CLASSICAL GREEK SCULPTURE, 500-300 BC Lectures, Trinity Term 2007 1. Introduction 2. The early fifth-century revolution 3. Athletes, gods, and heroes, 480-430 BC 4. Olympia, Temple of Zeus 5. Athena Parthenos 6. Parthenon 7. Victories and battles, 430-400 BC 8. Eastern dynasts: Lycia, Caria, Phoenicia 9. Athletic and divine statuary, 400-300 BC 10. The good citizen: portraits and self-representation, 480-300 BC The main categories of Greek sculpture, 500-300 BC, are set against their historical background. Lectures examine the contexts and purposes of the major documented monuments, and describe the broad changes in the representation of gods, heroes, athletes, and citizens. Subjects include the temple sculptures of imperial Athens, the impact of new patrons, such as Lycian dynasts and Macedonian kings, and the formulation of new civic identities in funerary sculpture and honorific statuary. The emphasis is less on artists and development, more on interpreting visual styles in response to changing public needs. R.R.R. Smith rs\class-sc\lecture.sch CLASSICAL GREEK SCULPTURE, 500-300 BC Introductory bibliography: general and reference General 1. Adams, S. The Technique of Greek Sculpture (1966) 2. Ashmole, B. Architect and Sculptor in Classical Greece (1972) 3. Bieber, M. Hellenistic Sculpture (2nd ed: 1961) 4. Boardman, J. Greek Sculpture: The Classical Period (1985) - 5th c. 5. Boardman, J. Greek Sculpture: The Late Classical Period (1995) - 4th c. and the west 6. Boedeker, D., Raaflaub, K.A. Democracy, Empire, and the Arts in Fifth-Century Athens (1998) 7. Brommer, F. The Sculptures of the Parthenon (1979) 8. Burford, A. Craftsmen in Greek and Roman Society (1972) 9. Dillon S., Ancient Greek portrait sculpture : contexts, subjects, and styles (Cambridge and New York 2006) 10. Donohue A., Greek sculpture and the problem of description (Cambridge 2005) 11. Duplouy A., Le prestige des élites : recherches sur les modes de reconnaissance sociale en Grèce entre les Xe et Ve siècles avant J.-C (Paris 2006) 12. Hanfmann, G. From Croesus to Constantine: The Cities of Western Asia Minor and their Arts in Greek and Roman Times (1975) 13. Jenkins, I. The Parthenon Frieze (1994) 14. Jenkins, I. Greek Architecture and its Sculpture in the Birtish Museum (London 2006) 15. Johansen, K.F. The Attic Grave Reliefs of the Classical Period (1951) 16. Kaltsas N., Sculpture in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens (Los Angeles 2002) 17. Keesling C.M., The votive statues of the Athenian Acropolis (Cambridge 2003) 18. Lapatin, Chryselephantine Statuary in the Ancient Mediterranean World (Oxford 2001) 19. Mattusch, C.C. Greek Bronze Statuary from the Beginnings through the Fifth Century BC (1988) 20. Osborne, R. Archaic and Classical Greek Art (1998) 21. Palagia O., Greek sculpture: function, materials, and techniques in the archaic and classical periods (Cambridge 2006) 22. Palagia, O. (ed), Art in Athens during the Peloponnesian War (Cambridge, 2009) 23. Pollitt, J.J. Art and Experience in Classical Greece (1972) 24. Richter, G.M.A. Sculpture and Sculptors of the Greeks (4th ed: 1970) 25. Richter, G.M.A. Portraits of the Greeks (1965. Abridged ed: 1984) 26. Ridgway, B.S. The Severe Style in Greek Sculpture (1970) - 480-450 BC 27. Ridgway, B.S. Fifth-Century Styles in Greek Sculpture (1981) - 450-400 BC 28. Robertson, M. A History of Greek Art (1975) 29. Rolley, C. La sculpture grecque (1994-1999) 30. Smith, R.R.R. Hellenistic Sculpture (1991) 31. Steiner, D. Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 32. Stewart, A.F. Greek Sculpture: An Exploration (1990) 33. Stewart, A.F. Classical Greece and the birth of Western art (Cambridge 2008) 34. Spivey, N. Understanding Greek Sculpture (1996) 35. Tanner J., The invention of art history in Ancient Greece : religion, society and artistic rationalisation (Cambridge 2006) Written sources 36. Overbeck, J. Die antiken Schriftquellen (1868) - collects (almost) all sources in original 37. Pausanias, Guide to Ancient Greece (Loeb, Penguin) - esp Bks. I, V, and X 38. Pliny the Elder, Natural History (Loeb, and Jex-Blake & Sellers) Bks. 34-36 39. Habicht, C. Pausanias' Guide to Ancient Greece (1985) 40. Jex-Blake, K., Sellers, E. The Elder Pliny's Chapters on the History of Art (1896) - with excellent introduction on the Hellenistic art-histories that lie behind Pliny's text 41. Meiggs, R., Lewis, D., A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions to the End of the 5th Century BC (1969) = ML 42. Pollitt, J.J. The Art of Greece, 1400-31 BC: Sources and Documents (1965) 43. Pollitt, J.J. The Ancient View of Greek Art (1974) 44. Raubitschek, A. Dedications from the Athenian Acropolis (1949) Religion, athletics, commemoration 45. Burkert, W. Greek Religion (1985) 46. Gardiner, E.N. Athletics of the Ancient World (1930, 1987) 47. Golden, M. Sport and Society in Ancient Greece (1998) 48. Hornblower S. and Morgan C., Pindar's poetry, patrons, and festivals: from Archaic Greece to the Roman Empire (Oxford 2007) 49. Kurtz, D.C., Boardman, J. Greek Burial Customs (1971) 50. Millar, S.G. Arete: Greek Sports from Ancient Sources (1991) 51. Morris, I. Death Ritual and Social Structure in Classical Antiquity (1992) 52. Parker, R. Athenian Religion: A History (1996) 53. Price, S.R.F. Religions of the Ancient Greeks (1999) EXTERNALLY DATED MONUMENTS, 525-400 BC 1. Before 525 SIPHNIAN TREASURY, DELPHI Herodotus 3.57-58 (date); Pausanias 10.11.2 Caryatids, pediment, friezes (identification of building) 2. After 510 Temple of Apollo, Delphi Herodotus 5.62; Philochoros, FGH 328 F Fragmentary marble pediment (E), 115 (after 510) paid for by Alcmaeonid family 3. Before 490 Temple of Apollo, Eretria Herodotus 6.101 (Persian sack) Fragmentary marble pediment (Athena, Theseus & Antiope) 4. After 490 Athenian Treasury, Delphi So: Pausanias 10.11.5 (after Marathon); Marble metopes (Theseus & Herakles) Meiggs- Lewis 19 5. After 490 ?Kallimachos' Nike, Athens Fragmentary inscription: Meiggs-Lewis 18 Marble votive figure on column 6. Before 480 PERSIAN SACK, ATHENS-ACROPLIS Herodotus 8.53 (480 BC) and 9.3 (479 BC) Votive marbles (esp. korai) 7. Before 478 Themistoklean Wall, Athens Thucydides 1.90-93 Funerary stelai and relief bases re-used as building material 8. 477/6 TYRANNICIDES, AGORA of ATHENS Marmor Parium: FGH IIB 239 A54 (precise Public bronze monument to date); Pausanias 1.8.5 (location) Harmodios & Aristogeiton, known in Roman scale versions in marble 9. 478 or 474 Charioteer, Delphi Inscription: Fouilles de Delphes IV.5.26-7 Fragmentary bronze chariot group, victory dedication of Polyzalos of Gela 10. 470-457 TEMPLES OF ZEUS, OLYMPIA Pausanias 5.10.2-10; Meiggs-Lewis 36 Marble metopes and pediment groups 11. 447-432 PARTHENON, ACROPOLIS IG I.13 436-51; Meiggs-Lewis 59 (inscribed Marble metopes, frieze, and accounts) and pediment groups 12. 438/7 Athena Parthenos statue Philochoros, FGH 328 F 121 (dedication Known in reduced Roman date); Meiggs-Lewis 54 (accounts) versions, shield in scale versions 13. 425-420 NIKE OF MESSENIANS, OLYMPIA Olympia V.259; ML 74 Statue by Paionios on triangular pillar 14. Before 409 Erechtheion caryatids, Athens IG I.13 474 15. 409-6 Erechtheion frieze, Athens IG I.13 475-76 16. 426-400 TWELVE 'RECORD RELIEFS' Stelai inscribed with Athenian public C. Lawton, Attic Document Reliefs (1995), documents, decorated with reliefs nos. 1-12 5th CENTURY: MAIN ATTRIBUTED SCULPTURES 1. c. 500-470 KRITIOS & NESIOTES Tyrannicides (477/6), Athens Paus 1.8.5; Agora III.256-80 2. c. 470-440 MYRON (a) Diskobolos Lucian, Philospeud. 18 (b) Athena & Marsyas, Athens Pliny, NH 34.57 3. c. 460-430 POLYKLEITOS (a) Doryphoros Pliny, NH 34.55 (b) Diadoumenos Pliny, NH 34.55 4. c. 450-430 PHEIDIAS (a) Athena Parthenos, Athens Paus 1.25.7; Pliny, NH 36.18 (b) Amazon reliefs, on shield Pliny, NH 36.18 (c) Niobid reliefs, on throne Paus 5.11.2 of Zeus, Olympia 5. c. 450-430 Polykleitos, Pheidias, Kresilas Amazons, Ephesos Pliny, NH 34.53 6. c. 450-430 KRESILAS Perikles, Athens acropolis Pliny, NH 34.74 7. c. 440-420 AGORAKRITOS Nemesis, Rhamnous Paus 1.33; Pliny, NH 36.17 8. c. 440-420 ALKAMENES Hermes Propylaios, Athens acropolis 2 inscribed copies; Paus 1.22.8 ? Prokne & Itys, ibid. Paus 1.24.3 9. 425-20 PAIONIOS Nike, Olympia Paus. 5.26.1; Olympia V.259 10. c. 400 NAUKYDES ? Diskobolos Pliny, NH 34.80 Note also: Inscribed copies after portrait statues, some of which may be contemporary with the figures represented: Themistokles, Pindar, Perikles, Anakreon.
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