FROM ‘O N T H E C O R N E R’ (The information that needs to be told ) Vol.4-2011 The pulse of a community can all ways be judged by the talk in the street, the CORNER has always been the place, for us to hang out, to talk, to listen and pass on information it’s our meeting place. firstname.lastname@example.org The information that needs to be told We must continue to remember and respect our heritage by never saying good-bye to yesterday, for yesterday made our present possible . . . The Great Migration When the Emancipation Proclamation was signed in 1863, less than eight percent of the African American population lived in the northeastern or Midwestern United States. In 1900, about 90 percent of blacks still lived in Southern states. The Great Migration was the movement of 2 million blacks out of the Southern United States to the Midwest, Northeast, and West from 1910 to 1940. African Americans migrated to escape racism and to seek jobs in industrial cities. First Great Migration (1910–40), about 1.6 million migrants, and a Second Great Migration (1940 to 1970), in which 5 million or more people moved and to a wider variety of destinations. Many moved from Texas and Louisiana to California, where there were jobs in the defense industry. From 1965–70, 14 states of the South, especially Alabama, Louisiana and Mississippi, contributed to a large migration of blacks to other designated regions of the United States. By the end of the Second Great Migration, African Americans had become an urbanized population. More than 80 percent lived in cities. Fifty-three percent remained in the Southern United States, while 40 percent lived in the Northeast and North Central states and 7 percent in the West, mostly in the major cities, such as Chicago, Detroit, New York, and Cleveland. Because changes were concentrated in cities, urban tensions rose as African Americans and European immigrants, competed for jobs and housing with the white ethnic working class. African Americans moved as individuals or small family groups. There was no government assistance, but often northern industries, such as the railroads, meatpacking and stockyards, recruited people. The Great Migration of African-Americans created the first large, urban black communities in the North. It is conservatively estimated that 400,000 left the South during the two-year period of 1916-1918 Several factors contributed to the African Americans' decisions to leave the South: The primary factor for migration was the racial climate and widespread violence of lynching racial segregation and Jim Crow Laws; In the North, they could find better schools and job opportunities. And adult men could vote The boll weevil infestation of Southern cotton fields in the late 1910s forced many sharecroppers and laborers to search for alternative employment opportunities; The enormous expansion of war industries in the North created job openings for blacks—not in the factories but in service jobs vacated by new factory workers. World War I and the Immigration Act of 1924 effectively put a halt to the flow of European immigrants causing shortages of workers in the factories; the South Bronx, increased from 201,000 to 1,265,000. Between 1900 and 1930, to take advantage of a labor shortage created in the wake of the First World War. In 1910, the African American population of Detroit was 6,000. By the start of the Great Depression in 1929, this figure had risen to 120,000. In 1900 the African American population in Chicago grew from 278,000 to 813,000. The South Side of Chicago was considered the black capital of America. Other northern and midwestern industrial cities, such as St. Louis, Baltimore, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Omaha and New York, experienced increases in their African-American populations. New York's Harlem became a center of black cultural life. People tended to take the cheapest rail ticket possible. This resulted in, for example, many people from Mississippi moving directly north by train to Chicago, from Alabama to Cleveland and Detroit, from Texas and Louisiana to California. Other cities that received numerous black migrants were Buffalo, New York; Boston, Minneapolis, Milwaukee, Kansas City, Columbus, Cincinnati, Cleveland, and Indianapolis, as well as to many smaller industrial cities such as Gary, Dayton, Toledo, Youngstown, Peoria, Muskegon, Newark, Flint, and Albany. While the Great Migration helped educated African Americans obtain jobs, African Americans made substantial gains in industrial employment, particularly in the steel, automobile, shipbuilding, and meatpacking industries. Between 1910 and 1920, black employment in industry nearly doubled from 500,000 to 901,000. After the Great Depression, workers in the steel and meatpacking industries were organized in labor unions. The unions ended the segregation of many jobs, and African Americans began to advance to more skilled jobs and supervisory positions. African-American discovered racial discrimination in the North, Populations increased so rapidly that there were housing shortages in many major cities, Discrimination often restricted African Americans to crowded neighborhoods. Mortgage discrimination and redlining in inner city areas limited the newer African-American ability to determine their own housing, or obtain a fair price. The National Housing Act contributed to limiting availability of loans to urban areas, particularly those areas inhabited by African Americans. African-American would often encounter residential discrimination in which white home owners and realtors would prevent migrants from purchasing homes or renting apartments in white neighborhoods. In addition, when blacks moved into white neighborhoods, whites would often react violently toward their new neighbors, including mass riots, bombings, and even murder. These tendencies contributed to maintaining the "racial divide" in the North. In cities such as Chicago and Omaha, the postwar housing boom developed suburban housing restricted to white populations. African Americans were more densely concentrated in inner cities than other groups. Data showed the movement of African Americans which started around 1970, back to the South following de-industrialization in North and. Led to the return. of young white families moving back to the city and rebuilding the neighborhoods.
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