What is Precision Agriculture_

Document Sample
What is Precision Agriculture_ Powered By Docstoc
					What is Precision Agriculture?
        John K. Schueller
Agricultural and Horticultural Production

Inputs
     Fertilizer, Pesticides, Labor, etc.
Outputs
     Quantity, Quality
Complications to Simple Input--Output



• Stochastic (Random) – Weather
• Temporal (Time) – Season Progression
• Spatial (Location) – Spatial Variability
Managing According to Spatial Variability

• Many Names
   – Site Specific Crop Management
   – Spatially-Variable Crop Production
Managing According to Spatial Variability

• Many Names
   – Site Specific Crop Management
   – Spatially-Variable Crop Production



John Deere --- “Precision Farming”
     =>       Precision Agriculture
Citrus Antecedent – Agronomic Crops

• Yield and Soil Mapping
• Variable Rate Applications



• mid-1980’s: Development and Experimentation
• 1990’s: Commercial Products, Millions of Acres
 Citrus Antecedent – Animal Agriculture

• Individual Production Records
• Individual Breeding, Feeding, and Culling
            Citrus Synthesis


Plant:
                         Like Agronomic


Multiyear and Individual Production Unit:
                             Like Animal
Precision Agriculture is NOT Technology

It is a Management Philosophy to
       Respond to Spatial Variability.
Precision Agriculture is NOT Technology


It is a Management Philosophy to
       Respond to Spatial Variability.

   But Technology Makes It Possible
     Precision Agriculture Steps:

1.   Determine Variability
2.   Determine Cause
3.   Determine Possible Actions
4.   Determine Economics of Actions
5.   Implement Profitable Actions

                 REPEAT
     Measuring Variability
Techniques
    Manual
    During Field Operations
    Remote Sensing
QuickBird 2.4 meter satellite image, draped over DEM
ACIR photography, 0.17-meter scanned (close-up). Note Geolocation
target (circled in yellow).
      Measuring Variability
Techniques
     Manual
     During Field Operations
     Remote Sensing
Variability of …
     Soils (type, fertility, …)
     Trees (size, vigor, yield, quality, …)
     Pests (weeds, insects, disease, …)
    Strategic Responses to Variability

•   Grove and Block Boundaries
•   Landforming and Layout
•   Irrigation Layout
•   Rootstock and Scion
•   Resetting and Abandonment

         Permanent, One-Time Costs
          Often Lower Technology
   Tactical Responses to Variability


• Variable-Rate Fertilizer and Pesticides
• Spatially-Variable Irrigation
• Spatial Harvest and Marketing

Good Technology and Management Needed
Line of sight radio-modem
                                        The sensor network allows creating
                                        surface graphs showing the spatial
                                        and temporal variation in soil water
                                        matric potential (soil moisture).




Differences of water mobility in soil
can be observed and can help on
better adjusting the site-specific
irrigation control.
    Lessons Learned in Agronomic
• Uniform Production is NOT the Goal
  – Often Cut Fertilizer Where Poor Yields
• Water is Most Important
• Technology Must Fit Operations
• Economic Potential Must Be Present
    Lessons Learned in Agronomic

• Uniform Production is NOT the Goal
  – Often Cut Fertilizer Where Poor Yields
• Water is Most Important
• Technology Must Fit Operations
• Economic Potential Must Be Present

  – Risk Reduction
  – Environmental Demands
       What is Precision Agriculture?
• Philosophy of Handling Spatial Variability
• Tradition Technologies
  – Variability Mapping
  – Variable Inputs

• Related Technologies
  –   Labor Management
  –   Remote Sensing
  –   Robotics
  –   Traceability

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:3
posted:6/28/2012
language:
pages:24