Propagation of Grape by Softwood Grafting by 759Qglt

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									 Introduction
• Tomato crop have good economic value
  as   major    fresh   vegetable   and   in
  processing.


• Healthy Tomato seedlings are main factor     Healthy Seedlings of Tomato


  in producing bumper and good quality
  yield.


• To produce healthy tomato seedlings,
  effective and eco-friendly management of
  pests, diseases and weeds is necessary.        Healthy Seedlings of Tomato
  Pests Management
Leaf miner:
• Larvae of leaf miner creates white colored
  zigzag lines / mines in leaf lamina tissues.

• Injuries made by leaf miner leads to
  reduced photosynthesis and secondary
  fungal and bacterial infections.
                                                 Infestation of leaf miner


Management:
• Leaf Miner can be managed by Collection
  and destruction of infested leaves.
• Spraying 5 % Neem Seed Kernel Extract
  or Trizophos @ 20 ml/10 liter water or
  Metasystox @ 15 ml/10 liter water.              Larvae of Leaf miner
  White Fly:
• White flies are small in size and white in
  color.

• Nymphs and adults of whitefly suck the
  cell sap from leaves.

• Heavy infestation of white flies causes
  yellowing and chlorosis of leaves.
                                                           Whitefly


• Adults secrete honeydew like sweet
  substance on which black sooty mould
  grows.

• White flies acts as disease vector for
  transmission of Tomato Leaf Curl Virus
  (TLCV). Infestation is predominant in
  summer season.
                                               Black sooty mould growth on leaf
Management of Whitefly:

• Conservative and Judicious use of nitrogenous fertilizers and
  irrigation in nursery. Use of yellow sticky trap to attract adults and
  Spraying of 5 % Neem Seed Kernel Extract on seedlings.


• Seed treatment with thiamethoxam 70 % @ 4.2 gm or
  imidachlopride 70 % WS @ 7.5 gm/kg seed and Nursery bed
  treatment with carbofuran 3-5 gm/sq. m. area


• Drenching with Imidachlopride 17.8 SL @ 6 ml/10 liter water and
  Spraying Imidachlopride 17.8 SL @ 3 ml or methyl demeton 25 EC
  @20 ml/10 liter water.
 Diseases Management
Damping Off disease
• It occurs in pre-emergence and post-
  emergence phases of seedling.



• In pre-emergence phase, seedlings die
  and rot before they reach the bed surface.



• In post-emergence phase, the collar of
  juvenile seedling becomes soft and water
  soaked and infected seedlings collapse.      Post emergence phase of damping off
                                                            disease.
Management of Damping Off

Soil Treatment by Soil Solarization:

•   Wet the soil with water in May-June
    months, spread 200 gauge white
    polythene on nursery area for 5-6
    weeks.



•   After 5-6 weeks, remove polythene     Soil Solariazation by Polythene Paper


    sheet and prepare the beds for seed
    sowing.
 Formalin Solution Treatment

• Drench the nursery soil with 1.5 to 2
  %    formalin   solution   and   cover
  drenched area with 200 gauge
  polythene sheet. Seal the edges of
  polythene sheet with wet soil for
                                                   Application of Formalin
  effective sterilization. Do this 15-20
  days before sowing.


• Remove the polythene cover after
  15 days and prepare the beds for
  seed sowing.
                                           Cover soil after Formalin application
Diseases Management

Application of Fungicides/Bio-fungicides:
• Fungicides like Captan or Thiram are applied @ 5-6 gm /sq. m.
  nursery bed.
• Bio-fungicide like Trichoderma viride @ 3 gm /sq. m. is mixed with
  FYM or media of nursery bed.


Seed Treatment
• Seed treatment with fungal culture Trichoderma viride @ 4 gm/kg
  of seed) or Thiram @ 3 gm/kg of seed.


Post Germination:
• Soil drenching with Dithane M-45 or Copper oxychloride @ 3
  gm/liter water.
 Weed control

• Spray pre emergence herbicide like Stomp @
  3 ml/liter water on the nursery beds after seed
  sowing.



• Seed should be covered with a mixture of           Weed in Tomato Seedling


  FYM, soil and sand.



• Timely weeding in nursery is very important to
  grow healthy seedling.

                                                    Weed free Tomato Seedlings

								
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