Education of Children by H Janardan_Prabhu


                            JOINING HANDS
                           IN THE INTEREST
                             OF CHILDREN

Elementary education is a fundamental right, and
with the RTE Act (2009) which describes the
modalities of the provision, let us provide quality
education to all our children.
   Kapil Sibal is the Union Minister for Ministry
    of Human Resource Development in the
    Government of India.
   He also held the two ministries Ministry of
    Science and Technology and Ministry of
    Earth Sciences in the First Manmohan Singh
   He led the first Indian expedition to the Arctic
    and was responsible for setting up an Indian
    Research Station ‗Himadri‘ there in July,

Learning is the greatest Ornament

   xÉÑlSUÉåÌmÉ xÉÑzÉÏsÉÉãÌmÉ MÑüsÉÏlÉÉãÌmÉ qÉWûÉkÉlÉç: |
   zÉÉãpÉiÉå lÉ ÌoÉlÉÉ ÌuɱÉÇ ÌuÉ±É xÉuÉïxuÉ pÉÔwÉhÉqÉç ||

   Though beautiful, of good character, born
    wealthy, one does not shine without learning.
    Learning is the greatest ornament.

       Constitutional recognition on RTE
   The Supreme Court _ case                 In the year 2009, the state
    (1993): right to education is a         introduced the Right to
    fundamental right that flows            Education bill, seeking to effect
                                            the 86th Constitutional
    from the right to life in Article 21.   amendment
   The 86th Constitution
    Amendment Act, 2002 added
    Article 21A, "The State shall
    provide free and compulsory
    education to all children of the
    age of six to fourteen years in
    such manner as the State may,
    by law, determine.―; Article 45,
    which now reads "The State
    shall endeavor to provide early
    childhood care and education
    for all children until they
    complete the age of 6 years."

    Elementary education consists of eight
             years of education.
   Free and compulsory                The 86th constitutional
    education for all children          amendment (2002), has
     until they complete the age        made elementary education
    of14 years was one                  a fundamental right for the
     of the Directive Principles        children between the age
    of State Policy intended            group- 6 to 14.
     to be implemented within          After 60 years, with the
    10 years of the                      Right of Children to Free
    commencement of the                 and Compulsory Education
    Indian Constitution.                 Act (2009), the entitlement
   Not being justiciable, this         to education has become
    directive failed to prod the        enforceable. It offers a
    Indian state into any kind of       framework for ensuring
    concrete action.                    quality education.
Elementary education is a FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT
What does it mean?

   Parent / Guardian / Community should be conscious
    that a child needs to grow in an atmosphere that
    facilitates its physical, mental and social
    development and with the help of the government,
    they should seek to provide this environment by
    accepting it as an important duty.
   Providing good school facility is now recognized as
    a fundamental duty of our society / Govt.
    ‗ An education that enables them to acquire the
    skills, knowledge, values and attitudes necessary to
    become responsible and active citizens of India is
    our commitment.‘_ Manmohan Singh, PM

Free & Compulsory Education:
What does it mean?
   Depending on need of the parent / guardian, exemption of fees
    and provision of books, mid day meal, etc. may be made through
    grant of funds by Trust / State .
   Poverty of a parent should not be an excuse to stop schooling
    and practice child labour. No person shall prevent a child from
    participating in elementary education. No person shall employ or
    engage a child in a manner that renders him / her a working
   It is the responsibility of every parent/guardian to enroll his child /
    ward, who has attained the age of 6 years and above in a school
    and facilitate her completion of elementary education (till Grade
   Compulsion is on the parent / guardian to enroll the child and
    synergise with the school to ensure its progress. It is a
    persuasion by civil society; it seeks to make parents aware of the
    importance of education.

Literacy Rate in India 1951-2001

United Nations World Declaration on
Education for All, (EFA) 1990
   India is a signatory to the 1990 United Nations
    World Declaration on Education for All, (EFA).
   It reaffirmed the rights of all children including
    children with disabilities to access education in
    regular school settings.
   Also, India is signatory to to the Biwako Millenium
    Framework for Action towards an inclusive ,barrier
    free and rights based society for persons with
    disability ,the Declaration on the Full Participation
    and Equality of People with Disabilities in the Asia
    Pacific Region.
             The Right of Children to
       Free and Compulsory Education Act
                   (RTE Act)
   Passed by the Indian parliament on 4 August
    2009. It describes the modalities of the
    provision of free and compulsory education for
    children between 6 and 14 in India under Article
    21A of the Indian Constitution.
   India became one of the few countries to make
    education a fundamental right of every child
    when the act came into force on April 1, 2010.

    The Story of RTE started with: National Policy of
    Education (1986) and revised Programme of Action
Some of the initiatives were
   District Primary Education Programme (1994),
   the Mid Day Meal Scheme (1995) and
   the Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (2001) have led some positive
    impact in elementary education, specifically in rural
   The 86th Amendment of the Indian constitution (2002)
    makes education a fundamental right for all children
    aged 6-14 years.

    RTE Act –What does it specify?
   The Act makes education a fundamental right of
    every child between the ages of 6 to 14 and
    specifies the minimum norms in government
   It specifies reservation of 25% seats in private
    schools for children from poor families. It prohibits
    the practice of unrecognized schools, and makes
    provisions to avoid donation or capitation fee and
    an interview of the child or parent for the admission.

RTE Act –What does it offer?

It offers a framework
   for ensuring quality education,
   for creating infrastructure,
   for making available a sufficient number
    of trained teachers, and
   for extending government funding to
    private schools.
Criticism of RTE-Act (2009):

   Will it remain on paper or become a reality? It is the
    adult society which has to act on behalf of the child.
    Will our cultural prejudice against educating the girl
    child be overcome?
   Pre-school education is not covered and a vision of
    systematic reforms leading to a decent common
    school system is yet to be offered.
   A gap exists between elite private schools and
    schools run by State governments. Joke is that you
    can bring the former down to the standards of the
    latter, in our society of Aam Aadmi (common man)!
     Universalisation of elementary education
      poses a formidable challenge to India:
   The numbers of children dropping out, not attending
    school regularly and never enrolled are immense.
   Quality of education is poor in many schools.
   Teachers are inadequately trained and have lack of
    The priority concerns for the country remain
    particularly with improving the quality of education
    and making education effective, enjoyable and
    relevant to the children.

                A major concern:
   To improve the skills and motivation of
   promoting the participation of communities in
    the running of schools and
   Enrolling / retaining girls / working children of
    urban poor and
   children with special needs in schools.

The Optimist’s View
   India´s elite educational institutions have been
    producing the first-rate scientists, engineers, and
    managers who helped India´s information
    technology sector take off during the 1990s.
   Far less visible is the more recent, quiet revolution in
    India´s elementary education that, if successful, will
    equip an entire younger generation with skills to
    improve productivity and reduce the burden of
    disease, high birth rates, hunger, and poverty, while
    changing societal attitudes toward gender, caste,
    tribe, and disability.

         What India has accomplished is no small feat

   What India has accomplished is no small feat — especially given
    that its population grew from about 840 million to nearly one
    billion between 1991 and 2001, with the number of children age 6
    to 14 rising by 35 million to 205 million.
   Over roughly the same period, the gross enrollment ratio (GER)
    in primary education (grades 1) rose from 82 percent to 95
    percent, and in upper primary education (grades 6) from 54
    percent to 61 percent (see table).
    Available government data suggest that in that age group, the
    number of children not in school fell sharply from about 60 million
    in the early 1990s to 25 million in 2002, and this decline is
   While specific numbers in such a large federal system may be
    viewed with caution, the rough magnitude of the progress
    appears to be in little doubt.
We are on the move…
   Given the momentum built up over the years, India
    will, in all likelihood, meet the education Millennium
    Development Goal (MDG) of universal primary
    education—which calls for all children of primary
    school age to participate in the school system and
    complete primary school.
   Between 1993 and 2002, total public spending on
    education rose steadily from 3.6 to 4.1 percent of
    GDP, higher than the average spending of 3 percent
    of GDP among low-income countries.
   Elementary education expenditure rose from 1.7 to
    2.1 percent of GDP, accounting for over 60 percent
    of the growth in public expenditure on education in
    this period.

National Commission for Protection of
           Child Rights
   The act also provides that, no child shall be held
    back, expelled, or required to pass a board
    examination until completion of elementary
   Provision for special training of school drop-outs to
    bring them at-par with the students of the same age.
   Right to Education of Person with Disabilities till 18
    years of age has been made a Fundamental Right.
   The act provides for establishment of the National
    Commission for Protection of Child Rights and State
    Commissions for supervising of proper
    implementation of the act, looking after the
    complaints and protection of Child Rights.

RTE – 2009: fund provision

   Other provisions regarding improvement of school
    infrastructure, teacher-student ratio and faculty have
    also been provided in the act.
   A committee set up to study the funds requirement
    and funding estimated that Rs 1.71 lakh crore would
    be required in the next five years for implementing
    the Act.
   The government agreed to sharing of funds in the
    ratio of 65 to 35 between the Centre and the states
    for implementing the law, with a ratio of 90 to 10 for
    the north-eastern states.
RTE – 2009: fund provision
   The central and State governments are
     to share the financial requirement for
    implementing the Act in the ratio of 55:45,
    and the Finance Commission has given
    Rs.25,000 crore to the States.
   An outlay of Rs.15,000 crore was approved
    for 2010-11 by the central government.

The amount for the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is Rs.
25,555 crores for 2012-13,short of the recommended
financial requirement of Rs 1.82 lakh crore. From
where will the rest of amount come?
More than 90 percent of households will have to
enroll their wards in government schools. These
wards will have poor access to education; if at all they
are enrolled in schools, as the quality of education in
government schools is a matter of serious concern.

With progress in increasing enrollment the
national average now is at 98.3 percent (2009-
2010) according to official statistics.
However, the attendance of pupils in class rooms
has declined.
In 2007, 73.4 percent students enrolled for
Standards I-IV/V were present in class, which has
fallen to 70.9 percent by 2011 (EPW, 2012).

Struggle for universalizing
elementary education: Right or Duty?

   But it won't be enough to approach free and
    compulsory education up to the age of l4 as an
    entitlement, especially for the millions of children
    who are left out in the cold.
   Accessing this right meaningfully and in full measure
    will require, aside from the investment of huge
    resources, financial and human, a lot of work to be
    done on the ground. Key to this is seeing free and
    compulsory education for children not just as a right
    but as a duty. (Child‘s Right, Society‘s Duty.)

Struggle for universalizing
elementary education
   Everybody acknowledges the value of
    education in the overall development of the
   Administrators
   Educationists
   Development professionals
   Economists
   Parents

Administrators focus on

   Enrolment

   Availability of schools within walking

   Provisioning for infrastructure

   Deployment of teachers.
Educationists: are concerned about

What is Learnt, how is it presented?

   Whether or how children learn, and the

   Burden of syllabi, which is passed on to

   Tuition centres or Parents

• Development professionals discuss

   The impact of years of schooling, for example
   the age of marriage and
   family size.
   Free and Compulsory Secondary Education
     brings the children to mainstream of the
    society for Sustainable Economic
    Development of India.

                talk about the economic
                 returns on Investment in
                 education; bankers too.
                Our economist PM says ‗
                 An education that enables
                 them to acquire the skills,
                 knowledge, values and
                 attitudes necessary to
                 become responsible and
                 active citizens of India‘ is
                 our commitment.

  have expectations from the education system
     that it should equip their children for gainful
      employment, and
     economic well being.
     उद्यमेन हह ससद्धयन्ति कायााणि न मनोरथ् ।
      न हह सुप्िस्य ससिंहस्य प्रविशन्ति मुखे मगा्
     Industrious work is necessary. Any work will not
      get accomplished just merely by desiring for it's
      completion. A 'prey' will not by itself come to the
      mouth of a sleeping lion.
              Fulfill goals of
      universal elementary education
   The enforcement of fundamental
    right to education provides us a
    unique opportunity to mount a
    mission encompassing all the
    above discourses to fulfill our goal
    of universal elementary education.
         Implementation of
provides for all children the benefit of
 free and compulsory
   admission,
   attendance and
   completion
of elementary education.

In India, since we gained freedom of self
   Undoubtedly, much progress has
    occurred since the last sixty years of
    our independence and
   many more children with a diverse
    background are accessing school.
   Yet....
           Dropped out, child labourers

   There are ‗invisible‘ children_ children
    bonded to work with an employer,
   young boys grazing cattle or working in a
   girls working in the fields or as domestic help
    or caring for younger siblings, and
   children being subjected to early marriage.
    Many of these children are formally enrolled
    in a school but have either dropped out or
    have never been there.
Extremely vulnerable ones

   Many others such as migrant and
    street children, who live in
    extremely vulnerable conditions;
    denying them education is against
    the universal nature of human
                Enrol, attend, learn,
            Be empowered by education

   Providing universal access itself is no longer
    enough; making available school facility is
    essential but not sufficient.
   A monitoring mechanism is needed to ensure
    that all children attend school regularly and
    participate in the learning process.

       Why are they not attending,
       drop-out in a few months?
   Focus must be on the factors that
    prevent children from regularly
    attending & completing elementary
    education. Children from
   weaker sections and
   disadvantaged groups, as also
   girls.

          To check drop-out rate
   Creating parental awareness
   Community mobilization
   Economic incentives
   Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL)
   District Primary Education Programme (DPEP)
   National Programme of Nutritional Support to
    Primary Education (Mid-day Meals Scheme)

Reservation of 25% seats in private
schools for children from poor families
   The school may be            Social, economic,
    there but students may        cultural, linguistic,
    not attend, or drop out       pedagogic issues
    after a few months.          Denial or violation of
   Through school &              the right to elementary
    social mapping, many          education process
    issues need to be             requires to be
    addressed that prevent        overcome with the
    a weak child from             encouragement and
    completing the process        enlightenment of the
    of education.                 weak & vulnerable.
The RTE, Act, 2009 clause, 12 (1) (c) mandates for
private schools to admit quarter of their class
strength from weaker section and disadvantaged
groups .
The constitutional validity of this clause was
challenged in the apex court of country; on 12, April
2012, a bench of Chief Justice S .H. Kapadia, Justice
K. S Radhakrishnan and Swatanter Kumar upheld
constitutional validity of the Act.
In response to the Supreme Court order, HRD minister
Kapil Sibal said, ―
I am very happy that the court has set all controversies at
rest. One of the biggest controversies was on whether the
25 percent reservation applies to private schools or not…
that controversy has been set to rest.
The judgment makes it mandatory for the government,
local authorities and private schools to reserve 25 percent
of their seats for ‗weaker and disadvantaged sections‗ of

Good education is empowering

   विद्याविधधविहीनेन ककिं कऱीनेन दे हहनाम ् ।
    अकऱीनोऽवऩ विद्याढ्यो दििरवऩ ितद्यिे
   Of what use is nobility of family if a
    person is illiterate? [Akbar - the Great
    was an exception]
   A learned man is respected by Gods
    too though he does not belong to a
    noble family.
From labour mode to learning mode

   It is the duty of the state, parents and
    guardians, and the community to ensure that
    all children of school going age are in school.
   A substantial proportion of India's poor
    children are; engaged in agricultural labour or
    petty trades, housework, and sibling care.
   Ending the morally and socially abhorrent
     practice of child labour, not ‗regulating‘ it
    must be taken up as a non-negotiable
Primary-School & No of Teachers

Free, compulsory and of high quality
   The right to education is free, compulsory
    and it includes good quality education for all.
   A curriculum not only provides good reading
    and understanding of text books but also
    includes learning through activities,
    exploration and discovery.
   Comprehension, competence,
    competitiveness and creativity should be
    developed, not forgetting compassion.

Good teacher’s company enables.

   य् ऩठति सऱखति ऩश्यति ऩररऩच्छिी ऩन्डििान ्
    उऩाश्रयवऩ ।
    िस्य हदिाकरककरि् नसऱनी दऱिं इि
    विस्िाररिा बवद्ध् ॥
   One who reads, writes, sees, inquires, lives
    in the company of learned men, his intellect
    expands like
    the lotus leaf does
    because of the rays of sun.
   Education Depts of State & Union Governments
   have direct responsibility, trusts have supporting
To provide
 schools,

 infrastructure,

 trained teachers,

 curriculum and

 teaching-learning material, and

 mid-day meal.

A well coordinated mechanism is needed for
inter- sectoral collaboration & convergence.
On the part of the whole Govts:
   The factors that contribute to the
    achievement of the overall goal of
    universalizing elementary education as
    a fundamental right requires action on
    the part of the whole Governments.
A well coordinated mechanism is needed for
inter- sectoral collaboration & convergence.

Timely & appropriate financial allocations,
redesign school spaces
   The Finance Department to release
    funds at all levels.
   The Public Works Dept. to re-conceive
    and redesign school spaces from the
    pedagogic perspective & Address
    issues of including disabled children
    through barrier free access.
    Provide Social & Location Mapping of schools,
             Water & sanitation facilities
 The Dept. of Science & Technology to
  provide geo-spatial technology to
  perform at
 grass-root survey.
 Provision of access to sufficient safe
  drinking water
 Provision and access to adequate
  sanitation facilities, specially for girl
   Above all, people‘s groups, civil society
    organizations & voluntary agencies will play
    an crucial role in the implementation of the
    RTE Act.
   This will help build a new perspective on
    inclusiveness, encompassing gender & social
    inclusion, & ensure that these become
    integral & crosscutting concerns informing
    different aspects like training, curriculum and
    classroom transaction.

   NGO contribution of knowledge, ideas and
    solutions to the challenges are needed.

    Prime Minister
    Manmohan Singh:
"We are committed to ensuring that all
children, irrespective of gender and
social category, have access to
education. An education that enables
them to acquire the skills, knowledge,
values and attitudes necessary to
become responsible and active citizens
of India‖
The 86th constitutional amendment (2002),
And the RTE Act (2009), have given us the
tools to provide quality education to all our
children. It is now imperative that we the
people of India join hands to ensure the
implementation of this law in its true spirit.
The Government is committed to this task
though real change will happen through
collective action.

      RTE, Act 2009 upheld by SC
   On 12 April 2012, in its historical decision the Supreme
    Court (SC) of India threw its weight behind the Right of
    Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009.
   The court upheld the constitutional validity of RTE Act
    that guarantees children free and compulsory education
    from the age of 6 to 14 years of age.
    The judgment makes it mandatory for the government,
    local authorities and private schools to reserve 25
    percent of their seats for ‗weaker and disadvantaged
    sections‗ of society.
   The decision has wiped away many apprehensions
    regarding the future of the Act.

    India’s Age: YOUNG INDIA
   0-14 years: 31.1% (male 190,000,000 /female
   15-64 years: 63.6%
   India‘s Average:
   Total: 25 years
   Male: 25 years
   Female: 26 years

    You can’t give a cold shoulder to Kapilji!
   Kapil Sibal led the first Indian expedition to the Arctic
    and was responsible for setting up an Indian Research
    Station ‗Himadri‘ there in July, 2008.
   Kapil Sibal was the first Indian Minister to have
    traveled to the icy continent of Antarctica and stayed
    at the Maitri base in sub-zero temperatures, for getting
    a first hand experience about the hardships being
    faced by the Indian scientists.
   Kapil Sibal announced an upgrading of India's
    scientific facilities at the Maitri, besides augmenting
    the fleet strength of the Pisten Bully vehicles required
    to travel on ice.
   Kapil Sibal visited laboratories near Maitri, besides
    carrying out a final assessment on India's proposed
    third permanent base.
Then _ So few people, NOW Too many !
Panic not, we are the human resource and
education makes it so.

Nalanda University is
considered "one of the first
great universities in
recorded history." It was the
center of learning and
research in the world from
450–1193 CE.

Education brings out merit
ऩरुषमवऩ गुरूिािं बुवद्धबोधाथामुक्ििं
िचनमनुसरतयाति सशष्यो महत्तत्तिम ्।
खतनिऱगिरत्तनिं श्रेष्ठमप्यत्र शािो-
त्तकषिमधधगििं िद्भाति मौऱौ नऩािाम ्।

   A disciple attains prominence by carrying out
   educational instructions of his Guru. Even though a
   gem found in a mine might be precious, it needs to
   undergo the rigors of a grindstone, before it adorns the
   crown of monarchs.

Age structure of School going children

Role of Central & State Governments
   The primary responsibility for school education is
    borne by the state governments.
   Therefore any policy changes must be with the full
    participation and involvement of the States.
   However, positive changes in systems of schooling
     will require the active involvement of the Central
    Government as well as State Governments.
   This is not only in the matter of providing resources
     but also in promoting organizational and other

In India, the main types of schools are those
controlled by:

   The state government Boards like SSLC, in
    which the vast majority of Indian school
    children are enrolled
    The Central Board of Secondary Education
     (CBSE) board,
    The Council for the Indian School Certificate
     Examinations (CISCE) board,
    National Open School and "International

Of Union Department of Education:
•Central Institute of Education Technology
•Central Tibetan Schools Administration (CTSA)
•Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti (NVS)
•Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan (KVS)
•National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS)
•Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)
•National Council of Educational Research and
       National Council of Educational Research
                 and Training (NCERT).
   The NCERT was established in 1961. It
    functions as a resource centre in the field of
    school education and teacher education.
   The NCERT undertakes programmes related to
    research, development and training extension
    and dissemination of educational innovations
    etc., through various constituent Departments at
    the headquarters in New Delhi and 11 Field
    Officers all over the country.
   Publication of school textbooks and other
    educational material like teachers‘
    guides/manuals etc. are its major functions.
Central Institute of Education Technology (CIET)

   CIET is an important unit of NCERT which is
    engaged in the production of satellite based audio
    and video programmes for Elementary and
    Secondary levels which are aired on All India Radio,
    and Doordarshan.
   CIET also coordinates programme production
    activities of the six States Institute of Education
    Technology at Patna, Lucknow, Ahmedabad,
    Hyderabad, Pune and Bhubaneshwar

Central Board of Secondary Education
    CBSE was initially called as ‗The Board of
    High School and Intermediate Education‘.
    It was established with a view to play a useful
    role in the field of Secondary Education, to
    raise the standard of Secondary Education,
    to make the services of the Board available to
    various educational institutions in the country
    and to meet the educational needs of those
    students who have to move from State to State.

Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)

   Major Activities and Objectives: To prescribe
    conditions of examinations and conduct public
    examination at the end of Class X and XII.
   To grant qualifying certificates to successful
    candidates of the affiliated schools.
   To fulfill the educational requirements of those
    students whose parents were employed in
    transferable jobs.
   To prescribe and update the course of
    instructions of examinations
   To affiliate institutions for the purpose of
    examination and raise the academic standards
    of the country.

Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)

   Board today has 8979 schools [on 31-03-
    2007] including
    141 schools in 21 countries. There are
    897 Kendriya Vidyalayas,
    1761 Government Schools,
    5827 Independent Schools,
    480 Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas and
    14 Central Tibetean Schools.

Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)
    The CBSE, the Headquarter of which is in
    Delhi from 1962, subscribes to a diverse,
    mass participative education system with a
    broader base of access that provides the
    benefits of uniformity, flexibility and diversity
    as envisaged in the National Policy of
    Education; the services of the Board are
    available to various educational institutions in
    the country and to meet the educational
    needs of those students who have to move
    from State to State.
The prime focus of the CBSE is on
   Innovations in teaching-learning methodologies by
    devising students friendly and students centered
   Reforms in examinations and evaluation practices.
   Skill learning by adding job-oriented and job-linked
   Regularly updating the pedagogical skills of the
    teachers and administrators by conducting in service
    training programmes, workshops etc.

Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan
   The Government approved the scheme of Kendriya
    Vidyalaya Sangathan in 1962.
   Initially, 20 regimental schools in different States were
    taken over as Central Schools.
   In 1965, Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan was established
    with the primary objective of setting-up and monitoring
    Kendriya Vidyalaya to cater to the educational needs of
    the children of transferable Central Government
    Employees including Defense Personnel and Para-
    Military forces by providing common programme of
   At present, there are 931 Kendriya Vidyalayas (as on 17
    June 2005). All Kendriya Vidyalayas follow a uniform

         Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti
   Navodaya Vidyalayas are located all over the
    country including Lakshadweep and A & N
    Islands except the State of Tamilnadu.
   To provide good quality modern education to
    the talented children predominently from the
    rural areas, without regard to their family's
    socio-economic condition. Jawahar
    Navodaya Vidyalayas are co-educational
    residential schools.

Central Tibetan Schools Administration
   Central Tibetan Schools administration is an autonomous
    organization under MHRD, established in 1961 with the
    objective to establish, manage and assist schools in India
    for the education of Tibetan Children living in India while
    preserving and promoting their culture and heritage.
   The administration is running 71 schools spread all over
    India in the area of concentration of Tibetan population.
    About 10,000 students are on roll from pre-primary to
    class XII with 554 Teaching and 239 sanctioned Non
    Teaching Staff. The schools are affiliated to CBSE and
    follow NCERT curriculums.
   The medium of instruction is Tibetan and English. The
    classes and Labs are well equipped and all efforts are
    made for overall development of Children by giving them
    opportunities of participating in various co-curricular
    activities viz. sports/cultural/art and adventure activities.

 The National Literacy Mission
The Community Education Centre

   NLM was based on the 1986 National Policy
   on Education; set up with the aim of imparting
   functional literacy to adults in the 15-35 age
   group by 1988--1995.
    India – Moving towards a lifelong learning
    National Literacy Mission was set up with the aim
    of imparting functional literacy to 80 million
    adults in the 15-35 age group by 1988 --1995.
    It started with a mass campaign approach: the
    Total Literacy Campaign (TLC), but has evolved
    into a programme of adult education.
    Literacy for youth and adults still remains its core,
    but it is developing elements of lifelong learning
    for increasingly large and diverse groups of

            National Literacy Mission: Literacy
       as an active and potent instrument of change
    The N L M conceived literacy as an active and potent
      instrument of change and for the creation of a
      learning society.
     Functional literacy was defined as:
    • Achieving self-reliance in literacy and numeracy;
    • Becoming aware of the causes of their own
       deprivation and ways of overcoming their condition
      through organization, and participation in the process
      of development ;
     Acquiring skills to improve economic status and
       general well-being.

Functional literacy was also aimed at:
    adopting the values of

   national integration,

   environmental conservation,

   women‘s equality and

   observance of small-family norms.

    The revised National Policy on Education:
   NLM combined Post- Literacy and Continuing Education
    (PL & CE) activities in order to consolidate and improve
    functional literacy skills of neo-literates.
    The Post-Literacy Campaigns had three broad learning
     objectives – remediation, continuation and application.
    A new scheme of Continuing Education, distinct
     from the previous PL & CE, was launched by NLM
     in 1997.
    The aim was to provide learning opportunities to
     neo-literates on a continuing basis and to reinforce
     and widen the literacy skills for personal, social and
     economic improvement.
    National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS)
   The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) formerly
    known as National Open School (NOS) was established
    in November,1989 as an autonomous organization in
    pursuance of National Policy on Education 1986 by the
   NIOS is providing a number of Vocational, Life
    Enrichment and community oriented courses besides
    General and Academic Courses at Secondary and
    Senior Secondary level.
   It also offers Elementary level Courses for 14+ age
    group through its Open Basic Education Programmes
   Government of India through a gazette notification
    vested NIOS with the authority to examine and certify
    learners registered with it upto pre degree level courses.
                 Adult Illiteracy
   Implementation of this functional and instrumental
    concept of literacy varied greatly and often veered
    towards a conventional approach that focused more
    on the mechanics of recognizing alphabets at a
    rudimentary level, rather than self-sufficiency in
    acquiring the tools for further learning and
    developing critical consciousness.
    With over 300 million adults in illiteracy, India
    accounted for about 40 per cent of the world’s
    adult illiteracy.

    The Community Education Centre (CEC)
   The Community Education Centre (CEC), the
    main delivery point of CE programmes,
    looked after by a Prerak (Animator), is meant
    to be a community-based centre with a library
    and reading room. It plans and carries out
    activities in training, information, culture,
    sports, communication and discussion forums
    for the communities it serves.
   The CEC is seen as a permanent institution,
    located in a public place, open to all, and run
    with close community involvement.

               Key stakeholders of
         the Community Education Centre
   The participants are neo-literates, mostly women,
    and the Panchayats (elected local self-government
    bodies) are regarded as key stakeholders of the
   At district level the programme implementing
    agency is the Zila Shaksharta Samiti ( ZSS or
    District Literacy Society).
    A registered society with a General Council and an
    Executive Committee, under the leadership of the
    district head of administration. It receives funds
    from the government and disburses funds to CECs
    on the basis of approved plans.

Vocational And Life Enrichment Education
   A District Resource Unit (DRU), located in the
    District Institute of Education and Training
    (DIET), and the State Resource Centre provide
    technical and academic support to the
    The Jan Shikshan Sansthan (People‘s Training
    Organisation), a district-level institution, often
    managed by an NGO, works with the ZSS to
    provide vocational and life enrichment
    education. It offers courses based on local
    market demands.

Districts with low education level
   About a quarter of India‘s 600 districts which have a
    low education level now each have a district literacy
    society and a functioning adult education
    programme under its auspices.
    Although the NLM objectives and programmes are
     conceptually linked to a broader approach to adult
    and lifelong learning, the heavy burden of illiteracy
    compels India to remain focused on narrow literacy
    objectives, especially in seven of the 28 states
    which account for 65 per cent of the total illiterate

           Remedy for low education level
   It is in the same states that the national programme for
    primary education, Sarva Shisksha Abhiyan (Education
    for all Campaign), is weak and, therefore, continues to
    feed the pool of illiteracy.
    This is so much so that the primary schools have been
   as maintaining a system of ‗institutionalised sub-literacy.‘
    (The Statesman, editorial, 22 August, 2006).
    Other challenges relate to finding effective pathways to
    address the multiple disadvantages of educationally-
    deprived populations who are living in extreme poverty,
    are largely low-caste or ethnic minorities, often in poor
    health, and women.

Expansion of functional literacy in India

   National Knowledge Commission (2008) stressed a
    focus on expanding functional literacy among the
    Illiteracy remains a major problem, even among the
    age-group 15-35 years.
    Therefore literacy programmes must be expanded
    rather than reduced, and given a different focus that
    is directed towards improving life skills and meeting
    felt needs, especially (but not only) among the

                GE, NLM, Then, there is
                 vocational Education
    The Indian Constitution resolves to provide
    quality education to all. The educational
    needs of the country differs specifically for
    the diverse societies and cultures of the
    country and hence the government has
    chalked out different educational categories:
    Elementary education, Secondary education,
     Higher education, Adult education, Technical
    and Vocational education.

Data during the period:   1993 - 2002


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