Regional and Global Impact of Authoritarian Regimes

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					Foreign Policies of Hitler:
  Regional and Global
         By Mr. Baker
           Hitler’s Foreign Policy
• Once in power, Hitler implemented his
  mission of reviving German strength and
  establishing a foundation of a pure racial
• Acquiring territory or Lebensraum was
  closely tied to domestic policies
• In order to achieve his goals, Hitler needed
  to create a sense of national community
  unified in mind, will, and spirit
• This could only be achieved through total
  state control; every facet of cultural and
  social life had to be controlled
         Hitler’s Foreign Policy
• War was obviously a real possibility and the
  domestic policies were aimed at creating a
  nation ready and willing for war:
  – Reverse the Treaty of Versailles
  – Created a “Greater Germany” by uniting all
    German speaking people
  – Lebensraum (living space) for all German
  Hitler’s Foreign Policy – “Greater
• Hitler wanted a single homeland for all German
  speaking people
• After Versailles, millions of Germans were living
  in foreign countries
• Versailles had also forbidden the union of
  Germany and Austria
Hitler’s Foreign Policy - Lebensraum

• Hitler’s “Greater Germany” would have a
  population of over 85 million people which
  could not be fed inside her existing borders
• Hitler intended to expand eastward
  towards Poland and Russia which
  contained “inferior” people
• Social Darwinism dictated that Germany
  was entitled to take their land
Operation Barbarosa
   Hitler’s Foreign Policy – Reversing
• From 1933-1938:
  – (1933) Germany withdrew from the League of
    Nations to reduce possible foreign control over
  – She began rapid rearmament
  – (1935) Announced that they had established an air
  – (1936) Hitler remilitarized the Rhineland in
    violation of various treaties with no foreign
  Hitler’s Foreign Policy – Reversing
– (1936) Hitler informed his top
  officials that Germany must be
  ready for war by 1940
– (1936-9) Germany fostered
  closer relations with fascist
  Italy and the two nations
  assisted General Franco in
  overthrowing Spain’s
  Republican government during
  the Spanish Civil War
  Hitler’s Foreign Policy –
   Reversing Versailles
• From 1938-1945:
  – Germany strengthened its ties to Fascist Italy
    and Japan by signing the Anti-Comintern Pact
    in which the nations pledged to defend each
    other against the Soviet Union and
    international communism
  – The Pact of Steel was signed with Italy
  – (1938) Hitler carried out the Anschluss, the
    annexation of Austria
 Hitler’s Foreign Policy – Reversing
– (1938) The Munich Agreement was
  signed which ceded the Sudetenland to
– Germany occupied the remainder of
– Hitler made it seem like his demands
  could be met
– (August 1939) The German-Soviet
  Nonaggression Pact was signed and
  Hitler could now attack Poland
Hitler’s Foreign Policy – Reversing
– (Sept 1939) Hitler invaded Poland. Britain
  and France declared war on Germany two
  days later
             Hitler During the War
• Invades:
  – Poland – Sept. 1, 1939
  – Denmark and Norway – Apr. 9, 1939
  – Belgium, Netherlands, Luxemberg, France – May
    10, 1939
  – Greece and Yugosloavia – Apr. 6, 1941
  – USSR – Jun. 22, 1941
           Hitler During the War
• Wasn’t ready for war – with the invasion of Poland, he
  expected appeasement from Britain and France
• Blitzkrieg was successful at first, but didn’t end up
  having enough tanks, trucks, planes, etc.
• The economy wouldn’t be unified and converted to a
  wartime economy until 1942
• Wasted war materials on death/concentration camps
• No central war planning by the military services –
  everything had to go through Hitler individually
             Hitler During the War
• Hitler didn’t stop the Dunkirk evacuation
   – Wanted to consolidate his position
   – As a result, 330,000 French and British troops were
• Hitler stops the Battle of Britain
   – The intent was to destroy the British airforce so that a land
     invasion could take place
   – Also wanted to lower the morale of the British
   – He stops the Battle to divert attention to the invasion of
     the Soviet Union
           Hitler During the War
• Invasion of the USSR
  – Would make Britain desperate to surrender
  – Would destroy “Jewish-Bolshevism”
  – Would provide oil
  – Germany was overstretched and it ends in a disaster
• D-Day Invasion
  – Thought that it was a diversionary attack, so he
    waited to send reinforcements
               Hitler at the End
•   By early 1945, Hitler ordered that all military,
    transport, communication, industrial, and supply
    facilities are to be destroyed. The order included
    bridges, dams, and utilities
•   Speer (head of the economy) protested to Hitler that
    the resources to be destroyed would be needed for
    survival in the postwar period
•   Hitler believed that if the war is to be lost, the
    nation also will perish
               Hitler at the End
•   He always laid fault to either his
    military generals, the troops, or
    Jews, but never himself
•   He established a Flying Special
    Tribunal to go immediately to
    places where German armies were
    defeated, to try soldiers of all
    ranks, and to carry out its
    judgments on the spot                Defeated German
                                         soldiers in the USSR
               Hitler at the End
•   Hitler wouldn’t surrender
•   The army came down to
    drafting 14-year old boys and
    even some 12-year olds
•   The militia came down to
    drafting 8-year olds as well as
    old men
•   They used anything they could
    find to fight

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