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Name: ____________________________________ Bell: ___________________ Date: ___________________ Environmental Science: Study Guide 2.6 2.6 The Effects of Air Pollution  The Disasters  1. The major source of the air pollution that caused the major air pollution disasters was (transportation/the burning of coal). 2. Fog that is contaminated with smoke is called _______________. 3. Weather conditions that lead to an air pollution disaster include (stagnant air/strong winds). 4. Air pollution disasters often occur when there is a temperature ____________________. 5. Weather conditions that caused the air pollution disasters occurred during the (fall and winter/spring and summer). 6. Describe the geographic location of Donora, Pennsylvania. _____________________________________________________________________________ Did the other air pollution disasters also occur in valleys? _________________________. How does this location contribute to the air pollution disasters? [See Section 2.2, Weather Patterns, p. 107.] ______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________. 7. What groups of people were most affected by the air pollution disasters? ____________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 8. (True/false) Immediately after the major air pollution disasters, the United States acted quickly to eliminate the problem. In the Laboratory  9. In a controlled experiment subjects are divided into at least ______ groups. There must be only ____________ difference or _______________ between the control group and the experimental groups. 10. Mice and other laboratory animals exposed to nitrogen oxide and auto exhaust developed lung (cancer/infections). 11. When a group of caged animals was accidentally exposed to auto exhaust, the animals in an adjoining laboratory, where there were no fumes, became the _____________ group. The Human Population — What the Studies Show  12. Why is it difficult to study the effects of air pollution in humans? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 13. One variable that must be considered in an air pollution study is that some people smoke cigarettes while others do not. List other variables that may occur in a study of air pollution. (1) ________________________________ (2) ________________________________ (3) ________________________________ (4) ________________________________ 14. (True/false): Studies have shown that long-term exposure to air pollution may be unpleasant, but it is not in any way harmful. 15. (True/false): Studies have shown that your risk of respiratory problems is higher if you live in a section of the city with higher levels of air pollution. (true/false) Give two studies that support your answer. (1) ________________________________ (2) ________________________________ 16. (True/false): Studies have shown that people living in cities with higher levels of air pollution are more likely to have respiratory problems. Give two studies that support your answer. (1) ________________________________ (2) ________________________________ 17. (True/false): The Seven U.S. Cities Study showed a direct relationship between the level of carbon monoxide and the number of people admitted to hospitals who were suffering from heart failure. 18. The Six-Cities study studied the effect of increased levels of _________________ and found increased respiratory problems in _________________ and higher death rates in __________________ who had been exposed to pollution as children. 19. From each of the following pairs, identify the group most sensitive to air pollutants. A. Children living in (inner city/suburbs) B. Children who are (black/white) C. Children who are (boys/girls) D. Children who (have allergies/have no allergies) What the Surgeon General Says  20. One of every _______ life-long smokers will eventually die from smoking-related causes. 21. A pollutant causes more damage when present with another pollutant than it would cause if it were the only pollutant. The increase in damage is called the _________________________________. (True/false): Cigarette smoke causes more damage in the presence of other air pollutants than if it is the only type of pollution. Nonsmokers living in the city have (a much greater cancer rate/about the same cancer rate) as nonsmokers living in rural areas. City smokers have (a much greater cancer rate/about the same cancer rate) as rural smokers. The enhanced effect of carcinogens in smoke is due to the ________________________ between chemicals in cigarette smoke and air pollutants. 22. Identify the variables which were studied in the St. Louis–Winnipeg study. (1) ________________________________ (2) ________________________________ Do you think this was a good study? ______. Why or why not? __________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________. 23. Compare the St. Louis–Winnipeg study to the Longbeach–Glendora–Lancaster study. Is the design of one study better than the other study? _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Diseases Associated with Air Pollution  24. The leading cause of death in China is __________________________________. In the United States, respiratory diseases associated with exposure to air pollutants causes ___________________________. 25. What two changes in the respiratory system bring about the chronic cough which is sometimes known as "smokers cough"? (1) ________________________________ (2) _________________________________ What is this condition called? _____________________________________________________ 26. What changes occur in people who develop an allergic reaction to certain pollutants? (1) ________________________________ (2) _________________________________ (3) ________________________________ (4) _________________________________ What is this condition called? _____________________________________________________. 27. What disease results when the air sacs remain inflated and can’t help push the air out of the air sacs? _______________________________________. 28. Pollutants cause changes in the respiratory system. Which changes will encourage the growth of bacteria? (1) __________________________________________________________________________ (2) __________________________________________________________________________ 29. Which changes listed in questions 25–28 will decrease the amount of air moving through the respiratory system? (1) __________________________________________________________________________ (2) __________________________________________________________________________ (3) __________________________________________________________________________ (4) __________________________________________________________________________ 30. How do cancer cells differ from normal cells found in the lung? (1) __________________________________________________________________________ (2) __________________________________________________________________________ 31. Lung cancer may spread to other sites in the body through the process called ___________________________. Pollutants — How They Affect Humans  32. Environmental Tobacco Smoke or ____________________ smoke contains about ______ carcinogens and causes about 3,000 lung cancer deaths each year in _________________. 33. Place a C beside those substances that are carcinogens and an I beside those substances that are respiratory irritants. asbestos chlorine radioactive substances ammonia formaldehyde sulfur dioxide arsenic nitrogen dioxide sulfuric acid benzene ozone vinyl chloride 34. As ozone levels increase _________________ and _______________ increase. Ozone is more toxic with other air pollutants due to their _________________________________. 35. The gas sulfur dioxide is only mildly irritating. But under certain conditions it is deadly. Describe the conditions that increase the danger. (1) __________________________________________________________________________ (2) __________________________________________________________________________ 36. Identify air pollutants that increase the risk for people with asthma. (1) ________________________________ (2) ________________________________ (3) ________________________________ 37. Some pollutants enter the lungs as a gas. Other pollutants enter the lungs on the surface of particles. Some particles are trapped in the ___________ and swept out by ___________. Particles that are very (large/small) may be carried deep into the lungs. 38. Place a checkmark beside the statements that are true. Studies show that higher levels of particulates: [ ] Increase respiratory infections. [ ] Increase severity of asthma attacks. [ ] Increase hospital admissions. [ ] Increase mortality. 39. How does carbon monoxide interfere with the body’s ability to get oxygen? ____________________________________________________________________________ List three effects of moderate levels of carbon monoxide. (1) ________________________________ (2) _________________________________ (3) ________________________________ Identify the group of people most affected by carbon monoxide. __________________________ 40. Identify ways that lead enters the human body. (1) ________________________________ (2) _________________________________ (3) ________________________________ (4) _________________________________ Which of the above is the most dangerous source of lead? _________________________ _____ 41. According to the CDC, children should be tested for lead if they are less than ____ years old. 42. Predict the lowest level of lead that you would expect to find in the blood of a child who has these symptoms due to an accumulation of lead in the blood. µg/dL red blood cell count is below normal (anemia) µg/dL vomiting and severe abdominal pains (gastrointestinal symptoms) µg/dL difficulty learning concepts (decreased IQ score) µg/dL kidney damage Note: These symptoms may be due to other causes. 43. Children are more affected by lead and other air pollutants than adults because they spend more time _____________ and breathe more air per ______________. Their cells are rapidly ____________ and they have fewer _________________ to detoxify poisons. Effects on Animals  44. Which animals at the cattle show were most affected by the air pollution disaster in London? _______________ 45. Why should we be cautious about applying the results of a study of the effects of air pollution on laboratory animals to humans? _____________________________________________________________________________. 46. Air pollutants may enter the bloodstream of animals from the air that they breathe. Another body system that is a pathway for air pollutants to enter the blood stream is the _____________________________________________________________________________. 47. Identify industrial air pollutants that may cause sickness and sometimes death of farm animals. (1) ____________________ (2) ____________________ (3) _____________________ (4) ____________________ (5) ____________________ (6) _____________________ Which of these pollutants is a heavy metal that causes lameness in some animals? ________________________. Effects on Plants  48. The death of plants downwind from copper smelters was due to ___________________________. Describe the appearance of the leaves of a plant that is damaged by this pollutant. ______________________________________________________________________________ Further away from the smelters the lower levels of sulfur dioxide may have reduced the growth of plants and decreased the ________ of crops even though no damage was visible. Relative Sensitivity of the Leaves of Selected Plants to SO 2 SENSITIVE Alfalfa Barley Endive Cotton Tobacco Oats Carrot Chicory Wheat Rhubarb Sweet Pea Lettuce Sweet Potato Spinach Radish Squash Bean Broccoli Clover Pumpkin INTERMEDIATE Cauliflower Parsley Sugar Beet Aster Tomato Parsnip Apple Cabbage Zinnia Marigold Pear Begonia Grape Peach Apricot Rye Iris Plum Cherry Gladiolus RESISTANT Rose Irish Potato Pine Lilac Chrysanthemum Boxelder Onion Corn Citrus Virginia Creeper 49. Using the chart above, identify the crop in each pair (column) below that would be most affected by low levels of sulfur dioxide pollution: lettuce corn marigolds tomatoes broccoli chrysanthemum 50. The damage from sulfur dioxide is greater if there is __________________. 51. In the presence of sulfur dioxide, the pollutant ______________ becomes more toxic. This is a _________________ effect. 52. The EPA found that ____________ is the most damaging air pollutant. At 0.5 ppm, it causes __________________ or the loss of ____________________ in the leaves. The level of this pollutant is costing millions of dollars by reducing crop ______________ in _____________________ and commercial ____________. How does air pollution affect your choice of foods at the grocery store? _____________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ How does air pollution affect people in developing countries? _____________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Relative Sensitivity of Selected Plant Leaves to Smog SENSITIVE Endive Tobacco Spinach Lettuce (Romaine) Swiss Chard Petunia Sugar Beets Celery Barley (young) Yellow Pine Alfalfa Oats INTERMEDIATE Barley Eggplant Tomato Head Lettuce Turnip Rhubarb Bean White Pine Onion Parsley Radish RESISTANT Lettuce (old) Two-Needle Pine Cabbage Cantaloupe Cucumber Pumpkin Squash Gladiolus 53. You own land that you would like to use for growing a crop of pumpkins. The area is sometimes covered with a blanket of smog. Based on the information in the chart above, do you think a pumpkin crop will be successful? _______________________________. 54. Which variety of pine is most sensitive to smog? _______________________________________ 55. The hydrocarbon in automobile exhaust that interferes with the opening of some flowers is ______________. 56. Why do you think the gingko tree is often planted along city streets? _____________________________________________________________________________. Property Damage  57. What types of materials are damaged when sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide mix with moisture to form acids? ____________________________________________. 58. Over time paper becomes brittle because _________________________ in the air reacts with chemicals in the paper to produce ________________________________________. 59. What materials are damaged when ozone is present? ___________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Haze — Spoiling the View  60. On a clear day the ______________________ is reduced by a regional haze that is due to the presence of ______________________, _____________________ and _________________________. The main sources of these pollutants are _________________________________ and ________________________________. 61. Amendments to the Clean Air Act require the EPA to improve _________________ at certain national parks and ______________________. Vocabulary Review 1 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 Across: 1 The toxic effect of one pollutant is greater in the presence of another pollutant. 2 Smokers often develop severe cases of this disease. 3 Type of pollution that is created when the sunlight provides energy for reactions between certain chemicals in the atmosphere. 4 A heavy metal that causes some animals to become lame. 5 A substance that causes cancer. 6 A chemical that attaches to red blood cells more quickly than oxygen. 7 This gas reacts with oxygen to form the brownish red gas that is characteristic of photochemical smog. Down: 1 Fog that is contaminated with smoke. 2 A heavy metal that damages the nervous system.
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