     differing   physical,    chemical   and   biological

properties. About 40% of the world’s present energy supply comes

from crude oil, the liquid form of petroleum which is a mixture of

many thousands of organic compounds of which more than three-

quarters are hydrocarbon (Whittle et al, 1982). The composition differs

from different sources and may also differ from one source at different

times, as extraction proceeds.

      Individual compounds differ greatly in their physical, chemical

and biological properties Crude oil is distributed unevenly, with 55%

of the world’s process resources in the Middle East (half of those

reserves in Saudi Arabia) Venezuela and Niger Delta in Niger.

Considerable quantities of oil are shipped around the world, a

potential cause for environmental contamination. Oil has been forming

naturally in the earth’s crust since about 500 million years ago. Oil is

                                       21
one of the world’s greatest sources of energy known since ancient

times but only in this country has man developed technological

capability of obtaining large quantities of oil and gas which have now

replaced coal and others as the major source of energy in the

expanding world economy. Oil provides fuels and lubricants for

transportation. It also provides raw materials for several hundred

petrochemical products such as plastics, synthetic rubber, detergents,

insecticides, paints, cosmetics and road surfaces.

      Most activities in the oil industry can result in the discharge of

crude oil into the environment. Some of the activities include

accidental spillages during exploration and production phases such as

Oil well blow out. Drilling fluids containing low aromatic bases and

mineral oil are frequently dumped around drilling sites during

exploratory activities.

      Petroleum in one form or the other has been used by humans

since at least biblical times. Natural oil seeps provided bitumen (a

semi-solid that remains after volatile components of crude oil have

evaporated away which was used as a building material in ancient

cities.

      Iraq’s natural gas from the Kirkuk oil field at Baba Gurger has

burned continuously since the time of Nebuchadnezzar. Over 3000

tons of oil per year was obtained from hand-dug pits at Baku near the

Caspian Sea as early as the Nineteenth century (Nelson smith, 1972).

                                   22
     In the United states, natural seeps such as those off coat oil

point California, were noted as early as 1629, but the first commercial

well at Titusville, Pennsylvania was not drilled until 1959.

     With the advent of refineries in the mid nineteenth century, it

was possible to separate kerosene from other components of crude oil

which as used as fuel in lamps. The invention of the internal

combustion engine and its widespread adoption in all forms of

transportation during the last decades of the nineteenth century

rapidly charged this picture. The demand for oil as a fuel has risen

steadily the world’s energy consumption and also as a fuel in power

plants.

     Crude oil was discovered in Nigeria by Shell British Petroleum

(now Royal Dutch Shell at Oloibiri, in the Niger Delta in 1956.

commercial production began in 1988, but today there are 606 oil

fields in the Niger Delta of which 360 are on shore and 246 offshores.

(Nigeria country analysis Brief, 2005). Badejo 2010 reported that

Nigeria is now the largest oil producer in Africa and the sixth largest

oil producer in the world.

     However, since the discovery of oil in 1956, Nigeria has since

recorded oil spill which had caused severe environmental degradation

and dislocation of social livelihood of many oil communities in Nigeria.

Oil exploration and exploitation activities especially in oil rich states



                                   23
have been constant sources of pollution of water bodies. (Bolorunduro

& Kwari 2003).

      Oil spills which are a common event in the Niger Delta area of

Nigeria occur due to a number of causes, including corrosion of

pipelines and tankers (account for 50% of all spills) sabotage 28%, and

oil production operations (21%) with 1% of the spills being accounted

for by inadequate or non-functional production equipment. Nwilo &

Badejo (2001) reported that the largest contributor to the oil spill is

the rupturing or leaking of production infrastructures that are

described as “very old and lack regular inspection and maintenance.

      Oil refers to a broad range of hydrocarbon based substances and

hydrocarbons (chemicals containing the elements hydrogen and

carbon). These include crude oil, refined petroleum products animal

fats, vegetable oils and other non-petroleum oils.

      The chemical and physical properties of each type of oil is

distinct to that particular type, and it is these properties that

determine the way oil will spread and breakdown and how hazardous

it may be to aquatic environment. The rate at which oil spreads also

determines its effect on environmental factors which affects the ability

of an oil spill to spread include surface tension, specific gravity and

viscosity.

      The severity of the impact of an oil spill depends on a variety of

factors, including the oil itself. Natural conditions, such as water

                                   24
temperature and weather, also influence the behaviour of oil in

aquatic environments. Moreover, various types of habitats have

differing sensitivities to oil spills as well.

      Natural actions are always at work in aquatic environments.

These do assist to reduce the severity of an oil spill and accelerate the

recovery of an affected area. These natural actions include weathering

evaporation, oxidation, biodegrading and emulsification. These natural

actions occur differently in fresh water versus marine environment.

Fresh water environmental impacts can be more severe because water

movement is minimized in these habitats.

2.1   EFFECT OF OIL ON AQUATIC ORGANISMS

The environment where oil pollution takes place e.g Mangrove swamps

in Nigeria or salt marshes in Britain (areas where oil refineries are

located) may be affected by a single oil spillage, many successive

spillages or by continous low level refinery discharge. Single oil

spillage are most common, and these may cause temporary damage

with no no long term effect distruption to vegetation. Short           term

damage usually entails death of oiled shoots but later followed by

regrowth from underground parts.            Multiple spillages   or refinery

effluents may have more far reaching effects         on vegetation

      Oil is a mixture of many compounds, and crude oil contains

thousands of different compounds which are toxic to the aquatic

organisms; some are toxic to the aquatic organisms; some are soluble

                                       25
in water; some evaporate on the surface, some form extensive and

widespread slicks while others settle on the bottom and incorporate

large amounts of sand in globules (Laws, 1981).

      Different types of oil can have different effects on aquatic

organisms. Laws (1981) classified the effects of oil into categories; the

first category includes    the   effects   associated     with    coating or

smothering of an organism with        oil .The second category or toxic

effects involves the disruption of organisms metabolism due to the

ingestion of the oil. The incorporation of hydrocarbons into lipid or

other tissue in sufficient concentrations upsets the physiological

activities of the organisms (Chukwu and Odunzeh 2006.)

Laws, (1981) reported that adult fish are resistant to oil pollution,

since their bodies including the mouth and gill chambers are coated

with slimy mucus that resists wetting by oil. Longwell, (1977)

however, found that crude oil and fuel oil are toxic to fish eggs at

concentration as low as 0.5-10ppm.

     In standing water bodies, oil tends to pool and can remain in the

environment the long periods of time. In flowing streams and rivers, oil

tends to collect on plants and grasses growing on the banks. Oil can

also interact with the sediment at the bottom of the freshwater bodies,

affecting organisms that live or feed off on sediments.

     Some toxic substances in an oil spill may evaporate quickly.

Therefore,   plant,   animal   and   human    exposure     to    most   toxic

                                     26
substances are reduced with time, and human exposure to most toxic

substances are reduced with time, and are usually limited to the

initial spill area.

      Although some organism may be seriously injured or killed very

soon after contact with oil in a spill, non-lethal toxic effects can be

more subtle. For example, aquatic life on reefs and shorelines is at

risk of being smoothened by oil that washes ashore. It can also be

poisoned slowly by long term exposure to all trapped in shallow water

or on beaches.

      Oil in the environment constitutes hazards which range from

impairment to suppressed death. (Moore, et al 1984). Oil spillage has

caused destruction of food resources (Percival and Evans, 1997).

      Petroleum hydrocarbon and petroleum residue (i.e. spent oil)

remains the foremost pollutants to the fish communities in various

aquatic media ponds, streams, river, creeks; coastal and marine

environments through indiscriminate disposal of oil contaminated

drilling mud’s cutting and oil spillages. The spent oil enters into

aquatic media through run-off flowing unguided disposal.

      Both the petroleum hydrocarbon and spent oil, on getting to the

water bodies spread fast and produce lethal, sub-lethal and even

acute effect of petroleum hydrocarbon and spent oil on the fingerlings

and other juvenile fishes which constitute about 60% of the fish

population in any aquatic medium (Gbadebo et al 2009). Persistent

                                  27
release of both the crude and spent oils into the aquatic environment

affects the survival of aquatic and metabolism of aquatic animals

including fish (Cote, 1976).   Osuamkpe et al 2009 stated that the

impact of oil spills on fresh water swamps goes beyond the immediate

fish mortality usually observed during such incidences.          It also

includes    loss   in   fin fish abundance, starvation and consequent

increase in susceptibility to diseases such as lesions and fin rot.

Stress on surviving fin fish resulting from changes and sediment

quality is also observed.

.    Oil spills are more detrimental to surface organisms than to deep

water organism. Therefore, animals that live closer to the shore such

as fortles seals and dolphins risk communication by oil that waes onto

the beeches or by consuming oil contaminated by prey sea grasses

and sea beds which are used as food, shelter and nesting sites by

different species might also be harmed by oil spills in shallow water.

The volatile quickly, penetrating and viscous properties of petroleum

have wiped out large areas of vegetation. When spills occur close to

areas within the drainage basin, the hydrologic force for both the river

and tides force spilled petroleum to move up into areas of vegetation. If

oil directly affects any organism within an ecosystem, it can directly

affect a host of other organisms. These floral communities rely on

nutrient cycling, clean water, sunlight, and proper substrates. (With

ideal conditions, they offer habitat structure and input of energy via

                                   28
photosynthesis to the organism they interact with). The effects of

petroleum spills on mangrove are known to acidify the soils, half

cellular respiration, and starve roots of vital oxygen. An area of

mangroves that has been destroyed by petroleum may be susceptible

to other problems. These areas may not be suitable for any native

plant growth until bacteria and micro-organism can remediate the

conditions.

The effect of oil on aquatic environment can be classified into:

Environmental damage

   Oil contaminated water/swamps and soil suffer from oxygen

     depletion oil sleek barrier effect preventing entry of 0 2 and outlet

     of C02.

   Oil film on water surface-reduces light transmission and hence

     reduction in photosynthetic primary production.

   Oil coating of water birds – the oil destroys the insulative

     capacity of features.

   Reduces buoyancy in water and prevents flight may even lead to

     drowning.

   In some birds, oil coating around nostrils may cause death by

     asphyxiation.

   Many components of oil are chemically stable, and not readily,

     metabolized or excreted when absorbed, hence subject to food



                                   29
        chain     amplification     i.e.   biomagnifications   causing   delayed

        harmful effects along the food chain.

       Some aromatics like benzene inhibit blood cell formation in bone

        marrow. All cause irritation of respiratory system and excitation

        or depression central Nervous System.

       Taint accumulates, food items of man could result in unpleasant

        flavours and or even toxic when consumed.



(b)     Physiological effects

       Oil penetrates plants, traveling through intercellular spaces and

         possibly vascular system.

       Cell membranes can be solubilised/ damaged, leading to

         leakage of      cell contents and entry of oil into cell either can kill

         plant.

       Selective permeability of cell plasma membrane has also been

         shown to be altered by oil by displacement of fatty molecules.

       Oil reduces transpiration rate probably by blocking stomata and

         intercellular    spaces,    this    may   also   explain   reduction   of

         photosynthesis in oil plants.

       Reduction in available light and disruption of chloroplast by oil

         coatings will also be recorded.

       Oil pollution is capable of inducing shifts in competitive

         relationships existing between the component species of an

                                            30
         ecosystem which in turn may lead to profound changes in

         community composition.

        Above     phenomena    may     explain   the    currently    ongoing

         displacement of mangrove forest by imported raffia palms in

         some parts of the Nigeria coastline.

        Oil-tolerance order/ranking forms basis for choice of plant

         species for transplantation exercise in situations of bare-ground

         arising from severe oil pollution damage of ground cover and

         shrubs.

( c)    Biological Effects

        The effect ranges from sub lethal to lethal. Sub lethal effect

range from stimulation (Don Pedro, 1987) to retardation and inhibition

of processes such as reproduction, respiration, growth, movement,

nutrition and irritability (Anderson et al., 1997).

        Crude oil has been shown to cause changes in behavioural

pattern of marine organisms. There was a reported significant change

in the behaviour of fielder crabs (Uca pugnax) which resulted in the

emergence of their burrows after successive oiling after the spill in

west Falmouth oil spill.

        The oil slick floating on water in known to exert physical damage

by      reducing   the   penetration    of   sunlight,   thereby     inhibiting

photosynthetic activity of the aquatic plants in the photic zones.

Larger population of algae were reported dead thereby reducing the

                                       31
productivity of the impacted zone following Torrey Canyon oil spill

(Baker 1968).

      Ashley Dejo (1990) found that in stagnant water, oil slick forms a

barrier that restricts diffusion of oxygen into water, leading to the

asphyxiation of benthic animals.

      Decrease of annuals like Puccinelia maritime. Salicornia after oil

spill was observed by Cowell (1969). In general, the annuals are the

most severely damaged plants by oil pollution and this due to lack of

extensive underground vegetative systems and inability to replace

damaged shoots compared to the perennials. (Don-Pedro, 1987.)

      Successive oil spill have been shown to alter the behavioural

patterns of living organisms which may impede their reproduction

success and competitive ability. These combined effects could bring

about shifts in ecosystem equilibrium resulting in changes of

dominance in the flora and fauna of impacted ecosystem (Don Pedro,

1987).



2.2   EFFECT OF OIL COMPANIES ON AQUATIC ENVIRONEMNT: A

CASE STUDY OF NIGER DELTA RELIGION

      Most of the oil industries in Nigeria are located in the Niger Delta area.

The effect of oil resources extraction on the environment of the Niger delta

has been very glaring in terms of its negative effect on the region.         Oil

exploration and exploitation has over the last four decades impacted


                                      32
disastrously on the socio-physical environment of the Niger delta oil bearing

communities. It has massively threatened the subsistent peasant economy

and the environment and hence the entire livelihood and basic survival of

the people. (Ojo, 2007).

The Niger delta covers, 20,000 km2 within covers an area of wetlands of 70,

square kilometer and accounts for 7.5100 total land mass in Nigeria. It

covers a coastline of 560km, and about two third of the entire coastline of

Nigeria. The Niger Delta is the world’s largest wetland; made up of

Marshland, Creeks tributaries and Lagoons that drain into the Atlantic

Ocean at the Bright of Biafra.

The region has witnessed the slow poisoning of the waters and destruction

of another source calculated that the total amount of oil in barrels spilled

between 1960 and 1997 is an upward of 100 million barrels (Wikipedia,

2010). A report recently released by National Oil Spill Detection Response

Agency stated that 3203 cases of oil spill reports from oil companies with

accompanying 92,54 barrels of oil reported in the last four years i.e.

(January 2006 June 2010 (The Punch, 2010).

      In 2010 Baird reported that between 9 million and 13 million barrels

of oil have been spilled in the Niger Delta since 1958. The spills usually

cover a wide area, thereby destroying crops and aquacultures through

contamination of groundwater and soils biodiversity of Niger Delta is very

high, both in flora and fauna (Ibeanu, 2000). The Niger Delta area is well

fed by the influx of debris by the rivers discharging into the sea and

renowned for its abundant shrimp and fisheries resources (Ayoola 2010).

Chindah and Osuamkpe, 1994 reported that the area support abundant

                                     33
flora and fauna of a wide variety of crops, timber or agricultural trees and

more species of fresh water fish than any ecosystem in West Africa.

        The vegetation in the Niger Delta consists of extensive mangrove

forest, brackish swamp forests and rainforests.      The large expanses of

mangrove forests are estimated to cover approximately 5000 to 8580km2 of

land.    However constant pollution of petroleum has caused five to ten

percent of these mangrove forests to disappear.

        The loss of mangrove forest is not only degrading life for plants and

animals, but also for humans as well. Mangroves provide essential habitat

for rare and endagered species like the manatee and pygmy hippotamus

apart from been a major source of wood for local people. Immense tracts of

the mangrove forest, which are especially susceptible to oil (mainly because

it is stored in the soil and re-released annually during inundations have

been destroyed.

        A particular species of mangrove, Rhizophora racemosa lives higher in

the Niger Delta Area. As the soil supporting R. racemosa becomes toxic, a

non-native invasive species of palm, Nypha fruticians quickly colonizes the

area. This invasive species has a shallower root system that destabilizes the

banks along the water ways, further impacting sediment distribution lower

in the delta system. Nypha fruticians also impedes navigation and decreases

overall biodiversity (Don –Pedro 2009).

        Mangroves are vulnerable and susceptible because they are adapted

to live in anaerobic muds. They have lenticels on their aerial roots.

Rhizophora spp or special preumatophores from underground roots e.g.

Avicenrua spp. The aerial roots or preumatophore create a baffle in the water

                                      34
that reduces current velocities and traps sediment and also trap oil which

eventually kills the plant by blocking supplies to the roots. (Baker, 1981). A

mangrove community can take many years to recover from exposure to oil

spill.

         There were reported cases of oil spills in the Niger Delta, Nigeria in

1980 (Texaco Funiwa-5 well blow out, Agip Oyakama pipeline linkage in

1980 and Nembe creek oil spill of 1997, it was observed that the spills

caused tainting and death of fishes, crabs mollusks and mangrove

seedlings. Death of mangrove oysters was still occurring 14months after

spillage from well blow out in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. The implication is

that oysters and other animals attached to mangrove and other plants in the

oil polluted ecosystem are at risk.

         Also it was observed that oil spillage normally reduces the aesthetic

values of beaches, rivers and sand and exposes colonized land to bare

ground thereby increasing erosion.

         The fishing industry is an essential part of Nigeria’s sustainability

because it provides much needed protein and nutrients for people. Over 70%

of the populace obtains their proteins from fish.

The Niger Delta Area of Nigeria is the major area of fish production in

Nigeria. However Oil spill has seriously affected fish production in fishing

communities in Niger Delta and major occupation of the populace.

         The consumption of dissolved oxygen by bacteria feeding on the

spilled hydrocarbons contributes to the death of fish. Fish and marine

resources in the country face total collapse or extinction due to the



                                       35
destruction of marine life and natural habitats by oil pollution (Adeyemo

2003).




3.0    ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING

       There is need to control pollution in aquatic environment by the

enforcement of pollution control measures, a long-term comprehensive

monitoring plan and environmental impact assessment prepared for

areas that may be involved in oil spill in order to ascertain the effect of

petroleum residues on the ecosystem.

       Several laws and policies have been taken in managing oil spill

incidents at the international and national levels these laws and

polices include the following:

1.       Oil pollution Act (OPA) of 1990

2.       National Oil Spill Detection and Response agency (NOSDRA)

3.       The Niger Delta Development Commission (PRLR)

4.       Petroleum Related Laws and Regulations (PRLR)

5.     The Environmental Impact assessment (EIA decree No 86 of

1992



                                     36
6.    Federal and State Agencies such as Department of Petroleum

      Resources (DPR), the Federal Ministry of Environment.            The

      State Ministries of Environment and National Maritime Authority

      (NMA).

7.    Efforts of the oil companies and Non-Governmental Agencies

8.    Oil Trajectory and Fate Models for Oil Spill Disaster Ministry

9.    Nigeria Sat 1.

10.   International co-operation, through donation of additional

      vessels to fifth oil smugglers.



3.1   ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMNT (EIA)

      The concept of EIA implies the systematic identification,

      examination by measurement of project or programs as designed

before it could also be an assessment of the potential positive and

or negative effects that a proposed development will have in the

future on local, regional and global environment.

      Environment Impact Assessment is a process of identifying,

predicting, evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social and other

relevant effects of proposed projects and physical activities prior to

major decision and commitment being made. (Salder 1996).

      Environment Impact Assessment is the best way to ensure that

sustainable development can accommodate design change at any time



                                        37
and also preventive to ensure environmental protection, and to win

regulatory permits (Don-Pedro, 2009).

        Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) has since 1970, become

established    as   a   major   procedure   for   assessing    environment

implicated impact of developmental projects, legislation and policies. It

started in the United State of America (USA) from where it spread to

Europe, Asia and recently to Africa including Nigeria.

3.1.1        ENVIRONMENT IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA) DECREE

        NO 86 OF 1992.

        The Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) decree No 86 of 1992

was promulgated to protect and sustain our ecosystem. The law

makes the development of an EIA compulsory for any major project

that may have adverse effects on the environment (Ntukekpo, 1996;

Olagoke,    1996) and sought to assess the           likely or     potential

environmental impact of proposed activities, and assessment of those

measure (Ozekhome, 2001).

The carrying out of Environment Impact Assessment is policed by the

Federal Environmental Agency, and by state environmental protection

agencies.

        The preparation of an environmental impact assessment (EIA) in

developing countries presents a special challenge due to the very close

connection     between     socio-economic    well-being,      environmental

resources and unique stake holder concerns. Assessing project

                                    38
impacts in these developing countries require more than a foundation

in environmental science. It requires appropriate communication with

local governing bodies and an-ever-evolving knowledge of country

specific regulatory requirements and international environmental

treats.

        Environmental impact assessment ensures that decision makers

consider the ensuring environmental impacts when deciding whether

to proceed with a project. (Wikipedia, 2010).

3.1.2         GUDELINES FOR FISHERIES IMPACT ASSESSMNT

A fisheries impact assessment is a part of an environmental impact

assessment (EIA) study for a proposed development which may affects

fishing and aquaculture activities, fisheries resources, habitats and

aquaculture sites. It aims at providing sufficient accurate data to allow

complete and objective predictions and evaluation of potential fisheries

impacts.

        A fisheries impact assessment study usually consists of five

parts namely:

(a)     Provision of comprehensive and accurate baseline information on

        fisheries.

(b)     Production of potential fisheries impact

(c )    Evaluation of the significance of the impacts predicted,

(d)     Recommendations of cost-effective and practicable alternative

        and measures.

                                     39
(e)     Recommendations of appropriate monitoring programmes.

        A fisheries assessment study shall provide adequate and

accurate data of a proposed development site and its adjacent area of

probable study are for accurate prediction and evaluation of fisheries

impacts.

        The study will include; Review and collation of existing

information and fields survey.

i.      Level of fisheries resources and composition of commercially

        important species in the study areas.

ii.     The level and pattern of fishing activity and fisheries prediction

        in the area.

iii.    Sites of fisheries importance such as nursery and spawning

        ground economically important species of fish, crustaceans,

        mollusks and marine organism, and seasonal occurrence of

        juvenile and spawn in the study area:

iv.     Aquaculture activity in the study area.

        Based on the project profile and fisheries baseline information

        gathered, fisheries impact study should be able to protect

        potential fisheries impacts caused by the development.

        Also, prediction of impacts on fisheries shall take into account,

the assessment for water quality and ecological impacts.

3.1.3        ENVIRONMETNAL MONITORING PROBLEM



                                     40
Environmental monitoring involves the systematic collection of data to

determine:

  i.       The actual environmental effects of a project

  ii.      The compliance of the project with regulatory standard, or

  iii.     The degree of implementation of environmental protection

measures and success of the environmental protection measures.

         The information generated by monitoring programs provides the

feedback necessary to ensure that environmental protection measures

have been effective in helping achieve an environmentally sound

project. An environmental monitoring program plan outlines the

monitoring objectives, the specific information to be collected, and the

data collection program.

         Program    management      includes    assigning    institutional

responsibility, defining reporting requirements, ensuring enforcement

capability, and confirming the adequate resources that are provided in

terms of skilled staff, equipment, training and funds.

         An environmental monitoring plan is part of overall quality

control measure to ensure that environmental protection measures as

detailed in the environmental management plan were adopted and it

ensures that enforcement of these measures are carried out.

         Monitoring must include all areas covered in the environmental

management plan as well as communities outside the right of way



                                     41
which would experience social impacts as a result of the movement of

displaced people.

        The objectives of monitoring and assessment need to be

determined at the very beginning of any sampling program that is to

be adequate of reliable conclusions.

        Moore   (1975)   and     Holden   (1975)   and   Holdgate   (1979)

enumerated the types of information that can be gained by well-

designed and exited monitoring.

Such information includes:

  (a)      Rats of release of pollutants into the environmental

  (b)      Degree and changes of environmental contamination, both

           biotic and abiotic.

  (c)      Biological effects.

  Whatever the objectives may be monitoring should be done when

possible, it should also be assigned so that a specified degree of

change can be detected with an appropriate degree of statistical

difference (Sugar and Stamman, 1986).

        Control sites i.e. uncontaminated sites are used to detect when

change does occur, or whether it is as a result of moral ecological

variability or form one or more pollutants. (Hawkins and Hartnoll,

1988).

        Environmental monitoring is of four types which differ according

to the purpose for which the observations may be gathered.

                                     42
        1.    Reconnaissance monitoring

        2.    Surveillance monitoring

        3.    Subjective monitoring or spot-checking, and

        4.    Objective monitoring.

RECONNAISSANCE MONITORING: This involves period observations

with the objective of determining changes or trends with time and

offers with the implication that some undefined, corrective action may

be taken if trends become alarming.

SURVELLANCE MONITORIONG:                This implies observations made

particularly to support an enforcement programme and to ensure

compliance with regulations. It refers to measurements against set

standards in practical terms.

SUBJECTIVE MONITORING OR SPOT MONITORING:                    It may be

undertaken for a variety of purpose, but broadly speaking, it is

monitoring for the purpose of exploring and defining the parameters of

a problem whether it is the investigation of an accidental spill in case

of crude oil, or determination of general levels of hazards. In some of

such cases, the elements of time may enter only in that positive

findings indicate a change from some presumed original zero level in

the environment.

OBJECTIVE MONITORING:           Is to provide monitoring or hazardous

chemicals of substances to determine whether existing controls are

adequate and will continue to protect man and his environment.

                                   43
      Although, it may often be appropriate to start monitoring before

the pollutants have been released, monitoring information becomes

useful only after pollutants have entered the environment. Thus,

monitoring serves as a feedback mechanism in the decision but is

expensive, the losses that result from an inadequate monitoring

system are more and at times beyond qualification, depending on the

hazard and targets. These losses must be calculated, first as the cost

of the monitoring and second, as the cost accountable to the delay in

detecting hazardous situations.

The costs of monitoring include the direct cost plus those of paying up

specific manpower. Cost of delay in detection might include damage to

human health (kerosene disaster in Benin-city in 1998), effect on the

environments, and influence on the future well-being of a nation or

environment. Cost of abatement may increase by the day if there is

any delay. Serious contamination will eventually be detected, although

without monitoring detection of the problem may occur only after

critical damage has been done.


4.0   OIL    SPILL MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA.


Several laws and policies have been taken in managing oil spill incidents at

the international and national levels. These laws and policies are given in

the following sections:


4.1 Oil     Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990

                                      44
The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 1990) is responsible for many of the

nation's improvements in oil spill prevention and response. OPA 1990

provides guidance for government and industry on oil spill prevention,

mitigation, cleanup and liability. The majority of OPA 1990 provisions were

targeted at reducing the number of spills followed by reducing the quantity

of oil spilled. OPA 1990 also created a comprehensive scheme to ensure that

sufficient financial resources are available to clean up a spill and to

compensate persons damaged by a spill. It also ensures that the federal

response system is adequately prepared to manage the impacts of oil spills

that do occur; and mandates that industry implement prevention and

preparedness measures. The OPA also mandates that tankers and inland oil

facilities develop individual response plans. Furthermore the OPA also

mandates enhancements to the national response system, and development

of Area Contingency Plans.

4.2 National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency (NOSDRA)

A National OIL Spill Detection and Response Agency (NOSDRA) have been

approved by the Federal Executive Council of Nigeria. The Ministry of

Environment, which initiated the Agency, has also forwarded to the Federal

Executive Council for approval, the reviewed draft National Oil Spill

Contingency Plan (NOSCP) which the Agency would manage (Alexandra Gas

and Oil Connections, 2006)

The establishment of the contingency plan and the agency was in

compliance with the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness,

Response and Cooperation (OPRC90) to which Nigeria is a signatory. The

draft bill on the NOSDRA has been forwarded to the National Assembly for

                                    45
  deliberation and enactment into law (Alexandra Gas and Oil Connections,

  2006).

  Apart    from   intensifying   efforts   towards   compliance        monitoring   and

  enforcement of oil and gas regulations and standards, the ministry is also

  mounting pressure on the oil and gas operators for a gas flare-out. Effort is

  also being made, according to the sources, to ensure the use of

  environmental-friendly drilling fluid and mud systems (Alexandra Gas and

  Oil Connections, 2006)


  4.3 The Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC)

  To reduce the rate of oil incidents along the Nigerian Coast particularly as a

  result of vandalization, the Federal Government through an act of the

  National Assembly in 2000 passed into law the Niger Delta Development

  Commission.     (NDDC).    The    Act    among     other   things,    established   a

  Commission to carry out among other things the following tasks:

  (a).    Cause the Niger-Delta area to be surveyed in order to ascertain

     measures, which are necessary to promote its physical and socio-

     economic development;s

  (b.) Prepare plans and schemes designed to promote the physical

     development of the Niger-Delta area;


(c.) Identify factors inhibiting the development of the Niger-Delta and assist the

  member states in the formation and implementation of policies to ensure

  sound and efficient management of the resources of the Niger-Delta;

  (d). Assess and report on any project funded or carried out in the Niger-

  Delta area by oil and gas producing companies and any other company

                                           46
including non-governmental . organisations and ensure that funds released

for such projects are properly utilised;

(e). Tackle ecological and environmental problems that arise from the

  exploration of oil in the Niger-Delta area.

(f). Liaise with the various oil mineral and gas prospecting and producing

  companies on all matters of pollution prevention and control.

Essentially, items (e) and (f) deal with issues pertaining to oil exploration

and production and the NNDC act is a strategic way of dealing with all forms

of pollution from these activities in the Niger Delta.

4.4     Petroleum Related Laws and Regulations

        Part of the means of managing the environment is to have in place the

necessary laws, regulations and guidelines. According to the Federal

Environmental Protection Agency, Lagos Nigeria, the following relevant

national laws and international agreements are in effect:

   a.     Endangered Species Decree Cap 108 LFN 1990

   b.     Federal Environmental protection Agency Act Cap 131 LFN 1990

   c.     Harmful Waste Cap 165 LFN 1990

   d.     Petroleum (Drilling and Production) Regulations, 1969

   e.     Mineral Oil (Safety) Regulations, 1963

   f.     International Convention on the Establishment of an International

          Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage, 1971

   g.     Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution Damage, 1972

   h.     African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural

          Resources, 1968



                                       47
  i.    International Convention on the Establishment of an International

        Fund for the Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage, 1971.

4.5    The Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) decree No 86 of 1992

  The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) decree No 86 of 1992 was

  promulgated to protect and sustain our ecosystem. The law makes the

  development of an EIA compulsory for any major project that may have

  adverse effects on the environment (Ntukekpo, 1996;

  Olagoke, 1996). It sought to assess the likely or potential environmental

  impacts of proposed activities, including their direct or indirect,

  cumulative, short term and long term effects, and to identify the measures

  available to mitigate adverse environmental impacts of proposed activities,

  and assessment of those measures.(Ozekhome, 2001). The carrying out of

  ELAs is policed by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency, and by

  state environmental protection agencies.


  4.6 Federal and State Agencies

  A number of Federal and State agencies deal with the problems of oil spill

  in Nigeria. The agencies include: the Department of Petroleum Resources

  (DPR), the Federal Ministry of Environment, the State Ministries of

  Environment and the National Maritime Authority.


  4.7 Efforts of the Oil Companies and Non Governmental Agencies

  Due to increasing awareness in preventing and controlling spills in

  Nigeria, the Clean Nigeria Associates (C.N.A.) was formed in November

  1981. The C.N.A. is a consortium of eleven oil companies operating in

  Nigeria, including Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC). The

                                     48
  primary purpose of establishing the C.N.A is to maintain a capability to

  combat spills of liquid hydrocarbons or pollutants in general (Nwilo &

  Badejo, 2005).


  As a result of the focus on Shell's activities in Nigeria, Shell in

  collaboration with all the members of Oil Producers Trade Section

  (OPTS) of the Lagos Chambers of Commerce established the Niger Delta

  Environmental Survey (NDES). Shell, the OPTS and the

the response time and improve the decision-making process, application of

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as an operational tool is very

essential. Information on the exact position and size of the oil spill can be

plotted on maps in a GIS environment. GIS offers opportunities for

integration of oil drift forecast models (prediction of wind and current

influence on the oil spill) in the computer program framework (Milaka,

1995).

Required information for oil spill sensitivity mapping can be depicted on a

set of thematic maps using GIS even though they can in theory be depicted

onto a single sheet. With the use of a GIS, all the relevant information or

themes can be stored in the system and produced onto maps in a format

that befits the needs of the day. Alternatively, modelling exercises using the

GIS can be conducted to assess the adequacy of any given oil spill

contingency plan (Parthiphan, 1994).

The creation of regional spill response centres along coastlines will help in

managing oil spill problems (Smith and Loza, 1994). The centre will use oil

spill models for combating oil spill problems. Using data collected with an



                                       49
airborne system to input one or several new starting point(s) into the model,

will improve the accuracy of the further predictions (Sandberg, 1996).

4.8   Oil Trajectory and Fate Models for Oil Spill Disaster Monitoring

      Oil spill simulation model is used in oil response and contingency

planning and as a tool in oil fate and impact assessment (Rossouw, 1998).

In the event of an oil spill taking place, predictions of the slick can be

supplied, provide that the necessary meteorological information is available

(Rossouw, 1998). Oil spillage can also be treated or removed by natural

means, mechanical systems, absorbents, burning, gelling, sinking and

dispersion. Oil spillage can be removed by natural menas through the

process of evaporation, photochemical oxidation and dispersions (Wardley-

Smith, 1977). Bioremediation can also be used for managing oil spill

problems (Hoff, 1993; Prince, 1993; Atlas, 1995).

4.9   Nigerian Sat 1

      The Nigerian Sat 1 Satellite has joined the Disaster Monitoring

Constellation, an international early-warning satellite network transmitting

real-time information about droughts, earthquakes, deforestation and man-

made disasters observable from space. The Nigeria Sat-1, an Orbit Satellite

for geographical mapping, would also help to check the perennial problem of

oil pipeline vandalisation, and assist in combating and managing oil spill

incidents. The Nigeria Sat-1, would help in monitoring oil spill by providing

the spill position which would serve as input data into the oil spill model., It

would also give the extent of coastal water and coastal area polluted. These

information are vital for quick clean up of oil impacted areas.

4.10 International Co-operation

                                      50
      To shore up the fight against oil smugglers in Nigeria, the US has

donated three 56 metre (180ft) refitted World War two-era patrol oats to the

navy. United Nations has also said that United States would donate

additional four vessels. The Pentagon is funding each boat’s refurbishment

to the tune of $3.5m. The efforts of the Federal Government with the

assistance of the US are already yielding fruits. The Nigerian Navy has

intercepted several tankers.

4.11 Geographic Information System for Managing Oil Spill Incidents

      A successful combating operation to a marine oil spill is dependent on

a rapid response from the time the oil spill is reported until it has been fully

combated. In order to reduce the response time and improve the decision-

making process, application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as an

operational tool is very essential. Information on the exact position and size

of the oil spill can be plotted on maps in a GIS environment. GIS offers

opportunities for integration of oil drift forecast models (prediction of wind

and current influence on the oil spill) in the computer program framework

(Milaka, 1995).

      Required information for oil spill sensitivity mapping can be depicted

on a set of thematic maps using GIS even though they can in theory be

depicted onto a single sheet. With the use of a GIS, all the relevant

information or themes can be stored in the system and produced onto maps

in a format that befits the needs of the day. Alternatively, modeling exercises

using the GIS can be conducted to assess the adequacy of any given oil spill

contingency plan (Parthiphan, 1994).



                                       51
      The creation of regional spill response centres along coastilines will

help in managing oil spill problems (Smith and Loza, 1994). The centres will

use oil spill models for combating oil spill problems. Using data collected

with an airborne system to input one or several new starting point(s) into

the model, will improve the accuracy of the further predictions (Sandberg,

1996).


4.12 Environmental Sensitive Index (ESI) Mapping

ESI maps are base maps that show the sensitivity of given locations or areas

to a particular stress factor (such as exposure to petroleum products) on a

scale of 1 to 10, 10 being most sensitive. The maps may contain physical

and   geomorphic    features    (e.g.,   shorelines),   biological   features,   and

socioeconomic features such as agricultural fields. Some ESI maps contain

features of particular interest to oil spill planning and response, such as the

recommended positions of booms or skimmers. The sensitivity of a given

feature to a stress factor may be indicated by the color given the symbol or

pattern used to represent it.

Standards for the development of the environmental sensitivity index maps

for the coast of Nigeria have been developed by the Environmental Systems

Research Institute (ESRI). These standards are used by all the oil companies

to prepare ESI maps for their areas of operations in Nigeria.


4.13 Creating Awareness

Awareness creation on the impacts of oil spill is an integral part of

management programme for oil spill along the coast of Nigeria. This is being




                                         52
carried out by government .at different levels and agencies such as the Niger

Delta Development Commission (NDDC).




                                     53
         5.0   REVIEW OF OIL POLLUTION CONTROL MEASURES IN USA

    In July 210, the department of interior response came up with a report

    tagged “Increased safely measures for energy development on the outer

    continental shelf.

    Findings show that from 1971 through 2009, a total of 1,784 barrels

    were spilled as a result of blow out events. The findings also emphasized
^
    that the level of risk varies significantly between well types based on

    knowledge of formation being drilled and category of well.

    The department of justice criminal investigation stated that the

    government must ensure that anyone found responsible for spill is held

    accountable.       That means enforcing the appropriate civil- and if

    warranted, criminal- authorities to the hill extent of the law.

    The department a t tourneys are presently reviewing (1) the clean water

    act, which carries civil penalties and fires as well as criminal penalties

    The oil pollution act of 1990, which can be used to hold parties liable for

    clean up costs and reimbursement for government efforts;

    The migratory bird treaty act and endangered species acts, which provide

    penalties for injury and death to wildlife and bird species.

    5.1 Oil Spill Emergency Response a Case Study of Shell

    In    order   to   achieve   continuous    performance   improvement,   shell

    companies manage health, safety, security, environment (HSSE) and

    social performance in a systematic way (SP) Shell ensures that they meet




                                          54
the   energy    needs   of   society   in   ways   that   are   economically,

environmentally and socially responsible.

Shell business principles provide high level guidance and their

commitment and policy on HSSE and SP reflects their aims on how shell

operates and involve communities close to their area of operations.

The aims are;

*     Do no harm people

*     Protect the environment; and

*     Comply with all HSSE laws and regulations.

      The company is building a strong safety culture by focusing on

compliance and tackling the cultural issues that can lead to unsafe

behaviour. Shell employees and contractors are prepared always to

effectively deal with emergence by having regular drills, using realistic

scenarios.

In shell, there is a multi-business oil and chemical spill advisory group

(MOSAG). Responsible fro developing and promoting advice on the

mitigation and control of pollution risk. The group provides advice and

guidance to shell companies based on international conventions.          The

operating units of shell are responsible for organising and executing spill

response in line with the MOSAG guidelines including resources and

contracts, training and emergency response structures and contracts for

the management of oil spill response.




                                       55
Following a number of significant oil spill incidents including the Exxon

Valdez Marine Organisation adopted the International Convention on Oil

Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation 1990.

      It includes requirements for ships, offshore units, ports and

terminals to have an oil pollution emergency plan. It also sets reporting

requirements for oil spills and requires parties to work with others to

assist in oil spill response shell supports the convention and other

international conventions that address oil spill compensation, including

the Civil Liability Pollution Convention and the International Oil Pollution

Compensation Fund (1992). Shell also complies with regulations such as

the US Oil Pollution Act of 1990 which imposes stringent liability and oil

spill response requirement on ship and platform operations.

      For spills on Water, shell has adopted the industry tiered response

as defined by the International Petroleum Industry Environmental

Conservation Association (IPIECA). This classifies the need for response

capabilities in terms of the size of the spill and its proximity to a

company’s operating facility.

      5.2 SHELL OIL SPILL       RESPONSE

      Shell companies have developed oil spill response plans for fixed

and mobile assets that address credible oil spill scenerios.     There are

programmes to test oil spill response plans and procedures on a regular

basis as determined by the level of risk.




                                     56
Some recent examples of large spill exercises (Tier 3) involving regulatory

authorities include the following.

In June 2009, an oil spill was simulated in the U.K on the TL-PI well

while coiled tubing intervention work was on going.       The authorities

confirmed that shell had sound contigiency plans in place.

In 2009, the annual crisis exercise organized by Shell Oil Products US,

took place in Savannah, Georgia, USA based on a scenario involving a

fuel spill from LNG carrier off the coast of Georgia.

In March 2010, Shell partnered with the U.S Coast Guard and more than

50 other Federal, State and Commercial organisations to take part in the

two-day Spill of National Significances (SONS) exercise in Portland, Mare.

The exercise is carried oil every three years in US to test the emergency

response to a major oil spill.




                                     57
REFERENCES

Adeboyejo      A.O;   Clarke,    E.O;    Olanrinmoye,         O;   Adebiyi   R.A.

        Unyinmadu, J.P (2009). Temporal Variation in the Ecology of

        Kuramo Water, Lagos Nigeria. The Zoologist. Vol 7, 202-212.



Adeyemo O. K (2003). Consequences of pollution and degradation

        of Nigerian aquatic environment on fisheries resources. The

        Environmentalist, 23; 297 - 306



Adesiyan, S.O. (2005). Man and his Biological Environment. Ibadan

        University Press .196pp.



Adewolu,M.A;                     Akintola,                    S                .L

        ;JimohA.A;OwodehindeF.G;Whenu,O.O;                 Whenu     ,O.O    and

        Fakoya K.A 2009 Environmental Threats to the Development

        of Aquaculture in Lagos State, Nigeria. European Journal of

        Scientific    Research    Vol        34.   No    3.   pp       337-347.

        http:www.eurojounals.com/ejsr.htm.



Achi,    C;   and     Nnameka     O.S.       (2006).    Environmental    Impact

        Assessmnt in Nigeria. Achi Celestine consultant. Com.



                                        58
Ajao, E.A; Oyewo E.O. and Unyimadu J.P (1996). A review of the

     pollution of coastal waters in Nigeria. NIORMIR Tech paper

     107:120.

Akpofure, E.A; Efere M.L and Anyawei, P (2000) Oil spillage in

     Nigeria Niger Delta Integrated grass root Post Impact

     Assessment of damaging effect of contaminated oil spills in

     the Niger Delta from Jan 1998 Jan 2000. Urhobo Historical

     society.    www.wado.org/environemnt/oilspill/oilspillimpact

     analysis.htm



Alexandra Gas and oil Connections, (2006): Nigeria Forms Oil Spill

     Detection Agency.

     http://www.gasandoil.com/goc/news/nta402.htm



Ameyan, O. (2008). Environmental Impact Assessment; insight into

     the   environmental     impact     regulatory    process       and

     implementation for Qualifying Projects. A paper presented at

     a     one   seminar.   Preparing   Business     in   Nigeria   for

     Environmental challenges and Opportunities Organized by

     the Manufacturing Association of Nigeria 4th Nov. 2008.




                                59
Anderson, J.M. and MacFadyen. A (1970). The role of Terrestrial

     and Aquatic organisms in Decomposition Processes. British

     Econological society. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.



Anetekhai, M.A; Akin- Oriola, G.A;     Aderinola, O.J and Akintola

     (2007).    Trace   metal   concentration    in   Macrobacterium

     vollenhovenii from Ologe Lagoon ,Lagos,Nigeria.J.Afrotropical

     Zool.,Special Issue;25-29.

Ayoola,   S.O    (2010).   Modern      Fish     Farming    Techniques

     (AQUACULTURE) Glamour Books Ibadan pg. 34.



Baird J (July 26, 2010) “Oils Shame in Africa. Newsweek. 27.



Baker J.M. (1981). Impact of the Petroleum Industry on Mangrove

     Ecology. Proceedings of 1981 International Seminar (NNPC)

     pp 71-79.

Bolorunduro P. I., Kwari I.D; (2003). Environmental Construction

     Education Strategies for the Development in Nigeria Journal

     of Environmental Extension Vol. 4. 63-66

Bower,H.J.(1979)Heavy metals in the sediments of foundary cover

     cold spring .New-York.Environ.Sci.Technol, 13 : 683-689.



                                  60
Callow P. (1995 ed) Hand book of Ectotoxicology. Volume 1

     Blackwell Science Ltd USA. 459p.



Chen, J.C and Lin, C.Y (1995) Responses of oxygen consumption,

     ammonia-N excretion and urea N excretion of Penaeus

     chinensis exposed to ambient ammonia at different salinity

     and pH levels. Aquaculture, 136-243-255



Chindah, A.C. and Osunmkpe (1974). The fish assemblage of the

     lower Bonny River. Niger Delta Africa. Journal of Ecology Voil

     35:58-65.

Chukwu, L.O.and Odunzeh, C.C. 2006. Relative toxicity of spent

     lumbricant oil and detergent against benthic macro in benthic

     macro in vertebrates of a West African estuarine Lagoon.    J.

     Environ.Biol. 27(3); 479-484.



Cote, R.P. (1976). The effects of Petroleum Industry Liquid Wastes

     on Aquatic Life with emphasis on the Canadian Environment

     National Research Council Canada, Canada.




                                61
Cowell, E.B. (1969). The Effects of Oil Pollution on Salt Marsh

     Communities in Pembrokeshope and Corwall, J. Appl. Ed. 6



Don-Pedro, P.O (1987). “Differential Response of Perennial Salt

     Marsh Plants to Oil Pollution Ph.D Thesis Imperial College,

     University of London, 250pp.



Don-Pedro,   K.N.    (2009).   Man    and   the   Environment   Crisis

     University of Lagos Press. Pg 143.



Egberongbe, F.O.A;    Nwilo R.C. and Badejo O.T. (2006). Oil Spill

     Disaster Monitoring Along Nigerian Coastline. Promoting Land

     administration and Good Governance. 5th FIG. Regional

     Conference Acra-Ghana March 8-11, 2006.



Ekekwe. E. (1981). The Funiwa 5 Oil Well Blowout. Proceedings of

     1981 International Seminar (NNPC0 pp 64-69.



Enajekpo, H.O. (1989) “Effects of Water Soluble Fraction of Bony

     Light Crude Oil on some Physiological parameters” in




                                 62
     Oreochromis niloticus. M.Sc dissertation. University of Jos

     130pp.

Environmental      Impact     Assessment    Ordinance     Legislative

     Framework                 Technical             Memorandum

     http:/www.epd.gov/hk/eia.english.legis/memorandum/anne

     x 17. Html.



Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) A campaigners guide.

     www. For co.uk.



Fafioye, O.O; Adeogun, A.O.,and Omoniyi, I.T (2009) Lethal Limits

     and Respiration in Cichilid Fishes, Tilapia zilli, Sarotherodon

     galileus,   S.   melanotheron    and   Oreochromis    niloticus.

     Exposed to Effluent from Chemistry Department Laboratories.

     Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management

     Vol 12, No 1, 63-55pp.



Fakayode, S.O., (2005) Impact Assessment of Industrial effluent on

     water quality of the Receiving Alaro River in Ibadan, Nigeria.

     AJEAM - RAGEE. 10, 1-13




                                 63
FAO (1992a) Guidelines for the promotion of Environmental

     Management of Coastal Agriculture Development. Fish Tech

     Paper, 328. 55-57pp.

FAO (1992b). Committe for Inland fisheries of Africa report of third

     session of working party on pollution and fisheries ,Accra,

     Ghana,     25-29.November,        1991.FAO   Fisheries    Report

     ,471.Rome-FAO.



FEPA: (1991). Federal Environment protection Agency’s S.I.8

     National   Environmental     Protection   (Effluent   Limitation)

     Regulations 78(42), 38 pp.



FEPA: 1996, ‘Water Quality Monitoring and Environmental Status

     in Nigeria,’ FEPA Monograph 6, 35-59.



Fosset, D.W. 1980 Cadmium in “Metals in the environment

     Academy Press London. New York. 234p.



Gbadebo, A.M; Taiwo A.M.and Ola O.B. (2009). Effects of Crude Oil

     and Spent oil on Clarias gariepinus: A Typical Marine Fish.

     American Journal of Environmental Sciences 5(6): 753-758.



                                  64
Gordann, M.F; John E.D and Daniel A.D (1976). “Wastes Water

     Removal” Element of Water Supply and Waste Water Disposal

     2nd Ed. John Willey and Son. Inc New York. Pp 247-249.



Hanna, K (2009) Environmental Impact Assessment Practice and

     Participation. 2nd edition. Oxford Press.

Home S.D. – PAMS database Nigeria Environmental Impact

     Assessment (EIA) Degree No 86.



Ibeanu, O 2000. ,Oiling the Friction: Environmental conflict in the

     Niger Delta, Nigeria. Environmental Change and Security

     Project   Report,   Retrieved:    March,    09,   2011,   from

     http://WWICS.SI.edu./tropics/pubs/Report 6-2.pdf.




ICF. International Environmental Impact Assessment Experience in

     Africa.http://www/cfi.com/markets/environmental/doc.files

     /eicAfrica:pdf.




                                 65
Ijalaye, D.A. 91982). Environmental Law in Nigeria. In Proceedings

     of Environmental Awareness. Seminar for Policy Makers 10 th

     – 11th November, 1982 Lagos. Federal Ministry of Housing

     and Environment. Pp 61-70.



Imevbore,   A.M.A   and   Adeyemi,S.A.     (1983).   Environmental

     Monitoring in Relation to Prevention and Control of Oil

     Pollution. In the petroleum industry and the Nigerian

     Environment. Proceedings of 1981 International Seminal,

     edited by A.A. Thomopulos Lagos. Thomopulos Environmental

     Pollution consultants and the Petroleum Inspective. Nigerian

     Natinal Petroleum Corporation Pp. 135-142



Jaman S.N. and Ahmed A.S. (2000). Treatment of Texitle Waste

     Water using Line and Activated Carbon from Baggase. Nigeria

     Society of Chemical Engineering Proceeding . Pp 219-229.

Jaji, M.O,; Bamigbose,.O; Odukoya,O.O and Arowolo,T,A,      (2007)

     “Water quality Assessment of        Ogun River, South West

     Nigeria”. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 133; p

     473-482




                                66
Kumolu-Johnson, C.A; Ndimele, S.L; Akintola, S.L and Jibuike, C.C

     (2010) Copper, Zinc and Iron concentrations in water,

     sediment and Cynothrissmento (Regan,1917) from Ologe

     Lagoon, Lagos Nigeria: A preliminary survey. Afr.J.Aquat.Sci;

     35-87-94.



Kusemiju,T and      Akingboju, O.S   (1988) Comparative growth of

     Sarotherodon melanotheron(Ruppell) on formulated fish feed

     and water hyacinth diets. Proceedings of the International

     Workshop on Water Hyacinth (IWWHD88).Federal Ministry of

     Science and Technology Publication Lagos pp; 196-203.




Laws, E.A. 1981 Aquatic Pollution. John Wiley and Sons :482pp



Longwell, A.C. 1977. A genetic look at fish eggs and oil. Oceanus

     20(4):46-58.




                                67
MC Allister E.E. Andrew L.H. and Brian I.T (1997) Global

     Freshwater Biodiversity: striving for the integrity of freshwater

     ecosystems SIRF/IDRD. Publication. 140.



Metcalf, J. and Eddy I. (1991). Wastewater Engineering Treatment

     Disposal and Re-use MC Graw Hill. New York 4th Edition

     365pp.



Milaka, K., (1995): Use of GIS as a Tool for Operational Decision

     Making, Implementation of a National Marine Oil Spill

     Contingency Plan for Estonia. Carl Bro International a/s,

     Glostrup, Denmark.



Minareci, O; Ozturk, M; Egemen O. and Minareci E. 2009.

     Detergent and phosphate pollution in Gediz River, Turkey.

     Afr. J. Biotechnol. 8(15): 3568-3575



Mino-Kahozi,   K.   and   Mbantshi,    M.    1997,   ‘Pollution   and

     Degradation of the African Aquatic Environment and the

     Consequences for Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture: The




                                 68
     Case of Zaire,’ in K. Remane (ed.), African Inland Fisheries,

     Aquaculture and the Environment, pp. 99-114



Momoh,   A.E. (1995). “Bioaccumulation Lead by Clibanarius

     africanus. (Aurivillius) Exposed to Sub lethal Concentrations

     of Spent Engine Oil” M.Sc. Thesis, University of Lagos. 25pp.



Moore, J.W and Ramamurthy, S 1984. Organic Chemicals in

     Natural Waters Spinger. Verleap Inc, New York ISBN: 10

     0387960341, pp 116-135.



National Academy of Sciences 1975. Petroleum in the Marine

     Environment, Washington D.C 107 pp.



NDES, (1996): The Niger Deltal Environmental Survey: Team of

     reference, April 3, 1996.



Ndimele, P.E, Jenyo –Oni and Jibuke,C.C 2009 The levels of lead

     (Pb) in water sediment and a commercially important fish

     species   (Chrysichthys     nigrodigitatus)(Lacepede,1803))from

     Ologe Lagoon,Lagos,Nigreia.J.Environ.Extension, 8: 70-75 .



                                 69
Ndimele, P.E    and Jimoh A.A (2011). Water Hyacinth [Eichornia

     crassippes (Mart)Salms] in phytoremediation of heavy metal

     polluted water of Ologe Lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria. Res. J.

     Environ. Sci; 5 :424-433.



Nelson-Smith, A. (1972). Oil Pollution and Marine Ecology. Elek

     Science London 260pp.



Nigeria Country Analysis Brief. (2005) Background and Mission

     Briefing note 17p.



Ntukekpo, D.S. (1996) Spillage, Bane of Petroleum, Ultimate Water

     Technology and Environment.



Nubi O. A. 2002, Pollution Assessment of the Impact of Industrial

     effluent and Dumpsite Leachate on the Qualities of Surface

     Water, Groundwater and sediments of Tiro receiving stream

     in Ibadan, Oyo State unpublished M.Sc Project, Dept of

     Chemistry, University of Ibadan. Nigeria, 159 pp.




                                 70
Nwilo, P.C and Badejo, O.T, (2005) Oil spill Problems and

     Management in the Niger Delta International Oil Spill

     Conference, Miami, Florida. USA.



Nwilo, P.C and Badejo O.T (2007) Impacts and Management of Oil

     Spill   Pollution   along     the   Nigerian   Coastal   Areas.

     http://www/fig.net/pub/fig



Odukoya, O.O. (2000) Pollution trend in Ogun River Abeokuta

     Nigeria, Journal of Science, 34(2): 183-186



Ogedengbe, K; Akinwole, A.O.and Babatunde A.O. (2003) Effluents

     characteristics of selected   Industries in Western Nigeria and

     their Implications for re-use in Agriculture Production.

     Journal of   Environmental Extension Vol. 4 pg 79-81.



Ogedengbe K, and C. O. Akinbile (2004) Impact of Industrial

     Pollutants on Quality of Ground and Surface Waters at

     Oluyole Industrial Estate, Ibadan, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal

     of Technological Development, Vol. 4, No 2, pp 139




                                   71
Ojo B. 2007. Environmental Conflict in Niger Delta Area. A way

     forward. Journal for sustainable Development. Vol. 1 No 2 pg

     114 - 120



Okiemen, F.E. and Okudaye J.N (1989) Removal of cadmium and

     copper irons aqueous solution with thiolated maize (Zea

     mays) cob meal”. Biological waste Vol 32pp 225-230.



Okilo, M (1980). Derivation Criterion of Revenue Allocation Post

     Graduate Seminar. Command and Staff College Jaji. Pp 15-

     19. Olagoke, W. (1996): Niger-Delta Environmental Survey:

     Which    Way   Forward?   Ultimate   Water   Technology   and

     Environment.



Olagoke W., (1996): Niger Delta Environmental Survey: Which Way

     Forward?, Ultimate Water Technology and Environment.



Omitoyin,    B.O;   Anani,   E.K    and   Adebusoye    F.   (2003)

     bioaccumulation of Copper, lead and zinc in the organs and

     Tissue of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) in Eleyele Lake,

     Ibadan Nigeria. J. of Environment Extension Vol. 4 74-78pp.



                               72
Ongley, E.D 1998. Modernization of Water Quality Programs in

     Developing Countries, Issues of relevancy and cost of

     Efficiency, Water Quality International, pp 7 - 42



Onwordi,C,T and Dan-Suilaiman, S.B 2010 Physico –chemical

     processing plant in Agbara Industrial Estate ,Ogun Nigeria.

     Scholars Research Library, Archieves of Applied Science

     Research 2(1): 212-217




Osibanjo, O.; Faniran, J. A.; Adeleke, B.B. and Oderinde, R. A.:

     1988, ‘Oil Pollution Study of Rido/Romi River and Adjoining

     Farmlands in Kaduna Refinery Area,’ Tech. Report Petroleum

     Inspectorate, NNPC.



Osibanjo O. 2001 – Overview of Hazardous waste according to the

     BA’SEL    convection    seminal    Dissertation   of   Awareness

     Rausing      on        Hazardous      wastes       Management.

     UNIDO/FAO/SBC/FMENO/Lagos. Nigeria. Pp 22-29 NEST




                                 73
     1991. Nigeria Threatened Environment. A national profile

     NEST Publication, Ibadan, pp 76 – 88



Osibanjo, O; Daso, A.P.and Gbadebo,        A.M   2011 The impact of

     Industries on surface water quality of River Ona and River

     Alaro in Oluyole Industrial Estate, Ibadan, Nigeria. African

     Journal of Biotechnology Vol 10(40, pp 696-702.



Osuamkpe A., Chindah A.C.and Abiley D.W (2009). Oil spill Impact

     on the Fin Fish of Azhiwari Swamp, Joinkramain in the Niger

     Delta of Southern Nigeria. The Zoologist Vol. 7:184-193.



Oyediran, A. B. O. O. (1997). A keynote Address on Waste

     Generation   and   Disposal     in   Nigerian   “Perspectives   in

     Environmental Management” in NEST Annual Workshops

     1991 to 1995 (D. Okali, K. O. Ologe. And U. M. Igbozurike

     edsl. NEST Desktop Publications, Ibadan, Nigeria. Pp 95 –

     100.




                                74
Oyewo, (1992) Guidelines for the promotion of environmental

     Management of Coastal Agricultural Development Fish Tech.

     Pp 328-55-57.



Ozekhome, M. (2001) Legislation for Growth in the Niger Delta,

     Midweek Pioneer



Percival, S.M and Evans, P.R (1997). Factors Affecting the

     Exploitation of Seasonally Declining Food Resource. Ibis,

     139.Pp 121-128.



Prabu, J.P; and Handy, M.K (1977). Behaviour of Mercury in

     Biosystems IO. Uptake and concentration in Foodchain Bull.

     Environment contamination and Toxicol. 18(4): 409-407



Reffs, J. (ed) Handbooks of Environmental Impact Assessment. Vol

     1& 2, Blackwell Oxford, ISBN 0.632-04772.0



Renfro, W.C.; Fowler, S.W.; Heyraud, M and La Rosa J. (1975).

     Relative Importance of Food and water in long term zinc




                               75
     accumulation by marine biota. Journal of Fisheries Research

     Board of Canada 32:1339-1345.



Sangodoyin, A. Y (1991) Groundwater and Surface Water Pollution

     by open refuse dump in Ibadan, Nigeria, Discovery and

     Innovations. Vol. 3, No 1, pp 24 – 31



Sangodoyin,    A. Y .    (1995)    “Characteristics and Control of

     Industrial   Effluent   Generated   Pollution”   Environmental

     Management and Health 6(4): p 15-18



Sarojini, T.R (2005) Modern Biology for Senior Secondary Schools

     (Third edition) Africana First Publishers. Onitsha Nigeria 151-

     154.



Sharma, B.M (1986) Introductory Ecology. Abi print Publishing

     Company Ltd. Ibadan 109pp.



Sikoki, F.D and Kolo, R.J. (1992) Perspective in water pollution and

     their implications for conservation of aquatic resources.




                                  76
     Proceedings of the National Conference on the Conservation

     of Aquatic Resources pp 184-194.



Solbe J.F., De L.G. (1995) Fresh water fish in callow P ed.

     Hardbook of Ecotoxicolgy. Vol. one, Blackewell Science Ltd

     66-82p.



Smith, R.I (1974). Ecology and Field Biology New York: Harper and

     Row. Publishers 850pp.



Spry Hodson P.V and Wood C.M (1988) Relative contributions of

     dietary and waterborne zinc in the rainbow trout. Salmo

     gairdneri. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Adequate

     Sciences 45-32-41.



Southwood, T.R.E (1976) “Bionomic Strategies and Population

     Parameters”   In     Theoretical   Ecology,   Principles   and

     Applications (R.M. May Ed). Blackwell Scientific, Oxford Pp

     26-48.




                                 77
Smith, L.A. and Loza 1994): Texas Turns to GIS for Oil Spill

     Management. Geo. Info systems pp4.



Tariq, M;      Ali, M and Z Shah (2006) Characteristics of Industrial

     Effluents     and   their   Possible   Impacts   on    Quality   of

     Underground water. Soil and Environ: 25(1) 64-69.



Thomopulus A.A (1983). The petroleum industry and the Nigerian

     Environment Proceedings of 1981 International seminar

     Lagos Thomopulus Environmental Pollution consultants and

     the Petroleum inspectorate. Nigerian National Petroleum

     Corporation. 222pp.



Tklich, P.;    Huda, M.K and K.H, Gin, (2003). A multipurpose Oil

     spill Model. Journal of Hydraulic Research. Vol 41, No 2

     (2003, pp 115-125, http/www.iahr.org.1



Uchola, E.B and Ogbe F.E. (2003). Implications of Water Pollution

     for      Aquacultural   Development    in   Nigeria.   Journal   of

     Environmental Extension Vol. 4 pg 59-62.




                                   78
Waldron, H.A (1980) Lead in “Metals in the environment” Academy

     Press London., New York pg. 164.



Wang, W; Wang, A; Chen, L; Liu, Y and, Sin, R (2002). Effects of pH

     on   survival,   phosphorus    concentration   adnylate   energy

     charge and Na+, K+. ATPase activities of Penaeus chinensis

     Osbeck juvenile. Aquat. Toxicol. 60: 75-83



Wardley-Smith J. (1977). The Control of Oil Pollution on the Sea

     and Inland Waters. Graham and Frontman Ltd. United

     Kingdom.



Wikipedia (2010). The free encyclopedia. Environmental issues in

     the Niger Delta. File: f:/Environmental-issues in the Niger

     Delta htm.




                                   79

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Tags:
Stats:
views:125
posted:6/28/2012
language:English
pages:79