GREAT MIGRATION by 1L72T6

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									           FROM
   ‘O N T H E C O R N E R’
(The information that needs to be told )
             Vol.4-2011


The pulse of a community can all ways be judged by the talk in the street,
the CORNER has always been the place, for us to hang out, to talk,
to listen and pass on information it’s our meeting place.
lyrak@bellsouth.net The        information that needs to be told
We must continue to remember and respect our heritage
by never saying good-bye to yesterday, for yesterday
made our present possible . . .


 The Great Migration




When the Emancipation Proclamation was signed in
1863, less than eight percent of the African American
population lived in the northeastern or Midwestern
United States. In 1900, about 90 percent of blacks still
lived in Southern states.
The Great Migration was the movement of 2 million
blacks out of the Southern United States to the
Midwest, Northeast, and West from 1910 to 1940.
African Americans migrated to escape racism and to
seek jobs in industrial cities.
 First Great Migration (1910–40), about 1.6 million
migrants, and a Second Great Migration (1940 to
1970), in which 5 million or more people moved and to a
wider variety of destinations. Many moved from Texas
and Louisiana to California, where there were jobs in
the defense industry.
From 1965–70, 14 states of the South, especially
Alabama, Louisiana and Mississippi, contributed to a
large migration of blacks to other designated regions of
the United States. By the end of the Second Great
Migration, African Americans had become an
urbanized population.
More than 80 percent lived in cities. Fifty-three percent
remained in the Southern United States, while 40
percent lived in the Northeast and North Central states
and 7 percent in the West, mostly in the major cities,
such as Chicago, Detroit, New York, and Cleveland.
  Because changes were concentrated in cities, urban
tensions rose as African Americans and European
immigrants, competed for jobs and housing with the
white ethnic working class.
African Americans moved as individuals or small family
groups. There was no government assistance, but often
northern industries, such as the railroads, meatpacking
and stockyards, recruited people.
The Great Migration of African-Americans created the
first large, urban black communities in the North. It is
conservatively estimated that 400,000 left the South
during the two-year period of 1916-1918
 Several factors contributed to the African Americans'
decisions to leave the South: The primary factor for
migration was the racial climate and widespread
violence of lynching racial segregation and Jim Crow
Laws; In the North, they could find better schools and
job opportunities. And adult men could vote
 The boll weevil infestation of Southern cotton fields
in the late 1910s forced many sharecroppers and
laborers to search for alternative employment
opportunities;
The enormous expansion of war industries in the North
created job openings for blacks—not in the factories
but in service jobs vacated by new factory workers.
World War I and the Immigration Act of 1924
effectively put a halt to the flow of European
immigrants causing shortages of workers in the
factories; the South Bronx, increased from 201,000
to 1,265,000. Between 1900 and 1930, to take
advantage of a labor shortage created in the wake
of the First World War.
In 1910, the African American population of Detroit
was 6,000. By the start of the Great Depression in
1929, this figure had risen to 120,000. In 1900 the
African American population in Chicago grew from
278,000 to 813,000. The South Side of Chicago was
considered the black capital of America.


Other northern and midwestern industrial cities, such
as St. Louis, Baltimore, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh,
Omaha and New York, experienced increases in their
African-American populations. New York's Harlem
became a center of black cultural life.
People tended to take the cheapest rail ticket possible.
This resulted in, for example, many people from
Mississippi moving directly north by train to Chicago,
from Alabama to Cleveland and Detroit, from Texas
and Louisiana to California.


Other cities that received numerous black migrants were
Buffalo, New York; Boston, Minneapolis, Milwaukee,
Kansas City, Columbus, Cincinnati, Cleveland, and
Indianapolis, as well as to many smaller industrial
cities such as Gary, Dayton, Toledo, Youngstown,
Peoria, Muskegon, Newark, Flint, and Albany.
While the Great Migration helped educated African
Americans obtain jobs, African Americans made
substantial gains in industrial employment, particularly
in the steel, automobile, shipbuilding, and meatpacking
industries.
Between 1910 and 1920, black employment in industry
nearly doubled from 500,000 to 901,000. After the
Great Depression, workers in the steel and meatpacking
industries were organized in labor unions. The unions
ended the segregation of many jobs, and African
Americans began to advance to more skilled jobs and
supervisory positions.
 African-American discovered racial discrimination in
the North, Populations increased so rapidly that there
were housing shortages in many major cities,
Discrimination often restricted African Americans to
crowded neighborhoods.
Mortgage discrimination and redlining in inner city
areas limited the newer African-American ability to
determine their own housing, or obtain a fair price.
The National Housing Act contributed to limiting
availability of loans to urban areas, particularly those
areas inhabited by African Americans.
 African-American would often encounter residential
discrimination in which white home owners and
realtors would prevent migrants from purchasing homes
or renting apartments in white neighborhoods. In
addition, when blacks moved into white neighborhoods,
whites would often react violently toward their new
neighbors, including mass riots, bombings, and even
murder.
These tendencies contributed to maintaining the "racial
divide" in the North. In cities such as Chicago and
Omaha, the postwar housing boom developed suburban
housing restricted to white populations. African
Americans were more densely concentrated in inner
cities than other groups.
 Data showed the movement of African Americans
which started around 1970, back to the South
following de-industrialization in North and. Led to the
return. of young white families moving back to the city
and rebuilding the neighborhoods.

								
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