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									        Pool Manual

Environmental Health & Safety
University of Missouri-Columbia

        January 4, 2006
                              Table of Contents

                     Standard for Swimming Pool Operation
1.0   Introduction                                          4

      1.1    Pool
      1.2    Lifesaving Equipment
      1.3    Abbreviations
      1.4    Roles and Responsibilities

2.0   Training                                              6

      2.1    Operator
      2.2    Lifeguards
      2.3    Pool Staff
      2.4    First Aid
      2.5    Chemicals/PPE

3.0   Water Maintenance                                     6

      3.1    Disinfection
      3.2    pH /Alkalinity/Calcium Hardness
      3.3    Turbidity
      3.4    Bacteriological Quality
      3.5    Algal Control
      3.6    Superchlorination/Superoxidation

4.0   Routine Operations                                    7

      4.1    Pool Cleaning
      4.2    Toilet/Shower/Locker Facilities
      4.3    Water Analysis
      4.4    Water Balance
      4.5    Mechanical System
      4.6    Recirculation System
      4.7    Water Level
      4.8    Drain Covers
      4.9    Other Equipment
      4.10   Chemicals
      4.11   Pool Inspection

5.0   Equipment Maintenance                                 8

      5.1    Equipment Operation

       5.2      Lint/Hair Skimmers
       5.3      Equipment Log
       5.4      Equipment Manuals

6.0    Patrons, Spectators and Staff            9

       6.1      Patrons
       6.2      Bather Load Limit
       6.3      Spectators
       6.4      Glass Containers
       6.5      Staff

7.0    Pool Emergency Action Plan               9

       7.1      Accidental Fecal Release
       7.2      Accidental Vomit Release
       7.3      Thunder/Lightning
       7.4      Bloodborne Event
       7.5      Dead Animals

8.0    Safety                                   11

       8.1      Signage
       8.2      Personal Protective Equipment
       8.3      Material Safety Data Sheets
       8.4      Depth Markings
       8.5      Fencing
       8.6      Electrical

9.0    Record Keeping                           11

       9.1      Daily Log
       9.2      First Aid Log
       9.3      MSDS File
       9.4      Maintenance Log
       9.5      Training Log

10.0   References/Links                         12

Appendices                                      13

                     Standards for Swimming Pool Operations

1.0   Introduction

      The University of Missouri – Columbia maintains a number of different types of
      swimming pools from recreational pools to hospital therapy pools to competition
      pools. It is necessary to maintain these pools in a proactive manner so that
      accidents and swimming pool related illnesses may be eliminated for the patrons,
      guests and staff. It is incumbent upon the pool operator to develop a pool guide
      for each of the pools under their direction. This manual is intended to assist each
      of the operators in developing an individualized pool guide specific to their pool.
      Appendix E is designed to assist the pool operator in this endeavor.

      1.1    A pool is an artificial basin containing water for the purpose of immersion
             of people for recreation or therapy. There are six classes of pools,
             depending on their use and location.

             1.1.1    Class A: Intended for use in competitive swimming; may also be
                      used for recreational swimming.

             1.1.2    Class B: A public pool intended to serve the general public.

             1.1.3    Class C: A semi-public pool intended for use of residents of an
                      apartment, dorm, condominium, etc.

             1.1.4    Class D: A special purpose pool that utilizes wave/surf action,
                      rivers, vortex, etc.

             1.1.5    Class E: A therapy pool in which the water temperature is
                      maintained above 86˚F (30˚C), but less than 104˚F (40˚C), and
                      used for physical therapy. Hot tubs (spas) are also included in this
                      classification. Not to be used by individuals with high blood
                      pressure or heart conditions without the express consent of a

             1.1.6    Class F: A wading pool with shallow water only. Also known as a
                      kiddie pool.

      1.2    Lifesaving Equipment is equipment kept on hand at each pool to aid in
             extracting a person from a pool who is having difficulty in maintaining
             their ability to reach the side of a pool or is the victim of an accident in the
             pool or pool area. This equipment will include as a minimum: backboard,
             blanket, reach pole, torpedoes (rescue tubes) for each lifeguard on duty,
             first aid kit.

1.3   Abbreviations:

      1.3.1   AFR – Accidental Fecal Release or the event of someone
              defecating in the water.

      1.3.2   CPI – Certified Pool Inspector is a certified pool operator who has
              passed a national exam in pool inspection.

      1.3.3   CPO® – Certified Pool Operator is a person nationally certified in
              all areas of pool management.

      1.3.4   EHS – Department of Environmental Health & Safety at the
              University of Missouri- Columbia.

      1.3.5   NSPF – National Swimming Pool Foundation is the certifying
              agency for the CPO/CPI ranking.

      1.3.6   MSDS – Material Safety Data Sheet, provides important
              information on all chemicals and cleaning products.

      1.3.7   PPE – Personal Protective Equipment used to protect all areas of
              the body from possible contact or inhalation of contaminating

      1.3.8   RU – Registered User, a person who has accountability for the safe
              use of chemicals in a particular area. This person has a
              responsibility over chemical workers in their area.

      1.3.9   WRI – Water Related Illness is a bacterial infection from contact
              with contaminated water.

1.4   Roles and Responsibilities

      1.4.1   Department Head, Director, Assistant Director shall be familiar
              with the Pool Manual, provide guidance and assure compliance
              with all regulations. They shall insure that the Pool Operator is
              properly trained and certified.

      1.4.2   Pool Operator – CPO® certified. This person is responsible for the
              operation of the pool and compliance with all regulations. They
              shall assure that their staff is fully trained (see 2.0). They shall
              prepare an individualized pool guide and emergency guide for their

             1.4.3   Pool Staff – Depending on position, recommended CPO® certified
                     at the discretion of the pool operator. They shall be trained as
                     outlined in 2.0 below. They are to inform their supervisor of any
                     unsafe conditions for remediation.

             1.4.4   EHS – Shall develop guidance, provide training, monitor for
                     compliance and provide consultative assistance.

2.0   Training

      Training of all pool staff in the operation of the various pool areas is essential for
      the safe operation of all campus pools.

      2.1    Pool Operator- required to be certified in pool operations (i.e. CPO® from

      2.2    Lifeguards need to be currently certified as such by a recognized agency
             such as the American Red Cross, YMCA or the Boy Scouts of America.
             While on lifeguard duty, the lifeguard may have no other concurrent

      2.3    Pool Staff – All persons working in the pool facility need to have a basic
             understanding of pool operations, water testing and chemicals. Depending
             on their responsibility, they may need the CPO® or equivalent rating as

      2.4    All personnel shall be currently certified in basic first aid/CPR and have
             current bloodborne pathogens training. This training can be provided by

      2.5    Chemical use must follow all guidelines of the campus hazardous
             materials management programs. Chemical/PPE Training is to be
             provided to all staff who will be handling chemicals in any way. This
             training will be provided by EHS. These staff must be listed as workers
             under the RU in charge of the location.

3.0   Water Maintenance

      3.1    Disinfection – Pool water shall be automatically and continuously
             disinfected. All disinfecting materials and methods shall be used only by
             properly trained staff. They will not create a nuisance to patrons or staff
             and must be compatible with all other chemicals used. The chemicals are
             to provide an effective disinfection of bacteria. Improper disinfection
             levels may lead to pool closure.

             3.1.1   Chlorine and bromine based disinfectants are the main chemicals
                     used on campus. Any other disinfection chemicals are to be
                     approved prior to use by EHS.

             3.1.2   Cyanuric acid is not a disinfectant. It is for outdoor pool use only
                     as a stabilizer to prevent chlorine breakdown due to sunlight.
                     Levels should not exceed 80 ppm (Table 1).

             3.1.3   Special purpose pools such as hot tubs and therapy pools which are
                     heated to a higher temperature need more stringent monitoring to
                     maintain proper levels of disinfection as the higher operating
                     temperatures provide a better medium for bacterial growth. (See
                     also 7.1 and 7.2)

      3.2    pH/Alkalinity/Calcium Hardness need to be maintained in the ideal range
             (see appendix C or D) to ensure proper pool maintenance by keeping pool
             conditions in a range to prevent caustic or acidic conditions for equipment
             and bathers. (See 4.4)

      3.3    Turbidity – Water clarity will be maintained such that the cover plate on
             the bottom of the pool shall be clearly visible while standing on the pool
             edge. Cloudy conditions must be corrected immediately.

      3.4    Bacteriological quality can be maintained by use of disinfection. If no
             disinfection is present, bacteria can grow and cause staff and patrons to
             become ill or experience ear infections. A monthly bacteriological test
             will be performed by EHS.

      3.5    Algal Control – the use of an algaecide, especially in outdoor pools, can
             be a regular part of maintenance. Although algae is not necessarily
             hazardous to people, it can be a nuisance in and around the pool. A
             weekly wall cleaning will also assist in algal control.

      3.6    Superchlorination/Superoxidation of pools must be done when the pool is
             closed by trained personnel. The pool may re-open when the disinfection
             levels have been brought back into the 2.0 ppm to 5.0 ppm range (see
             appendix C or D).

4.0   Routine Operations

      The pool operator or their designee shall be responsible for maintaining the
      various pool areas according to their pool guide. The following elements should
      be included:

      4.1    Pools shall be cleaned as necessary to provide a healthy swimming
             environment. This will include the walk area around the pool which must
             be kept clean and sanitized.

      4.2    All toilet, shower and locker facilities shall be kept in a sanitary condition
             at all times. Disinfection of floors and fixtures will be done daily to
             prevent infections and illness.

      4.3    Water analysis shall be maintained according Appendix C and D to assure
             healthful water. These results shall be recorded in the pool log (see 9.1).

      4.4    Water balance, a condition in which dissolved minerals prevent the water
             from acting as an acid or caustic, will be calculated monthly to prevent
             undue stress on equipment and plumbing as well as bathers.

      4.5    Mechanical rooms and systems shall be monitored for proper maintenance
             and efficiency. These rooms shall be kept free of clutter.

      4.6    Recirculation system shall be monitored for proper maintenance and

      4.7    Water levels are to be constantly maintained for optimum pool health and

      4.8    Drain covers shall be in good repair with no cracks or breakage. All drain
             covers shall be of the anti-entrapment type. Replace broken or cracked
             drain covers with anti-entrapment covers.

      4.9    Other equipment such as first aid kits, lifesaving equipment, etc. are to be
             maintained in peak operating condition.

      4.10   Chemicals are to be properly stored, with appropriate secondary
             containment if required, in a defined storage room and only taken out for
             use. A chemical containers must be returned to storage immediately after

      4.11   Pool inspection will be performed by EHS on a monthly basis. Results
             will be recorded on an inspection form and presented to the pool operator
             and/or designated member of the staff. Any problems will be discussed at
             that time. See Appendix A and B for a sample inspection form.

5.0   Equipment Maintenance

      5.1    All filtration and circulation equipment shall be maintained in peak
             operating condition according to manufacturer’s specifications.

      5.2    All lint/hair strainers and skimmers shall be kept clean.

      5.3    A log of equipment maintenance shall be kept (see 9.4). Entries are to
             include date, name of equipment, maintenance performed and any
             comments necessary.

      5.4    All equipment manuals are to be readily available for all pool staff,
             contractors and the sanitarian (or designee).

6.0   Patrons, Spectators and Pool Staff

      6.1    Patrons are considered anyone other than pool staff. Signage should be
             posted in the locker rooms to address the following:

             6.1.1   Patrons need to be free of communicable disease and open wounds
                     to prevent contamination of the pool water.

             6.1.2   All patrons need to shower before entry into the pool area.

             6.1.3   All patrons need to wear a bathing suit. Cutoffs, etc. will not be
                     allowed in university pools.

      6.2    The pool bather load limit is to be calculated and posted for each pool.
             This limit is to be strictly enforced.

      6.3    Spectators for events are to be limited to the bleachers. Only coaches,
             pool staff and therapists will be allowed to be pool side. Food and drink in
             the bleachers will be allowed at the discretion of the pool operator. For
             pools with no bleacher section, events such as swim lessons, therapy, etc.
             will be at the discretion of the pool operator.

      6.4    No glass containers of any kind shall be allowed in the immediate pool
             areas (pools and decks) or the bleacher sections.

      6.5    Pool staff shall be subjected to the same rules as patrons.

7.0   Emergency Action Plan

      An pool emergency action plan will be maintained in addition to the building
      emergency action plan to cover possible problems. To be included shall be the

      7.1    Accidental Fecal Release – An AFR constitutes a possible major influx of
             bacterial and protozoan organisms into the pool water which can then lead
             to bather contamination and a water related illness (WRI). Whenever
             there is an accidental fecal release, the pool is to be immediately closed.

      Once all of the bathers have exited the pool, the fecal material is to be
      removed, if possible, with a scoop or net making sure to keep it intact as
      much as possible. The scoop/net is to be decontaminated after use.

      In the case of solid fecal material, the pool is to be maintained at the
      normal chlorine level ( 2.0 – 5.0 ppm (bromine level 4.0 – 6.0 ppm) for a
      30 minute period with a pH of 7.2 – 7.8 and constant filtration. Following
      this proceedure the pool may be re-opened. Be sure to record date, time
      and action taken in the pool log (see 9.1).

      In the case of a diarrheal episode, the chlorine level is to be increased to
      20 ppm (bromine level increased to 40 ppm) and maintained at this level
      with filtration for an 8 hour period. Maintain the pH at 7.2 – 7.8. After
      the 8-hour treatment, backwash the filter and discharge the effluent to the
      sanitary sewer, not to the pool. Reestablish the disinfectant level to 2.0 –
      5.0 ppm for chlorine or 4.0 – 6.0 ppm for bromine. The pool may now be
      re-opened. Record the date, time and response in the pool log (see 9.1).

7.2   Accidental Vomit Release – Should anyone vomit into the pool, the pool
      must be immediately closed. Once all people are out of the pool, maintain
      the pool for 30 minutes at a chlorine level of 2.0 – 5.0 ppm (bromine level
      of 4.0 – 6.0) at a pH of 7.2 – 7.8, keeping all filtration operating. Any
      large pieces of vomitus must be removed from the pool by use of a scoop
      or mesh devise while trying to keep it intact. After 30 minutes treatment
      time the pool may be re-opened. Record the date, time and response in the
      pool log (see 9.1).

7.3   Thunder and lightning events will close down any outdoor pool for a 30
      minute period. The pool will remain closed until 30 minutes has elapsed
      from the time of the last clap of thunder or flash of lightning. Any
      subsequent thunder or lightning signals another 30 minute closing period.
      Staff needs to be sure all patrons and staff are moved to a safe location
      during this event.

7.4   An event that has bloodshed in the pool itself does not require the closing
      of the pool as keeping the proper disinfection levels will negate any
      problems. Closing for a 5 or 10 minute period may be done for the benefit
      of the patrons to feel secure. If there is bloodshed on the pool deck (or
      anywhere else) it will be necessary to treat the area and clean-up properly
      (see 2.4).

7.5   Dead animals and insects within a pool or pool area need to be dealt with
      before opening a pool for the day. Animals/insects in the pool need to be
      removed and discarded. Dead animals on the pool deck need to be
      discarded and the area must be disinfected.

8.0   Safety

      8.1      Safety signs such as ‘No Lifeguard on Duty’ need to be posted where
               everyone can see them before entry into the pool area. Pool entry
               information is to be posted in the locker rooms. Other signs for rules, etc.
               need to be prominently posted. The size of the sign and print will be such
               that the sign can be clearly read from a distance of six feet.

      8.2      Appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) is required for working
               with chemicals. This may include possible skin, face and/or respiratory
               protection. PPE selection shall be at the discretion of the RU in
               consultation with EHS. Respirators are to be fit tested by EHS on a yearly
               basis. Only properly trained personnel will be allowed to work with

      8.3      MSDSs shall be readily available for all chemicals used in the pool areas
               including pool chemicals and cleaning products.

      8.4      Depth markings for pools must be placed on the pool side and deck
               near the pool edge in numbers/letters at least four inches high. They must
               be located on all four sides of the pool. At a minimum, they must be
               placed at the shallow end, the deep end and where the floor of the pool
               begins to sharply descend into the deep water, if applicable.

      8.5      Fencing for all outdoor pools needs to be a minimum of four feet in height
               above grade level. The bottom of the fence can be no higher than four
               inches off the ground. Any openings, excluding entrances/exits, in the
               fence can be no larger than four inches. The fence must not be easy to

      8.6      All electrical outlets around a swimming pool must be of the ground fault
               circuit interrupting type. No electrical cords will be allowed to contact the
               pool water. Caution needs to be exercised with electrical cords on the
               pool deck.

9.0   Record Keeping

      All logs and records need to be available for inspection by the sanitarian (or

      9.1      Pool Log - A daily log of all water testing results shall be kept for each
               pool. Minimum data to include will be pool identification, date, results of
               all water testing and time, any chemicals added, the amount added and
               time. Any actions for emergencies such as an AFR are to be included with
               what the action was, including date and time.

       9.2   A First Aid Log is recommended to account for each incident. EHS needs
             to be notified for all accidents. This can be accomplished by e-mail to the

       9.3   MSDSs need to be available (see 8.3).

       9.4   An Equipment Maintenance Log shall be kept to document all
             maintenance of all equipment.

       9.5   A Training Log is recommended to keep all staff training current.

10.0   References/Links

       Columbia, MO; Swimming Pool Ordinance and Guide

       Iowa Pool Code; Revised May 2005.

       Johnson County, Kansas Pool Guide

       Missouri CSR 20-3.050 E

       National Swimming Pool Foundation; Certified Pool – Spa Operator Handbook,
       2005 Edition

       U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission; Guidelines for Entrapment Hazards:
       Making Pools and Spas Safer (March 2005).

Appendix A

Pool Inspection Form – Front

                              Environmental Health & Safety
                             University of Missouri – Columbia
                                     8 Research Park
                                   Columbia MO 65211
                          Phone: 573-882-7018/Fax: 573/882-7940

                                        Pool Inspection

                 Swimming Pool ___ Therapy Pool ___ Spa ___

Date: _____________               Contact: __________________________________


POOL AREA:       S        U       N/A         LOCKER ROOM:               S           U        N/A

1. Pool Markings         ___      ___         ___       15. Lighting                 ___      ___     ___
2. Proper Signage        ___      ___         ___       16. Dressing Room            ___      ___     ___
3. Steps/Ladders         ___      ___         ___       17. Shower Room              ___      ___     ___
4. Lighting              ___      ___         ___       18. Lavatories               ___      ___     ___
5. Drain Cover           ___      ___         ___       19. Floors                   ___      ___     ___
6. Walk Area (Deck)      ___      ___         ___       20. Signage/Instructions     ___      ___     ___
7. Diving Board(s)       ___      ___         ___
8. Floating Markers      ___      ___         ___
9. Life Saving Equip.    ___      ___         ___       OTHER:                       S        U       N/A
10. First Aid Kit        ___      ___         ___       21. Records Check            ___      ___     ___
11. Water Clarity        ___      ___         ___       22. Chemical Storage         ___      ___     ___
12. Skimmer/Gutter       ___      ___         ___       23. Filter System            ___      ___     ___
13. Hair/Lint Catcher    ___      ___         ___       24. Disinfecting System      ___      ___     ___
14. Supervision          ___      ___         ___       25. Vacuum System            ___      ___     ___

CURRENT READINGS:                 pH: ___           Cl-: ___ppm     Turbidity: ___         Temp: ___F
                                  (7.2-7.8)          (2.0-5.0)

                 Tot Alk___ppm Ca++ Hardness___ppm                Br-___ppm          Bacteriological___

Sodium Dichloro-s-triazinetrione ___              __________________________________
Trichloro-s-triazinetrione       ___              __________________________________
Sodium Hypochlorite              ___              __________________________________
Calcium Hypochlorite             ___              __________________________________
Lithium Hypochlorite             ___              __________________________________
Chlorine Gas                     ___              __________________________________
Bromine                          ___              __________________________________
Other: ____________________                       __________________________________

Inspector/Title: Richard M. Fancher, CPO/Sanitarian

Appendix B

Pool Inspection Form – Back
Explanation of Numbered Items

1.   Pool depths are to be marked with clearly visible lettering/numbering at least 4 inches high on deck and pool side..

2.   Proper signs of instruction are to be displayed in a manner consistent with high visibility. Special conditions such as ‘No Life
     Guard on Duty” “Children must have adult supervision” are to be identified and posted at all entrances to the pool.

3.   All steps and ladders shall be in good repair and firmly attached to the pool.

4.   Lighting in the pool area, locker rooms and lavatories shall be sufficient for personal safety and security. Lights shall be
     changed out as necessary.

5.   Drain cover shall be not be broken, damaged or missing. Non-entrapment covers are encouraged.

6.   Deck areas shall be of a non-slippery composition and wide enough to accommodate all patrons and guests using the pool. This
     also includes pool furniture. Deck will be kept in good repair at all times.

7.   Diving boards shall be in good repair and have a sufficient depth and surface area for swimmer/diver safety.

8.   Floating markers shall be kept in good repair. And indicate where the depth begins to exceed 5 foot.

9.   All life saving equipment shall be in good repair and readily available for use. At a minimum, there shall be a life ring with line
     and a Sheperd’s Crook/reaching pool with a minimum length of one-half the pool width.

10. A standard first aid kit shall be available. First aid supplies shall be maintained.

11. Water clarity shall be as such as to clearly see drain cover at the bottom of the pool.

12. Water level maintained for continuous skimming.

13. Hair/lint catcher cleaned as necessary

14. Supervision of pool to be under certified operator.

15. See # 4.

16. Dressing rooms shall be kept in a clean, sanitary condition and in good repair.

17. The shower room shall be cleaned on a daily basis.

18. The bathrooms shall be kept in a clean, sanitary condition with a supply of toilet paper, soap and paper towels for patrons. A
    waste receptacle shall be in a usable condition. A covered used sanitary napkin receptacle shall be maintained in the women’s

19. All floors shall be kept clean and in good repair.

20. Signage/instructions shall be used for the knowledge of patrons. Defaced/unreadable signs shall be replaced.

21. A record of all pool chemistry and maintenance will be kept on a daily basis..

22. All chemicals shall be stored in a manner consistent with EPA and EHS guidelines.

23. Filter system shall have guages for influent and effluent.

24. Disinfecting system identified as to chlorine, bromine or other disinfectant and be in good working order.

25. Vacuum System employed as needed to keep pool in pristine condition.

Appendix C

Water Chemistry/Testing Requirements for Swimming Pools
 Chemical       Minimum          Ideal       Maximum        Testing
 Parameter                      Range                       Interval
    Free                                                   Opening
 Available       1.0 ppm       2.0 ppm       5.0 ppm      then every
  Chlorine                                                  4 hours
  Bromine       2.0 ppm        4.0 ppm      10.0 ppm      then every
                                                            4 hours
    pH             7.2           7.5           7.8        then every
                                                            4 hours
 Chlorine           -             0             -          Weekly

 Alkalinity         -         80 – 120          -          Weekly
  Hardness          -         200 – 400         -          Weekly
   Acid             -             -          80 ppm        Weekly

Appendix D

Water Chemistry/Testing Requirements for Therapy Pools and Hot Tubs.
 Chemical       Minimum           Ideal      Maximum          Testing
 Parameter                       Range                        Interval
    Free                                                     Opening
 Available       2.0 ppm        3.5 ppm        8.0 ppm      then every
  Chlorine                                                    2 hours
  Bromine        4.0 ppm        5.0 ppm       18.0 ppm      then every
                                                              2 hours
    pH              7.2         7.4 – 7.6         7.8       then every
                                                              2 hours
 Combined                                                      Once
  Chlorine           -              0              -             A
 Alkalinity          -          80 – 120           -          Weekly
 Hardness            -         150 – 250           -          Weekly

Temperature        86˚F          95˚F          104˚F          Daily
                  (30˚C)        (35˚C)         (40˚C)

Appendix E

Template for Developing Individual Pool Guide:

This template is intended to assist each pool operator to develop a usable pool guide.
Each pool guide will be individualized and may not contain all the information such as
additional pool personnel. A copy of this Pool Manual is to be appended to the pool

                                       Pool Name
                                    Hours of Operation
                                     Days of the week

RU/Person in Charge (include RU number): Name/Certifications
                                         Campus Address

Additional Pool Personnel:    Name/Certifications
                              Campus Address

Pool Classification and Clientele (see 1.1)

Safety Issues/Signage/PPE (see 2.0, 6.1, 8.0)

Pool Emergency Action Plan (see 7.0)

Monitoring Schedule

    Disinfectant, manufacturer, application information
    Others Chemicals: Name, manufacturer, application information
    MSDS location

Water Maintenance Schedule (see 3.0, 4.0)

Equipment Maintenance Schedule (see 5.0)

Record Keeping (see 9.0)

Pool Diagram showing location of first aid, lifesaving equipment, chemical storage,
mechanical room, etc.


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