THE SELF PERCEPTION AND SELF ESTEEM OF SECOND CHANCE SCHOOL GRADUATES by HC12062716111

VIEWS: 12 PAGES: 32

									Athina A. Sipitanou, Assistant Professor
   Evmorfia Dimitriou-Christidi, MA




                                           1
The theoretical background
1.   Lifelong Learning in Europe
2.   Lifelong Learning in Greece
3.   SCS in Greece
4.   Self-perception
4.1 Theoretical models for self-perception
4.1.1 One dimensional models
4.1.2 Multidimensional models
4.2 Characteristics of self-perception
5.   Self-esteem
5.1 Theoretical framework for self-esteem
5.2 Conditions that can have negative impact on self-esteem
6.   School drop-outs


The survey
7.   The purpose of the survey
8.   The sample of the survey
9.   The research’s hypothesis and sub-questions
10. The research planning
11. The profile of the two Groups
12. The reliability of the research tool
13. The validity of the research tool
14. The validity of the research tool – Factor analysis for the two Groups
15. The comparison of the two Groups on the four Factors of the survey
16. Conclusions




                                                                             2
3
   The Lisbon Strategy (2000):

“ Make Europe the most developed society of
  knowledge in the world, in the next ten years”.




                                                    4
   To achieve the objective of the Lisbon Strategy
    Greece has established structures of lifelong
    learning.

   One of these is the Second Chance Schools (SCS).




                                                       5
SCS :
Is flexible and innovative educational program,

   allows people of the age 18+ conclude compulsory
    education,

   provide adults with new education and training
    opportunities that will help them improve their
    social and economical status,

   help adults true the job market or find better jobs,

   improve adults’ self-esteem and create positive
    self-perception.

                                                           6
   Self-perception is the awareness of the
    characteristics that constitutes one’s self, the self-
    knowledge that is developed to the humans by
    acting as an observer of one’s own existence.




                                                             7
The theoretical models for self-perception are
 grouped in two major categories:

   One dimensional models

   Multidimensional models




                                                 8
   The model of Coopersmith (1967) according to which
    “self” is one-dimensional and its various aspects are
    determined from the general self-esteem and can not
    be differentiated and studied separately

   The model of Rosenberg (1986) according to which
    discrete elements of “self” are weighted and combined
    with certain hierarchical order as a result of a very
    complex equation




                                                            9
   The model of Harter (1983), which is based on the idea
    that self-esteem in general is influenced by the various
    aspects of self-conception in the degree of importance
    given by the same person

   The model of Shavelson, Hubner and Stanton (1976)
    stating that self-perception is organized hierarchically,
    where the upper level stands for the general self-
    perception and the lower levels for the different facets
    of self-perception



                                                                10
Self-perception:

   is formatted during the process of the cognitive and
    social development

   it is developed in the course of growing up, as
    somebody forms a sense of identity

   it is influenced by factors in somebody’s life such as
    family, cultural background, personal history,
    external beauty and appearance, school and peer
    group.

                                                             11
Self-esteem:

   is the emotional dimension of self-awareness

   it is associated with the overall positive evaluation
    of a person’s sense of self-worth and self-respect




                                                            12
   Erikson considers the fifth stage to be the key
    point for self-esteem

   Maslow argues that first humans try to meet basic
    biological needs and then seek to be loved

   Rogers states that by interpreting the way we
    perceive a situation one attains a higher self-
    esteem

   Winnicott concludes that the formation of self-
    esteem depends on the relation between infant and
    mother

                                                        13
Three conditions can have negative impact to
self-esteem:

   Failures

   Inconsistencies

   Stressful conditions




                                               14
School drop out:

    is a multifactor phenomenon which is influenced
    either by family, social or educational factors

   it has negative impact on self-perception and
    effects the areas of sociability, employability and
    academic ability




                                                          15
16
The aim of the survey:

 to examine whether studying in SCS contributes to
 the formation of positive self-perception and high
 self-esteem




                                                      17
   Group A: 30 SCS graduates

   Group B: 30 adults who did not conclude
    mandatory education




                                              18
The research’s hypothesis :
   Group A after attending the specific program has
    developed a higher level of positive self-perception
    and self-esteem than Group B.

Sub-questions:
   What is the profile of the two Groups
   What was their self-perception towards school
    capacity while attending the traditional school
   How they developed their self-perception in
    different fields
   How they shaped their self-esteem

                                                           19
In the research was used:

   The method of the comparison of two Groups for
    review

   The self-reference rule based questionnaire “How
    do I perceive myself IV” by Makri-Botsari

   The statistic package SPSS 17.0




                                                       20
      The sex of the participants in Group A


                           40%

60%
                                                  Men
                                                  Women




         The sex of the participants in Group B




47%
                            53%

                                                  Men
                                                  Women




                                                          21
                         The age of the participants in Group A



                        3%
            10%                     17%


                                                    20%           18-25
                                                                  26-35
      50%
                                                                  36-50
                                                                  51-65
                                                                  65+




                         The age of the participants in Group B
                         0%
                  10%                   23%

27%
                                                                  18-25
                                  40%                             26-35
                                                                  36-50
                                                                  51-65
                                                                  65+




                                                                          22
       The marital status of the participants in Group A




      0% 3%
      7%
                               37%
                                                           Singles
53%                                                        Married
                                                           Divorced
                                                           Widowers/Widows
                                                           Cohabitation




      The marital status of the participants in Group B




            7%           10%                                          Singles



                                                                      Married


              83%                                                     Divorced




                                                                                 23
                 The professional status of the participants in Group A




                        3%                 23%
      20%
                                                                      Unemployed
7%                                                                    Employees
                                                                      Pensioners/Pensionarys
                                47%                                   Housewives
                                                                      Not occupied




            The professional status of participants in Group B


                          10%
     30%
                                                                          Unemployed

                                                                          Employees
                                   53%
                                                                          Pensioners/Pensionarys

7%                                                                        Housewives




                                                                                                   24
        Reasons for the school drop-out for the participants in Group A
                                                                     Be in difficulties with the
                                                                     courses
                                                                     Bad relations with the
3%             13%                                                   teachers

                                                       40%           Bad relations with the
                                                                     school-mates

23%                                                                  The distance of the
                                                                     school
                                                                     Family problems
                     14%               7%
                                                                     Economical problems

                                                                     Health problems
                                 0% 0%
                                                                     Something else




         Reasons for the drop-outs for the participants in Group B



                                                                     Be in difficulties with the
                                                                     courses

                                                                     Bad ralations with the
                                                                     teachers

          0%                                                         Bad relations with the
                     7%                                              school-mates

 27%                                                   43%           The distance of the
                                                                     school


       10%                                                           Family problems
                     7%         6%

                                                                     Economical problems

                           0%
                                                                     Health problems



                                                                     Something else




                                                                                                   25
The reliability of the questionnaire for two Groups
 was tested with the statistic Cronbach:

   Group A: Cronbach a=0.907

   Group B: Cronbach a=0.939




                                                      26
The scree plot for Group A   The scree plot for Group B


                                                          27
                    Categories of the    Percentages of the                        Categories of the    Percentages of the
 Factors                                                        Factors
                        Factors           total fluctuation                            Factors           total fluctuation



 Factor 1             Self-esteem              33,42            Factor 1             Self-esteem              49,57


                                                                                    Academic Self-
 Factor 2      Social Self-perception          29,96            Factor 2           perception for the         22,85
                                                                                   traditional school

                     Academic Self-
                                                                                   Professional Self-
 Factor 3           perception for the         15,49            Factor 3                                      15,84
                                                                                      perception
                    traditional school


                    Professional Self-
 Factor 4                                       9,40            Factor 4      Social Self-perception           4,93
                       perception




            Total                              88,27                       Total                              93,19




Group A                                                       Group B


                                                                                                                             28
       Factor            Mean   Standard deviation        Factor          Mean   Standard deviation




   Academic Self-                                     Academic Self-
  perception for the     2,73          1,06          perception for the   1,73          1,00
  traditional school                                 traditional school



                                                        Social Self-
Social Self-perception   3,6           ,82                                2,98          ,77
                                                        perception




  Professional Self-                                 Professional Self-
                         3,61          ,99                                3,39          1,02
     perception                                         perception




    Self-esteem          4,07          ,67             Self-esteem        3,82          1,16




  Group A                                            Group B


                                                                                                      29
To compare the two Groups in the four factors the research
  applied the process of t-test for independent samples

            Factors            Group A   Group Β   P



          Self-esteem           4,07      3,82     ,33


         Academic Self-
        perception for the      2,73      1,73     ,00
        traditional school

        Professional Self-
                                3,61      3,39     ,39
           perception


      Social Self-perception    3,60      2,98     ,00




                                                             30
   Self-perception is a multidimensional dynamic process

   Self-esteem is not identical to self-perception, but both
    constitute complementary cognitive structures

   There is a positive correlation between self-esteem and
    individual sectors of self-concept

   School drop-outs as a phenomenon are associated with
    the formation of somebody’s self-perception

   The SCS operates therapeutically on the phenomenon of
    school drop-outs and its effects on individuals and
    society

   The institute’s main objective is to provide support in
    formatting positive self-perception and self-esteem
                                                                31
   The findings of this study indicate that SCS
    graduates in general have a more positive self-
    perception on professional and social fields and
    higher self-esteem than adults who have not
    completed compulsory education

   Lifelong learning in general and SCS specifically is
    acknowledged to prevent social exclusion and to
    provide educational rehabilitation to individuals
    who failed to gain sufficient knowledge and skills
    from the formal educational system



                                                           32

								
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