The Effects of Air Pollution The Disasters The major by jennyyingdi


									Name: ____________________________________                                Bell: ___________________
                                                                          Date: ___________________
Environmental Science: Study Guide 2.6

 2.6      The Effects of Air Pollution [127]

 The Disasters [127]

       1. The major source of the air pollution that caused the major air pollution disasters was
          (transportation/the burning of coal).

       2. Fog that is contaminated with smoke is called _______________.

       3. Weather conditions that lead to an air pollution disaster include (stagnant air/strong winds).

       4. Air pollution disasters often occur when there is a temperature ____________________.

       5. Weather conditions that caused the air pollution disasters occurred during the (fall and
          winter/spring and summer).

       6. Describe the geographic location of Donora, Pennsylvania.

          Did the other air pollution disasters also occur in valleys? _________________________.
          How does this location contribute to the air pollution disasters? [See Section 2.2, Weather
          Patterns, p. 107.]

       7. What groups of people were most affected by the air pollution disasters? ____________________

       8. (True/false) Immediately after the major air pollution disasters, the United States acted quickly to
          eliminate the problem.

 In the Laboratory [128]

       9. In a controlled experiment subjects are divided into at least ______ groups. There must be only
          ____________ difference or _______________ between the control group and the experimental

   10. Mice and other laboratory animals exposed to nitrogen oxide and auto exhaust developed lung

   11. When a group of caged animals was accidentally exposed to auto exhaust, the animals in an
       adjoining laboratory, where there were no fumes, became the _____________ group.

 The Human Population — What the Studies Show [128]

   12. Why is it difficult to study the effects of air pollution in humans?

  13. One variable that must be considered in an air pollution study is that some people smoke
      cigarettes while others do not. List other variables that may occur in a study of air pollution.
      (1) ________________________________ (2) ________________________________
      (3) ________________________________ (4) ________________________________

  14. (True/false): Studies have shown that long-term exposure to air pollution may be unpleasant, but
      it is not in any way harmful.

  15. (True/false): Studies have shown that your risk of respiratory problems is higher if you live in a
      section of the city with higher levels of air pollution. (true/false)
      Give two studies that support your answer.
      (1) ________________________________ (2) ________________________________

  16. (True/false): Studies have shown that people living in cities with higher levels of air pollution are
      more likely to have respiratory problems.
      Give two studies that support your answer.
      (1) ________________________________ (2) ________________________________

  17. (True/false): The Seven U.S. Cities Study showed a direct relationship between the level of
      carbon monoxide and the number of people admitted to hospitals who were suffering from heart

  18. The Six-Cities study studied the effect of increased levels of _________________ and found
      increased respiratory problems in _________________ and higher death rates in
      __________________ who had been exposed to pollution as children.

  19. From each of the following pairs, identify the group most sensitive to air pollutants.
      A. Children living in (inner city/suburbs)
      B. Children who are (black/white)
      C. Children who are (boys/girls)
      D. Children who (have allergies/have no allergies)

What the Surgeon General Says [129]

  20. One of every _______ life-long smokers will eventually die from smoking-related causes.

  21. A pollutant causes more damage when present with another pollutant than it would cause if it
      were the only pollutant. The increase in damage is called the

       (True/false): Cigarette smoke causes more damage in the presence of other air pollutants than if
       it is the only type of pollution.
       Nonsmokers living in the city have (a much greater cancer rate/about the same cancer rate)
       as nonsmokers living in rural areas. City smokers have (a much greater cancer rate/about the
       same cancer rate) as rural smokers.
       The enhanced effect of carcinogens in smoke is due to the ________________________ between
       chemicals in cigarette smoke and air pollutants.

  22. Identify the variables which were studied in the St. Louis–Winnipeg study.
       (1) ________________________________ (2) ________________________________
       Do you think this was a good study? ______. Why or why not? __________________________

  23. Compare the St. Louis–Winnipeg study to the Longbeach–Glendora–Lancaster study. Is the
      design of one study better than the other study?

Diseases Associated with Air Pollution [129]

  24. The leading cause of death in China is __________________________________. In the United
      States, respiratory diseases associated with exposure to air pollutants causes

  25. What two changes in the respiratory system bring about the chronic cough which is sometimes
      known as "smokers cough"?
      (1) ________________________________ (2) _________________________________
      What is this condition called? _____________________________________________________

  26. What changes occur in people who develop an allergic reaction to certain pollutants?
      (1) ________________________________ (2) _________________________________
      (3) ________________________________ (4) _________________________________
      What is this condition called? _____________________________________________________.

  27. What disease results when the air sacs remain inflated and can’t help push the air out of the air
      sacs? _______________________________________.

  28. Pollutants cause changes in the respiratory system. Which changes will encourage the growth of
      (1) __________________________________________________________________________
      (2) __________________________________________________________________________

  29. Which changes listed in questions 25–28 will decrease the amount of air moving through the
      respiratory system?
      (1) __________________________________________________________________________
      (2) __________________________________________________________________________
      (3) __________________________________________________________________________
      (4) __________________________________________________________________________

  30. How do cancer cells differ from normal cells found in the lung?
      (1) __________________________________________________________________________
      (2) __________________________________________________________________________

  31. Lung cancer may spread to other sites in the body through the process called
Pollutants — How They Affect Humans [130]

  32. Environmental Tobacco Smoke or ____________________ smoke contains about ______
      carcinogens and causes about 3,000 lung cancer deaths each year in _________________.

  33. Place a C beside those substances that are carcinogens and an I beside those substances that are
      respiratory irritants.
            asbestos                 chlorine                     radioactive substances
            ammonia                  formaldehyde                 sulfur dioxide
            arsenic                  nitrogen dioxide             sulfuric acid
             benzene                   ozone                       vinyl chloride

  34. As ozone levels increase _________________ and _______________ increase. Ozone is more
      toxic with other air pollutants due to their _________________________________.

  35. The gas sulfur dioxide is only mildly irritating. But under certain conditions it is deadly.
      Describe the conditions that increase the danger.
      (1) __________________________________________________________________________
      (2) __________________________________________________________________________

  36. Identify air pollutants that increase the risk for people with asthma.
      (1) ________________________________ (2) ________________________________
      (3) ________________________________

  37. Some pollutants enter the lungs as a gas. Other pollutants enter the lungs on the surface of
      particles. Some particles are trapped in the ___________ and swept out by ___________.
      Particles that are very (large/small) may be carried deep into the lungs.

  38. Place a checkmark beside the statements that are true. Studies show that higher levels of
      [ ] Increase respiratory infections.
      [ ] Increase severity of asthma attacks.
      [ ] Increase hospital admissions.
      [ ] Increase mortality.

  39. How does carbon monoxide interfere with the body’s ability to get oxygen?
      List three effects of moderate levels of carbon monoxide.
      (1) ________________________________ (2) _________________________________
      (3) ________________________________
      Identify the group of people most affected by carbon monoxide. __________________________

  40. Identify ways that lead enters the human body.
      (1) ________________________________ (2) _________________________________
      (3) ________________________________ (4) _________________________________
      Which of the above is the most dangerous source of lead? _________________________ _____

  41. According to the CDC, children should be tested for lead if they are less than ____ years old.
  42. Predict the lowest level of lead that you would expect to find in the blood of a child who has these
      symptoms due to an accumulation of lead in the blood.

              µg/dL red blood cell count is below normal (anemia)
              µg/dL vomiting and severe abdominal pains (gastrointestinal symptoms)
              µg/dL difficulty learning concepts (decreased IQ score)
              µg/dL kidney damage
       Note: These symptoms may be due to other causes.

  43. Children are more affected by lead and other air pollutants than adults because they spend more
      time _____________ and breathe more air per ______________. Their cells are rapidly
      ____________ and they have fewer _________________ to detoxify poisons.

Effects on Animals [132]

  44. Which animals at the cattle show were most affected by the air pollution disaster in London?

  45. Why should we be cautious about applying the results of a study of the effects of air pollution on
      laboratory animals to humans?

  46. Air pollutants may enter the bloodstream of animals from the air that they breathe. Another body
      system that is a pathway for air pollutants to enter the blood stream is the

  47. Identify industrial air pollutants that may cause sickness and sometimes death of farm animals.
      (1) ____________________ (2) ____________________ (3) _____________________
      (4) ____________________ (5) ____________________ (6) _____________________
      Which of these pollutants is a heavy metal that causes lameness in some animals?

Effects on Plants [133]

  48. The death of plants downwind from copper smelters was due to
      Describe the appearance of the leaves of a plant that is damaged by this pollutant.
      Further away from the smelters the lower levels of sulfur dioxide may have reduced the growth of
      plants and decreased the ________ of crops even though no damage was visible.

                          Relative Sensitivity of the Leaves of Selected Plants to SO 2


       Alfalfa               Barley         Endive            Cotton             Tobacco
       Oats                  Carrot         Chicory           Wheat              Rhubarb
       Sweet Pea             Lettuce        Sweet Potato      Spinach            Radish
       Squash                Bean           Broccoli          Clover             Pumpkin

     Cauliflower         Parsley         Sugar Beet         Aster          Tomato
     Parsnip             Apple           Cabbage            Zinnia         Marigold
     Pear                Begonia         Grape              Peach          Apricot
     Rye                 Iris            Plum               Cherry         Gladiolus


     Rose                Irish Potato    Pine               Lilac          Chrysanthemum
     Boxelder            Onion           Corn               Citrus         Virginia Creeper

49. Using the chart above, identify the crop in each pair (column) below that would be most affected
    by low levels of sulfur dioxide pollution:
            lettuce                     corn                     marigolds
            tomatoes                    broccoli                 chrysanthemum

50. The damage from sulfur dioxide is greater if there is __________________.

51. In the presence of sulfur dioxide, the pollutant ______________ becomes more toxic. This is a
    _________________ effect.

52. The EPA found that ____________ is the most damaging air pollutant. At 0.5 ppm, it causes
    __________________ or the loss of ____________________ in the leaves. The level of this
    pollutant is costing millions of dollars by reducing crop ______________ in
    _____________________ and commercial ____________.
    How does air pollution affect your choice of foods at the grocery store?
    How does air pollution affect people in developing countries?

                        Relative Sensitivity of Selected Plant Leaves to Smog


     Endive Tobacco        Spinach               Lettuce (Romaine)
     Swiss Chard           Petunia               Sugar Beets       Celery
     Barley (young)        Yellow Pine           Alfalfa           Oats


     Barley                Eggplant              Tomato              Head Lettuce
     Turnip                Rhubarb               Bean                White Pine
     Onion                 Parsley               Radish

       Lettuce (old)           Two-Needle Pine    Cabbage             Cantaloupe
       Cucumber                Pumpkin            Squash              Gladiolus

  53. You own land that you would like to use for growing a crop of pumpkins. The area is sometimes
      covered with a blanket of smog. Based on the information in the chart above, do you think a
      pumpkin crop will be successful? _______________________________.

  54. Which variety of pine is most sensitive to smog? _______________________________________

  55. The hydrocarbon in automobile exhaust that interferes with the opening of some flowers is

  56. Why do you think the gingko tree is often planted along city streets?

Property Damage [133]

  57. What types of materials are damaged when sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide mix with moisture
      to form acids? ____________________________________________.

  58. Over time paper becomes brittle because _________________________ in the air reacts with
      chemicals in the paper to produce ________________________________________.

  59. What materials are damaged when ozone is present? ___________________________________

Haze — Spoiling the View [134]

  60. On a clear day the ______________________ is reduced by a regional haze that is due to the
      presence of ______________________, _____________________ and
      The main sources of these pollutants are _________________________________ and

  61. Amendments to the Clean Air Act require the EPA to improve _________________ at certain
      national parks and ______________________.

Vocabulary Review

                 2                                                    2
1 The toxic effect of one pollutant is greater in the presence of another pollutant.
2 Smokers often develop severe cases of this disease.
3 Type of pollution that is created when the sunlight provides energy for reactions between certain
  chemicals in the atmosphere.
4 A heavy metal that causes some animals to become lame.
5 A substance that causes cancer.
6 A chemical that attaches to red blood cells more quickly than oxygen.
7 This gas reacts with oxygen to form the brownish red gas that is characteristic of photochemical

1 Fog that is contaminated with smoke.
2 A heavy metal that damages the nervous system.

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