Handout 01 by R2ca5J


									                       CLASSICAL GREEK SCULPTURE, 500-300 BC

                                   Lectures, Trinity Term 2007

1. Introduction

2. The early fifth-century revolution

3. Athletes, gods, and heroes, 480-430 BC

4. Olympia, Temple of Zeus

5. Athena Parthenos

6. Parthenon

7. Victories and battles, 430-400 BC

8. Eastern dynasts: Lycia, Caria, Phoenicia

9. Athletic and divine statuary, 400-300 BC

10. The good citizen: portraits and self-representation, 480-300 BC

The main categories of Greek sculpture, 500-300 BC, are set against their historical background. Lectures
examine the contexts and purposes of the major documented monuments, and describe the broad changes in the
representation of gods, heroes, athletes, and citizens. Subjects include the temple sculptures of imperial Athens,
the impact of new patrons, such as Lycian dynasts and Macedonian kings, and the formulation of new civic
identities in funerary sculpture and honorific statuary. The emphasis is less on artists and development, more on
interpreting visual styles in response to changing public needs.

                                                                                      R.R.R. Smith

                             CLASSICAL GREEK SCULPTURE, 500-300 BC

                            Introductory bibliography: general and reference

1. Adams, S. The Technique of Greek Sculpture (1966)
2. Ashmole, B. Architect and Sculptor in Classical Greece (1972)
3. Bieber, M. Hellenistic Sculpture (2nd ed: 1961)
4. Boardman, J. Greek Sculpture: The Classical Period (1985) - 5th c.
5. Boardman, J. Greek Sculpture: The Late Classical Period (1995) - 4th c. and the west
6. Boedeker, D., Raaflaub, K.A. Democracy, Empire, and the Arts in Fifth-Century Athens (1998)
7. Brommer, F. The Sculptures of the Parthenon (1979)
8. Burford, A. Craftsmen in Greek and Roman Society (1972)
9. Dillon S., Ancient Greek portrait sculpture : contexts, subjects, and styles (Cambridge and New York
10. Donohue A., Greek sculpture and the problem of description (Cambridge 2005)
11. Duplouy A., Le prestige des élites : recherches sur les modes de reconnaissance sociale en Grèce entre
       les Xe et Ve siècles avant J.-C (Paris 2006)
12. Hanfmann, G. From Croesus to Constantine: The Cities of Western Asia Minor and their Arts in Greek
       and Roman Times (1975)
13. Jenkins, I. The Parthenon Frieze (1994)
14. Jenkins, I. Greek Architecture and its Sculpture in the Birtish Museum (London 2006)
15. Johansen, K.F. The Attic Grave Reliefs of the Classical Period (1951)
16. Kaltsas N., Sculpture in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens (Los Angeles 2002)
17. Keesling C.M., The votive statues of the Athenian Acropolis (Cambridge 2003)
18. Lapatin, Chryselephantine Statuary in the Ancient Mediterranean World (Oxford 2001)
19. Mattusch, C.C. Greek Bronze Statuary from the Beginnings through the Fifth Century BC (1988)
20. Osborne, R. Archaic and Classical Greek Art (1998)
21. Palagia O., Greek sculpture: function, materials, and techniques in the archaic and classical periods
       (Cambridge 2006)
22. Palagia, O. (ed), Art in Athens during the Peloponnesian War (Cambridge, 2009)
23. Pollitt, J.J. Art and Experience in Classical Greece (1972)
24. Richter, G.M.A. Sculpture and Sculptors of the Greeks (4th ed: 1970)
25. Richter, G.M.A. Portraits of the Greeks (1965. Abridged ed: 1984)
26. Ridgway, B.S. The Severe Style in Greek Sculpture (1970) - 480-450 BC
27. Ridgway, B.S. Fifth-Century Styles in Greek Sculpture (1981) - 450-400 BC
28. Robertson, M. A History of Greek Art (1975)
29. Rolley, C. La sculpture grecque (1994-1999)
30. Smith, R.R.R. Hellenistic Sculpture (1991)
31. Steiner, D. Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001)
32. Stewart, A.F. Greek Sculpture: An Exploration (1990)
33. Stewart, A.F. Classical Greece and the birth of Western art (Cambridge 2008)
34. Spivey, N. Understanding Greek Sculpture (1996)
35. Tanner J., The invention of art history in Ancient Greece : religion, society and artistic rationalisation
       (Cambridge 2006)

Written sources
36. Overbeck, J. Die antiken Schriftquellen (1868) - collects (almost) all sources in original
37. Pausanias, Guide to Ancient Greece (Loeb, Penguin) - esp Bks. I, V, and X
38. Pliny the Elder, Natural History (Loeb, and Jex-Blake & Sellers) Bks. 34-36
39. Habicht, C. Pausanias' Guide to Ancient Greece (1985)
40. Jex-Blake, K., Sellers, E. The Elder Pliny's Chapters on the History of Art (1896) - with excellent
       introduction on the Hellenistic art-histories that lie behind Pliny's text
41. Meiggs, R., Lewis, D., A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions to the End of the 5th Century BC
       (1969) = ML
42. Pollitt, J.J. The Art of Greece, 1400-31 BC: Sources and Documents (1965)
43. Pollitt, J.J. The Ancient View of Greek Art (1974)
44. Raubitschek, A. Dedications from the Athenian Acropolis (1949)

Religion, athletics, commemoration
45. Burkert, W. Greek Religion (1985)
46. Gardiner, E.N. Athletics of the Ancient World (1930, 1987)
47. Golden, M. Sport and Society in Ancient Greece (1998)
48. Hornblower S. and Morgan C., Pindar's poetry, patrons, and festivals: from Archaic Greece to the
       Roman Empire (Oxford 2007)
49. Kurtz, D.C., Boardman, J. Greek Burial Customs (1971)
50. Millar, S.G. Arete: Greek Sports from Ancient Sources (1991)
51. Morris, I. Death Ritual and Social Structure in Classical Antiquity (1992)
52. Parker, R. Athenian Religion: A History (1996)
53. Price, S.R.F. Religions of the Ancient Greeks (1999)
                               EXTERNALLY DATED MONUMENTS, 525-400 BC

1. Before 525              SIPHNIAN TREASURY, DELPHI         Herodotus 3.57-58 (date); Pausanias 10.11.2
                  Caryatids, pediment, friezes     (identification of building)

2. After 510              Temple of Apollo, Delphi             Herodotus 5.62; Philochoros, FGH 328 F
                  Fragmentary marble pediment (E),             115 (after 510)
                          paid for by Alcmaeonid family

3. Before 490             Temple of Apollo, Eretria            Herodotus 6.101 (Persian sack)
                          Fragmentary marble pediment
                          (Athena, Theseus & Antiope)

4. After 490              Athenian Treasury, Delphi                    So: Pausanias 10.11.5 (after Marathon);
                          Marble metopes (Theseus & Herakles)          Meiggs- Lewis 19

5. After 490              ?Kallimachos' Nike, Athens                   Fragmentary inscription: Meiggs-Lewis 18
                          Marble votive figure on column

6. Before 480             PERSIAN SACK, ATHENS-ACROPLIS Herodotus 8.53 (480 BC) and 9.3 (479 BC)
                          Votive marbles (esp. korai)

7. Before 478             Themistoklean Wall, Athens                   Thucydides 1.90-93
                          Funerary stelai and relief bases
                          re-used as building material

8. 477/6            TYRANNICIDES, AGORA of ATHENS Marmor Parium: FGH IIB 239 A54 (precise
           Public bronze monument to                   date); Pausanias 1.8.5 (location)
                            Harmodios & Aristogeiton, known
                            in Roman scale versions in marble

9. 478 or 474             Charioteer, Delphi                           Inscription: Fouilles de Delphes IV.5.26-7
                          Fragmentary bronze chariot group,
                          victory dedication of Polyzalos of Gela

10. 470-457               TEMPLES OF ZEUS, OLYMPIA                     Pausanias 5.10.2-10; Meiggs-Lewis 36
                          Marble metopes and pediment groups

11. 447-432               PARTHENON, ACROPOLIS                          IG I.13 436-51; Meiggs-Lewis 59 (inscribed
                  Marble metopes, frieze, and                  accounts)
                          and pediment groups

12. 438/7                 Athena Parthenos statue                      Philochoros, FGH 328 F 121 (dedication
                                    Known in reduced Roman             date); Meiggs-Lewis 54 (accounts)
                          versions, shield in scale versions

13. 425-420               NIKE OF MESSENIANS, OLYMPIA                  Olympia V.259; ML 74
                          Statue by Paionios on triangular pillar

14. Before 409            Erechtheion caryatids, Athens                IG I.13 474

15. 409-6                 Erechtheion frieze, Athens                   IG I.13 475-76

16. 426-400               TWELVE 'RECORD RELIEFS'
                          Stelai inscribed with Athenian public C. Lawton, Attic Document Reliefs (1995),
                          documents, decorated with reliefs             nos. 1-12
                              5th CENTURY: MAIN ATTRIBUTED SCULPTURES

1. c. 500-470             KRITIOS & NESIOTES
                          Tyrannicides (477/6), Athens                Paus 1.8.5; Agora III.256-80

2. c. 470-440             MYRON
                          (a) Diskobolos                              Lucian, Philospeud. 18
                          (b) Athena & Marsyas, Athens                Pliny, NH 34.57

3. c. 460-430             POLYKLEITOS
                          (a) Doryphoros                              Pliny, NH 34.55
                          (b) Diadoumenos                             Pliny, NH 34.55

4. c. 450-430             PHEIDIAS
                          (a) Athena Parthenos, Athens                Paus 1.25.7; Pliny, NH 36.18
                          (b) Amazon reliefs, on shield               Pliny, NH 36.18
                          (c) Niobid reliefs, on throne               Paus 5.11.2
                                   of Zeus, Olympia

5. c. 450-430             Polykleitos, Pheidias, Kresilas
                          Amazons, Ephesos                            Pliny, NH 34.53

6. c. 450-430             KRESILAS
                          Perikles, Athens acropolis                  Pliny, NH 34.74

7. c. 440-420             AGORAKRITOS
                          Nemesis, Rhamnous                           Paus 1.33; Pliny, NH 36.17

8. c. 440-420             ALKAMENES
                          Hermes Propylaios, Athens acropolis         2 inscribed copies; Paus 1.22.8
                          ? Prokne & Itys, ibid.                      Paus 1.24.3

9. 425-20                 PAIONIOS
                          Nike, Olympia                               Paus. 5.26.1; Olympia V.259

10. c. 400                NAUKYDES
                          ? Diskobolos                                Pliny, NH 34.80

Note also:
Inscribed copies after portrait statues, some of which may be contemporary with the figures represented: Themistokles,
Pindar, Perikles, Anakreon.

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